This term has two slightly different meanings, both of which are widely used. In the public health literature it is used to describe actions taken to prevent disease or injury when other risk factors are known to be present but before symptoms or other adverse consequences have become evident. In clinical epidemiology it means preventive actions intended to slow or stop the progress of a disease during its early clinical stages or to moderate the adverse consequences of disease or injury, especially through the prevention of recurrence. Screening tests are examples of the 'public health' approach, as these are done on populations at risk of diseases with significant latency periods like hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and breast and prostate cancer, but without clinical presentation. The amelioration of adverse consequences or slowing
312 Segmented Market of deteriorations becomes classed as 'tertiary prevention' on this view. Cf.
Primary Prevention. See Prevention.
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