Hay Fever Home Remedies

Hay Fever and Allergies

This eBook addressed the real causes of seasonal allergies like hay fever and other irritating health problems, and provides more informed solutions based on recent research into how to stop allergies at the system level. It doesn't take much now to be able to get rid of allergies, without having to see a doctor, pay huge medical and pharmaceutical bills, or fill your body with chemicals that do more harm than good to your system. However, if you are a doctor or run a clinic of any kind, you can learn things that you can apply to your own clinic to provide maximum benefit to you and your patients. Keep yourself informed with real research! When you find the underlying causes of allergic rhinitis (the medical term for hay fever) you will be far more informed on how to fight this in your own body. Take the natural way to heal yourself!

Hay Fever and Allergies Summary

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Cromolyn for Allergic Rhinitis

In recent years, the one airway hypothesis linking disease and therapy in the lung and nose simultaneously suggests a need to briefly review the effect of the chromones on nasal allergy. Intranasal cromolyn is available over the counter as an aqueous preparation topical spray. Several studies have reported that intranasal cromolyn is superior to placebo in the treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR) (5). In particular, a decrease in mouth breathing, nasal congestion, rhinorrhea, postnasal drip, and sneezing in 66 patients treated with intranasal cromolyn for ragweed rhinitis was observed (142). Similarly, a decrease in rhinitis symptoms and, in this case, ocular symptoms, was observed in 88 patients treated with cromolyn for pollen-induced SAR (143). A decrease in rhinitis symptoms measured by the average daily rhinitis symptom score resulted in decreased antihista-mine use with cromolyn in a small study of 47 patients (p 0.01) (144). Perennial allergic rhinitis symptoms were...

Hay Fever Allergic Rhinitis

Seasonal airborne irritants such as grass, tree, and flower pollen cause the allergic reaction that is called hay fever. Mucous membranes lining the nose and eyes are mainly affected, but the ears, throat, and lungs may also become irritated. Symptoms include repeated sneezing, a runny nose, watering eyes, and itching of the eyes, nose, palate, and throat. Allergic rhinitis, or perennial rhinitis, is the name given to similar symptoms that occur year-round and are caused by other irritants, including dust mites and animal dander. SELF-HELP Avoid all known irritants. If symptoms are severe, try using air filters or ionizers in the home. Wear sunglasses and a hat when outdoors to shade your face. Eat lots of fresh, raw fruits and vegetables. Blow the nose gently hard blowing may burst pollen grains in the nose and increase irritation. Rub a small dab of petroleum jelly inside each nostril a few times a day to prevent the nose from becoming dry and sore. Take combination H tissue salts...

Seasonal Allergic Rhinitis

Polysaccharides from soy sauce have been shown to have anti-allergic activities in vitro and in vivo and an 8-week double blind study involving 51 subjects with seasonal allergic rhinitis found that oral supplementation with 600 mg of soy polysaccharides was effective in significantly improving symptom scores such as sneezing, nasal stuffiness, and hindrance of daily life, as well as significantly improving the appearance and state of the nasal mucosa (Kobayashi 2005, Kobayashi et al 2005).

Allergic rhinitis

Allergic rhinitis is very common in the USA, with more than 50 million estimated sufferers 18 . Inhaled allergens (e.g. pollen, mold, animal dander) cause release of histamine and subsequent symptoms such as itching, excessive mucus production, and swelling. Symptoms are most severe in the morning 19 . Antihistamine drugs are used in therapy and can be taken orally to control symptoms such as sneezing, rhinorrhea, itching, and conjunctivitis. Several studies have been conducted by Reinberg to determine the efficacy of antihistamine medications delivered at specific times 20 . They indicated that for selected first- and second-generation Hl-receptor antagonists duration of action was prolonged when administered in the morning rather than evening.

Drugs of abuse have changed since the 1800smost rapidly over the past quarter century

In the 1880s coca became widely available in the U.S. as a health tonic and remedy for many ills. Its use was supported first by the European medical community and later by American medical authorities. In the absence of restrictive national legislation, its use spread. Initially cocaine was offered as a cure for opiate addiction, an asthma remedy (the official remedy of the American Hay Fever Association), and an antidote for toothaches.

Aspirin nsaid hypersensitivity

Patients with this syndrome, pansinusitis is common. Although nasal polyps may complicate ordinary allergic rhinitis (approximately 1-2 in some studies) and are a common manifestation of cystic fibrosis (up to 50 of such patients), the highest incidence of nasal polyps occurs in the patients with NSAID hypersensitivity (up to 90 ). Such polyps often respond to systemic steroid treatment but may recur within days of its cessation.

Public health aspects of dental caries

Treatment of ECC is expensive and if general anaesthesia is used, the cost can increase along with the medical risk to which the children involved are exposed. ECC is the most prevalent infectious disease among children, 5 times more common than asthma and 7 times more prevalent than hay fever (Rockville, 2000).

Allergic Conditions On The Auricle

Auricular Acupuncture

As already mentioned, the identified areas correspond to the representation of the wrist and elbow, areas which never have been related to allergy before. On the Chinese map, however, the 'Wind stream' point fengxi, which carries the whole repertory of indications such as asthma, allergic rhinitis, eczema, urticaria and itching of uncertain origin, is located at the juncture between the hand and the wrist area. It has to be said that before standardization fengxi had been drawn by several authors as a larger area called 'urticaria area' (Fig. 5.29). In my opinion the importance given to this area by the Chinese is correct and is moreover confirmed by the indication for cutaneous pruritus given to the whole superior groove of the anthelix.

Alexander Graham Bell Association for the Deaf

Allergic rhinitis An inflammation of the mucous membrane lining the nose caused by an allergic reaction as inhaled allergens are trapped by the nasal filtration system. In allergic rhinitis, sneezing is a prominent feature and nasal symptoms may be accompanied by itchy watery eyes and intense itching of the nose and soft palate. The disease is triggered in susceptible children by allergic reactions to pollen, mold, dust mites, and other allergens. Seasonal allergic rhinitis is called hay fever or seasonal allergic rhinitis. In this condition, both the nose and the eyes are affected. Allergic rhinitis that occurs year-round is known as perennial allergic rhinitis. Seasonal pollen allergy may exacerbate symptoms of perennial rhinitis. Allergic rhinitis is the most common chronic disease in children, affecting about one in five children by the age of two or three years up to 30 percent are affected during adolescence. Boys are twice as likely to get allergic rhinitis than girls, but the...

Plate Iv Skin Alterations Related To Vascularization Paleness Hyperemia Telangiectasia

Women Doctors Switerland The 1800s

Plate IVB Linear telangiectasia on the medial surface of the auricle, corresponding to Chinese fengxi (Wind Stream) area on the lateral surface in a 38-year-old female who had been suffering from hay fever for several years. Plate IVB Linear telangiectasia on the medial surface of the auricle, corresponding to Chinese fengxi (Wind Stream) area on the lateral surface in a 38-year-old female who had been suffering from hay fever for several years.

Diagnostic Tests Skin Prick Tests

Skin prick tests are mainly used in research studies. The results of skin tests cannot be taken alone, and standard textbooks on allergy acknowledge that ''the proper interpretation of results requires a thorough knowledge of the history and physical findings.'' The problems in clinical practice are, for example, whether or not a subject with atopic disease (eczema, asthma, or hay fever) or symptoms suggestive of food intolerance will benefit from attempts to avoid certain foods or food additives. However, skin prick test results are unreliable predictors of response to such measures.

Trigeminal Neuralgia On The

Trigeminal Nerve Posterior Auricular

In the composite world of allergic conditions, the most frequently occurring are rhinoconjunctivitis, asthma, atopic eczema and food allergy, which represent a burden all over the world. In the UK, for example, the rates reported for allergic rhinitis and asthma in the 6th report of the House of Lords were, respectively, 9.4 and 5.5 in an estimated population of 60.6 million. Very close to the rate of asthma was that of atopic eczema and far from negligible was the incidence of infants and adults suffering with food allergy (respectively 5-7 and 1-2 ). The incidence of multiple allergies (asthma, eczema and allergic rhinitis together) was also significant (3.7 ) and showed an increase of 48.9 between 2001 and 2005.50

Historical Background

Khellin Structure

Cromolyn and nedocromil are members of the chromone group of chemical compounds. The chemical formula for chromone is 5 6 benz-1 4 pyrone (2) (Fig. 1). In 1968, disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) or CS combined with isoproterenol was introduced in the United Kingdom as the first antiinflammatory medication used in asthma (3-5). The addition of the bronchodilator was done to prevent bronchoconstriction that can occur with inhalation of a sodium salt (4). By 1973, cromolyn was approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of asthma and in 1983 for the treatment of allergic rhinitis (5). Khellin (2) was the first identified chromone, which was extracted from seeds of the plant Amni visnaga, the same plant from which cromolyn was derived. It was used as a diuretic and smooth muscle relaxant, especially for the relief of ureteric colic. In 1947, Anrep et al. (6) reported the clinical utility of khellin for the treatment of asthma. Multiple compounds were synthesized using...

Indications Fenugreek

Enteralgia (f APA CRC) Edema (f BOW) Enterosis (f BGB BOU PH2 WOI) Exhaustion (f MAD) Fever (f1 APA BOU CRC PH2 X15374601) Fistula (f CRC) Fracture (f HJP) Furunculosis (f BGB HHB PHR VAD), Gas (f1 APA) Gastrosis (f APA BGB BOU CAN GMH) Gonorrhea (f UPW) Gout (f BGB CAN CRC GMH) Hay Fever (f PED) Helicobacter (1 X15331344) Hemorrhoid (f MAD NAD) Hepatosis (f CRC JLH KAP) Hernia (f APA BGB CRC PH2) High Blood Pressure (f1 CAN HJP), High Cholesterol (2 APA BRU CAN SKY) High Triglycerides (1 BGB SKY) Hyperlipidemia (1 BGB) Impotence (f APA CRC PH2) Impotence (f DAA) Infection (1 APA WOI X15331344) Inflammation (f12 APA BRU KOM PH2 X15374601) Itch (f BOU) Ischemia (1 X16205934) Kidney stone (1 JEB26 249) Labor (f1 APA) Leprosy (f UPW) Leukorrhea (f KAP) Lymphadenitis (f BGB CAN) Mastosis (f JLH) Muscular Dystrophy (f UPW) Myalgia (f BGB CAN) Nematode (1 PR15 538) Nephrosis (f APA CRC JLH) Neuralgia (f APA CRC) Neurasthenia (f BOW GMH NAD) Ophthalmia (f JLH VAD) Orchosis (f JLH)...

If antacids do not work or are not appropriate for my GERD what is the next step or tier ofmedications to try

You may commonly use an antihistamine these medications are for allergies and sometimes colds. Allergic reactions such as hay fever with a stuffy nose, watery or itchy eyes, itchy skin, rash, and coughing are caused by extra histamine production. So, by blocking the action of his-tamine with an antihistamine, you block its action.

General terms associated with the skin

This disorder occours when the body becomes hypersensitive to a particular allergen. When irritated by an allergen, the body produces histamine in the skin as part of the body's defence or immune system. The effects of different allergens are diverse and they affect different tissues and organs. For example, certain cosmetics and chemicals can cause rashes and irritation in the skin. Certain allergens such as pollen, fur, feathers, mould and dust can cause asthma and hay fever. If severe, allergies may be extremely serious and result in anaphylactic shock with symptoms in different parts of the body at the same time, including rashes, swelling of the lips and throat, difficulty breathing and a rapid fall in blood pressure and loss of consciousness.

Lilium Tigrinum For Balanitis Treatment

230-31, 238-39, 293 hashish see Cannabis sativa 'Indica' hawthorn see Crataegus laevigata hay fever 206-7, 224-25 Allium cepa (Allium cepa) 224-25 Arsenicum iodatum (Arsen. iod.) 224-25 Euphrasia officinalis (Euphrasia) 224-25 Solanum dulcamara (Dulcamara) 62 Tuberculinum Koch & T. bovum (Tuberculinum) 115 hazelwort see Asarum europaeum head pain 62, 78, 95

Homeopathic medicine

Arsen. alb. is prescribed for allergic reactions associated with the nose such as allergic rhinitis and hay fever. Calc. carb. is used to treat allergic reactions of the skin and mucous membranes while Carcinosin is indicated when there are multiple allergies. Other constitutional remedies often used include Nat. carb, Nat. mur., Nux vomica, Pulsatilla, Sulphur, and Tuberculinum. Acute symptoms can be treated with a number of other remedies, such as Allium cepa, for hay fever with profuse watering of the eyes and catarrh that irritates and inflames the nostrils and upper lip and Arundo, when there is great itchiness around the nostrils and palate, with sneezing, pain in the bridge of the nose, and copious saliva. Wyethia is prescribed for great itchiness in the nose and palate, which the person constantly rubs with the tongue and Arum triph. is effective for cracked lips and hoarseness.

The Representation Of The Nose On The

Art Intercostale Ponction

It is interesting to note that vasomotor (non-allergic) rhinitis probably has a different distribution of tender points than allergic rhinitis. This is in agreement with the hypothesis concerning this disorder which is supposed to be caused either by a hyperactive parasympathetic nervous system or by an imbalance between the latter and the sympathetic nervous system. Even if recent reviews state that both allergic and vasomotor rhinitis respond to the same drugs, such as azelastine and fluticasone nasal spray, the pathophysiology of the two disorders seems rather different. It may be remembered that vasomotor rhinitis is characterized by prominent symptoms of nasal obstruction, rhinorrea, and congestion exacerbated by certain odors, alcohol, spicy foods, emotions and environmental factors such as temperature, barometric pressure changes and bright lights.60 In three patients (2 females, 1 male, average age 34.3 years) with non-allergic rhinitis and symptoms such as frequent sneezing...

Pollutants and Tobacco Smoke as Adjuvant Factors

After guinea pig and mouse experiments suggested an increase of allergic sensitization to ovalbumin after experimental exposure to traffic- or industry-related pollutants, a strong association between allergic rhinitis caused by cedar pollen allergy and exposure to heavy traffic was reported from Japan. Other investigators were unable to describe any relationship between traffic exposure and the prevalence of hay fever or asthma.

Americans with Disabilities Act ADA

As with other penicillins, some children may be allergic to this medication. Hypersensitivity reactions are more likely to occur in children who have previously demonstrated hypersensitivity to penicillins and in those with a history of allergy, asthma, hay fever, or hives. Nausea and vomiting also are common side effects.

Answers To Patients Frequently Asked Questions

Albizia is a traditional Ayurvedic medicine used to reduce allergic conditions, such as allergic rhinitis and urticaria. It is also used for atopic conditions, such as eczema and asthma, when indicated. Controlled trials have not been conducted, so it is uncertain whether it is effective. When will it start to work

The Importance of Allergy in Asthma

There is a strong familial component to asthma, eczema, and rhino-conjunctivitis, the so-called atopic cluster. While this argues for a genetic component to asthma, the rapid increase in the prevalence of asthma means that something in the environment must be responsible. The current consensus is that environmental factors act on genetically susceptible individuals, stimulating the production of specific IgE antibodies against otherwise harmless environmental antigens, such as pollen, house dust mite, and animal dander proteins. Not everyone who develops IgE antibodies will go on to experience clinical symptoms. Indeed, only half of the people with detectable levels of antibody against grass pollen will have any sort of hay fever. Nevertheless, the more IgE antibody someone has, the more likely they are to have associated clinical symptoms. Usually, there is a progression of allergic disease, sometimes termed the allergic march, in which children first suffer with atopic eczema, then...

Allergic rhinosinusitis

A more effective approach to nasal congestion and inflammation is the use of a topical nasal corticosteroid spray. This class of agent is the most potent and effective modality for the treatment of allergic rhinitis and is effective against all of the manifestations of this disorder (8). Common side effects include local nasal irritation and occasional thrush. Less common, but possibly important in the case of long-term use, are an increase in incidence of glaucoma, cataracts, and osteoporosis. These drugs diminish the inflammatory influx of cells into the nasal mucosa and diminish the strength of the local allergic response.

IVSIT to Manage Established Asthma

Clinical trials have confirmed the efficacy of SIT in patients with grass pollen asthma, and in those with asthma caused by cat allergy (33). Greater benefits are observed for specific responses to allergen inhalation than for nonspecific airways reactivity. An important recent study of SIT for ragweed allergy found that patients who received active injections had an improvement in peak flow rates during the pollen season as well as reduced hay fever symptoms and reduced sensitivity to laboratory challenge with ragweed-pollen extracts (34). In addition, the active group required much less antiasthma medication. However, the parallel economic analysis indicated that the saving on costs of asthma drugs was less than the additional costs of giving SIT.

Clinical Manifestations

Sinusitis is one of the major manifestations and may precede the diagnosis in 60 of patients. Allergic rhinitis and nasal or sinus polyps are frequent (70 ) (Fig. 9) (31). Although ENT features may be very similar to those of WG, they are usually milder and associated with less morbidity. It would be extremely unusual for CSS to cause a saddle nose deformity or SGS. Eye involvement in CSS includes episcleritis, scleritis, uveitis, retinal vasculitis, and conjunctivitis (32). Orbital pseudotumor would be very rare, and its presence should suggest WG.

Allergy and Dermatitis

There is clear evidence that otitis media with effusion is highly related to an allergic diathesis. When this converts to chronic draining otitis media, the allergic component would seem to still be relevant, although direct evidence is scant (17-19). Therefore, the surgeon must consider allergy evaluation, based on a patient history of other allergic diatheses, especially of the unified respiratory epithelium. Patients with chronic draining ear and allergic rhinitis, chronic rhinosinusitis, and asthma are strong candidates for allergy workup before contemplating surgical treatment.

Antiinflammatory Actions of Omalizumab

As previously discussed, a study in allergic individuals showed that omalizumab down-regulates FceRI expression on basophils by reducing serum levels of free IgE (55), and this process attenuates the EAR. This was again demonstrated in a study of 24 subjects with ragweed-induced allergic rhinitis (56). Alongside a decline in IgE levels ( 95 ), there was a reduction in FceRI expression on basophils at 7, 14, 28, and 42 days after starting 72-hour omalizumab treatment as compared with baseline (p 0.0001) and placebo (p 0.01), and the maximum reduction occurred within 14 days (median change -73 ). Similarly to its effect on FceRI expression on basophils, omalizumab was found to reduce dendritic cell FceRI expression in patients with allergic rhinitis within 14 days (median change -78 , p 0.004) (95). Dendritic cells are central to allergen presentation and the induction of Th2 responses in the LAR. The demonstration that an anti-IgE antibody inhibits proliferation of allergen-specific T...

IIISIT to Prevent Asthma

Specific immunotherapy may modify the natural history of asthma in children, who are known to be atopic but have not yet developed asthma. Studies from the 1960s and 1970s indicate that between 5 and 10 of atopic children and young adults with allergic rhinitis will develop asthma symptoms each year, although the epidemiological context is changing and these data will need updating (29). In children with allergic rhinitis and a limited range of sensitivities, SIT with house dust mite extract has been shown to reduce the probability of developing new sensitivities (i.e., new positive skin tests to allergens other than the one used for therapy) (30). An ongoing major multicenter study is assessing whether SIT is able to prevent allergic children aged 7 to 13 years from going on to develop asthma. After three years of therapy 28 fewer children had asthma symptoms compared to the control group, and this difference has been maintained up to five years, suggesting that SIT does indeed...

Lifestyle and the Development of Atopic Disease

Taking into account that the risk of atopic sensitization and disease manifestation early in life is particularly high in industrialized western countries and that within these countries concomitant variations in the socioeconomic status and the prevalence of atopy are evident, the question was brought up of what factor related to western lifestyle might be responsible for increasing the susceptibility to atopic sensitization 10 . Studies of Swiss as well as Bavarian and Austrian children have shown that the prevalence of symptoms of allergic rhinitis and of allergen-specific IgE antibodies is much lower among the offspring of farmers than among other children in these rural areas. In a recent Swedish study, the prevalence of atopy in children from anthroposophic families was found to be lower than in children from other families, which led the authors to conclude that lifestyle factors associated with anthroposophy may lessen the risk of atopy in childhood. Several studies focussing...

Respiratory illness

Symptoms Recurrent acute respiratory infections with offensive-smelling catarrh and breathlessness. Sinus infection is common, as is bronchitis or a cough accompanied by great fatigue. Symptoms typical of the hay fever and asthma that may respond to Psorinum are coughing, breathlessness, and wheezing, often exacerbated by exercise or cold weather. There may be an associated eye or ear infection (see below).

To Be Psychoactive

Throughout junior high school and high school I suffered from bad hay fever. My family doctor prescribed antihistamines for me. They definitely worked, but they made me feel so bad. Finally, I came to prefer the hay fever. I was happier sneezing than being so depressed and logy. Once, while in college, I took a twenty-five-milligram tablet of Thorazine and I was amazed at how similar the effect was to the antihistamines. I hate that feeling. I managed to get rid of most of my allergies by changing my diet and lifestyle. I haven't taken an antihistamine in years. thirty-eight-year-old man, musician

Indications Nettle

Boil (f NPM) BPH (root) (12 BGB KOM MAB PH2 NP9(2) 10) Bronchosis (f1 CRC MAB PED) Bug bites (1 MAB) Burns (f1 BGB CRC MAB) Cachexia (f KAB) Calculus (f CRC) Cancer (f CRC FAD) Cancer, breast (f1 CRC JLH) Cancer, ear (f1 CRC JLH) Cancer, feet (f1 JLH) Cancer, lung (f1 CRC JLH) Cancer, mouth (f1 CRC JLH) Cancer, prostate (f1 NP9(2) 10 X15254411) Cancer, rib (f JLH) Cancer, spleen (f1 CRC JLH) Cancer, stomach (f1 CRC JLH) Cancer, womb (f1 CRC JLH) Cardiopathy (f AAH) Carcinoma (f BIB) Caries (f NPM) Catarrh (f WOI) Childbirth (f DEM) Cholangitis (f CRC) Cholecystosis (f CRC FAD MAB WOI) Cholera (f FEL) Cold (f AAH CEB NPM) Colic (f CRC) Colitis (f FEL MAB) Congestion (f APA) Constipation (f CRC WOI) Consumption (f1 BUR MAB SUW) Corn (f AAH) Cough (f AAH NPM) Cramp (f AAH MAD) CVI (1 BGB) Cystosis (f FEL) Dandruff (f PH2 WOI) Dermatosis (f1 BGB CAN MAB FT74 677) Diabetes (f1 CRC MAD PH2 FT74 677 EB49 406) Diarrhea (f1 BGB BUR FAD FEL MAB) Dislocation (f NPM) Dropsy (f AAH BGB CRC)...

Allergy

An allergy is the body's reaction to a substance that may be harmless in itself but the immune system misidentifies and treats it as a pathogen. Antibodies, called immunoglobulin E or IgE, react by attacking the substance and in the process histamine is released by the surrounding cells which causes an allergic reaction. The allergic reaction may include itchy nose and throat, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, skin irritations, hay fever, hives, asthma, high blood pressure, abnormal fatigue, constipation, or hyperactivity. A severe reaction called anaphylactic shock will swell the larynx, obstruct the airway, and may be fatal. This is an emergency situation and remedied by an injection of adrenalin. Ephedra 20 mg capsules, relieves symptoms of hayfever. Stinging nettle 1 to 2 freeze dried capsules every 2 to 4 hours, relieves symptoms of hayfever, hives, and itching. Khella relieves spasms in smooth muscle of the bronchi in hayfever, do not use on skin.

Future Directions

All IgE-mediated, allergic diseases, the efficacy of omalizumab in other allergic diseases needs to be fUrther considered. Several large studies have already established efficacy in allergic rhinitis (83,86,87), and preliminary investigations have already shown efficacy in other IgE-mediated diseases such as peanut allergy (94) and latex allergy (90). Future studies are likely to evaluate omalizumab in patients with severe allergic asthma and with concomitant rhinitis and eczema. In the latter case, pretreatment, e.g., with pimecrolimus and antibiotics, could drastically reduce total IgE levels and thus lead to a situation where anti-IgE treatment had a realistic chance to eliminate IgE antibodies relevant for the allergic disease.

Safety

In summary, both cromolyn and nedocromil can be useful as adjuvant therapy in the treatment of asthma. Their benefits have been seen in a reduction in ED visits and hospitalizations for asthma, and a decrease in allergen exercise-induced bronchospasm and frequency of prednisone use. Furthermore, cromolyn has been useful in the treatment of allergic rhinitis and allergic conjunctivitis, with occasional use in other systemic diseases.

Use plantain for

Plantain's antihistamine effect is also beneficial for hayfever and other allergies, and combines well as a tea with elderflower and mint. Plantain has long been a trusted plant for healing wounds (a vulnerary), and Shakespeare mentions it twice as a healer of broken shins. We haven't tried it on broken bones, but have found it to be very efficient at clearing heat and inflammation.

Pathophysiology

In the past two decades many of the food allergens were identified and characterized, contributing to our understanding of how these proteins induce Th2-skewed immune responses. Traditional or class 1 food allergens induce allergic sensitization in the gastrointestinal tract and are responsible for systemic reactions. Recent data from experimental studies in mice as well as from epidemiological reports in humans suggest that cutaneous exposure to class 1 allergens (e.g. through inflamed skin of atopic dermatitis, AD) may also contribute to the development of allergy. Class 1 food allergens are typically heat- and acid-stable, water-soluble glycoproteins ranging in size from 10 to 70 kD, such as proteins in cow's milk, egg white, and peanut. In contrast, class 2 food allergens are heat-labile and susceptible to digestion. Class 2 food allergens are highly homologous with proteins in pollens (e.g. Mal d 1 in apple and Bet v 1 in birch tree pollen) and sensitization occurs in the...

Definitions

Atopy is the ability to produce a weal-and-flare response to skin prick testing with a common antigen, such as house dust mite or grass pollen. The atopic diseases are asthma (all childhood cases but not all adult cases), atopic eczema, allergic rhinitis, allergic conjunctivitis, and some cases of urticaria.

Treatment

Seasonal allergic rhinitis responds well to treatment. Ideally, avoiding the offending allergic substance is the first approach to managing any allergic disorder. However, it is usually impossible to avoid the offending pollen allergens that cause allergic rhinitis. Steroid nasal sprays are the most effective type of drug treatment, but some doctors are still reluctant to use these medications because of potential side effects. The safety of steroid nasal sprays is a concern when treating children, since there is potential for some of these medications to enter the bloodstream, where they may affect bone metabolism and slow childhood growth. This potential adverse effect is of particular concern in children with both asthma and allergic rhinitis, who require long-term glucocorticoid therapy by Antihistamines are another treatment choice. The second-generation antihistamines can provide relief from symptoms while minimizing side effects, such as drowsiness or irritability. Children...

Diagnosis

Parents often are able to diagnose hay fever. While a common cold or upper respiratory infection can be confused with allergic rhinitis, parents should suspect rhinitis if the child has irritated eyes and no fever. Food allergies can also cause rhinitis symptoms in 70 percent of infants and young children, but with food allergies there are often other symptoms of skin or stomach irritation as well. A careful history usually reveals the seasonal nature of the complaint and the suspected role of seasonal allergens. Physical examination usually reveals puffy, reddened watery eyes, a red throat, and nostrils filled with clear watery mucus.

Airborne Allergens

Those who react to airborne allergens usually have allergic rhinitis and allergic conjunctivitis. Airborne allergens include dust mites, cockroach parts, pollens, and molds Pollen Trees, weeds, and grasses release these tiny particles into the air to fertilize other plants. Most people know pollen allergy as hay fever or rose fever. Pollen allergies are seasonal, and the type of pollen a child is allergic to determines when he will be symptomatic. For example, in the mid-Atlantic states, tree pollination begins in February and March, grass from May through June, and ragweed from August through October. Pollen counts measure how much pollen is in the air. Pollen counts are usually higher in the morning and on warm, dry, breezy days they are lowest when it is chilly and wet. Although they are not exact, the local weather report's pollen count can be helpful when planning outside activities.

Sambucus nigra

The flower tea clears the channels in the body, promoting elimination via the skin and the urinary tract, and supporting the circulation. Elderflowers cut congestion and inflammations of the upper respiratory tract, and break up catarrh. They reduce the symptoms of hayfever, often used with nettle tops. Use 1 heaped teaspoonful of dried flowers per cupful of boiling water. Cover and allow to infuse for 3 to 5 minutes. Strain and drink hot and frequently for the early stages of a cold or fever, to promote sweating. For this, it combines well with equal parts of yarrow and mint. For hayfever, use in combination with nettle leaves. hay fever

Arum Triph

People who respond best to Arum triph. tend to be excitable and nervous. They are often 1 restless and cross. Characteristically they may bore their heads into their pillows. Key conditions associated with Arum triph. involve irritation and inflammation of the mucous membranes and skin, such as allergic skin reactions, eczema, scarlet fever, or hay fever. Typical symptoms include raw, red, itchy skin, particularly on the face, and a raw, burning mouth and throat, PJ with acute or chronic hoarseness.

Catarrh

Catarrh is the intermittent discharge of runny or viscous fluid, or mucus, from the nose. This may alternate with a stuffy, blocked-up feeling. Catarrh may be a symptom of an infection, such as a cold or influenza (see page 224), or sinusitis (see below). Alternatively, catarrh may be part of an allergic reaction to a number of things, including pollen or dust (see Hay fever, page 224), cigarette smoke, chemical pollution, gas or oil fires, central heating or air-conditioning systems, certain drugs, or cold and damp. These may cause irritation of the mucous membranes, which stimulates mucus production in an attempt to lubricate the membranes and remove the irritation. A cough (see page 228) may develop if catarrh drips down the back of the throat.

Discussion

Wahn As I said many people are developing wild ideas. One candidate is Trichuris suis which is known to gastroenterologists and is involved in Crohn's disease and chronic inflammatory disease. We are about to start a placebo-controlled trial on both the prevention and intervention of atopic phenotypes in hay fever. Dr. Wahn I apologize for not pointing it out clearly enough, food allergy is a phe-notype. I left it out because I know it will be covered elsewhere. If you compare it to the skin or the airway manifestation, we would also say it is an important phenotype. If you look at the first age window of let's say 0-5 years, food allergy is more important than hay fever for example. When it comes to all kinds of food-related allergic reac Dr. Wahn This is what the data say so far. I also heard from other developing countries that allergies are really on the rise, particularly hay fever for example. I wouldn't tell anyone that infection might be good because it would be confusing....

Antiallergic

A 50 hydro-ethanolic extract of peppermint leaves inhibited chemically induced histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells in vitro. The peppermint extract was also shown to reduce nasal symptoms (sneezing and nasal rubbing) in rats with experimentally induced allergic rhinitis. Significant inhibition of sneezing and nasal rubbing was observed at oral doses of 300 and 1000 mg kg, respectively (Inoue et al 2001). The flavonoid luteolin-7-O-rutinoside isolated from the aerial parts of peppermint has been shown to inhibit histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells in a dose-dependent manner (100-300 mg kg) and to reduce antigen-induced allergic nasal symptoms (Inoue et al 2002), although it would be difficult to achieve such doses of luteolin with a commercially available peppermint extract or oil. An extract of the whole herb, however, may be beneficial in alleviating nasal symptoms associated with allergic rhinitis in association with other medicines.

Allergies

Quercetin is used in the treatment of acute and chronic allergic symptoms, such as hayfever and chronic rhinitis. The anti-inflammatory activity of quercetin and its ability to stabilise mast cells, neutrophils and basophils and inhibit histamine release (Blackburn et al 1987, Busse et al 1984, Middleton & Drzewiecki 1982, Middleton et al 1981, Ogasawara et al 1996, Pearce et al 1984) provides a rationale for its use in these indications. In a study of 123 patients sensitised to house dust mite and displaying nasal symptoms of mild to severe perennial allergic rhinitis (Otsuka et al 1995), nasal scrapings were taken and histamine release measured as a percentage of the total content in the specimen. Antigen exposure resulted in an increase in mast cells of the epithelial layer of the nasal mucosa resulting in nasal hypersensitivity. Quercetin inhibited histamine release by 46-96 in a dose-dependent manner.

Therapeutic Uses

Because of the bronchial muscle relaxant effect, caffeine is used in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and for the treatment of asthma. The use of caffeine in the treatment of children with minimal brain dysfunction, to increase the duration of elec-troconvulsive therapy-induced seizure, for allergic rhinitis, as well as for atopic dermatitis has also been described. Recently, caffeine has been used as a diagnostic test for malignant hyperthermia and in the diagnosis of neuroleptic malignant syndrome, a complication of neuroleptic therapy.

Prevalence

Since the 1980s there has been a worldwide increase in the prevalence of asthma in both children and adults. This escalating prevalence has led to significant increases in morbidity and mortality due to the disease. It is the most common chronic respiratory disorder, affecting 3-5 of adults and 10-15 of schoolchildren. Half of the people with asthma develop it before age 10, and most develop it before age 30. In childhood, it is twice as common in boys as in girls, but by adolescence equal numbers are affected. Asthma symptoms can decrease over time, especially in children. Many people with asthma have an individual and or family history of allergies, such as hay fever (allergic rhinitis) or eczema. Others have no history of allergies or evidence of allergic problems.

Complications

Left untreated, allergic rhinitis also can lead to other serious conditions, including asthma, recurrent middle ear infections, sinusitis, sleep disorders, and chronic cough. Appropriate management of rhinitis is an important part of effectively managing these coexisting or complicating respiratory conditions. The type and severity of allergy symptoms vary from child to child. Airborne allergens can cause allergic rhinitis (sneezing, itchy nose or throat, nasal congestion, and coughing). These symptoms are often accompanied by allergic conjunctivitis itchy, watery, red eyes, and dark circles around the reddened eyes. Allergic rhinitis occurs in about 15 percent to 20 percent of Americans and typically develops by age 10, reaching its peak in the early 20s. The symptoms of allergic rhinitis and conjunctivitis can be mild or severe and may occur only at certain times of the year or all year round. If symp