Confidence Limits

The upper and lower bounds of a confidence interval. Confounding

Confounding occurs when an effect is attributed to an independent variable X when in fact it is due to an omitted variable (a confounding variable) B, which is correlated with both X and the outcome (dependent variable) of interest. For example, if there is a positive correlation between coffee drinking and smoking we might observe a positive correlation between coffee drinking and lung cancer which we erroneously attribute to drinking coffee rather than the (omitted) confounding variable (smoking). Also known as an 'extraneous variable'.

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