A study in which the observations of dependent and independent variables, or exposure and outcome, are taken at a single point in time (cf. longitudinal study). Such studies are incapable of examining the temporal causes/effects of disease agents or interventions.
In general, a reduction in private expenditure (especially investment) that occurs when a government's expansionary fiscal policy (which may be to the advantage of the health care sector) causes interest rates to rise. In health economics, the term has been used to describe the effect that public health insurance programmes may have on the demand for private health care insurance.
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