The upper and lower bounds of a confidence interval. Confounding
Confounding occurs when an effect is attributed to an independent variable X when in fact it is due to an omitted variable (a confounding variable) B, which is correlated with both X and the outcome (dependent variable) of interest. For example, if there is a positive correlation between coffee drinking and smoking we might observe a positive correlation between coffee drinking and lung cancer which we erroneously attribute to drinking coffee rather than the (omitted) confounding variable (smoking). Also known as an 'extraneous variable'.
Was this article helpful?