The Secret to Happiness

The Lasting Happiness And Success Formula

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The Lasting Happiness And Success Formula Summary

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The Problem of Feelings

I had discovered that my experience was not unique. Indeed, one of psychology's greatest pioneers had reported just this kind of experience. James's view of emotion is the core of the position that I will be describing throughout this book that our feelings are the consequences of our actions. They are about our actions, and they are in fact no more or less than knowledge or information about our actions. The way you know that you are angry is through your angry behavior, and the way I know that I am happy is because I smile. The only difference is that I experience my own smile as the feeling of happiness. We know our own minds by observing our own behavior.

The Final Phase of Treatment

When asked to consider the implication of this second fact, the patient said it meant that he would likely be alone again for a while. He generalized the implication of this fact to mean that he likely would never be in another relationship, which meant he could never be fully happy in his life, and that he was probably an unlovable person. Thus, through the examination of the downward implications of a single rejection event, it became clear that this patient's underlying belief was one of unlovability, even though part of his prescription for lifetime happiness was being in a loving relationship.

Fightor Flight Response

Prozac is the most frequently prescribed drug in the United States. In Listening to Prozac (Knopf), published in 1993, and Against Depression (Viking), published in 2005, Peter D. Kramer discusses drugs, called SSRIs that are widely used to treat depression. They inhibit the reuptake of synaptic serotonin into presynaptic neurons. They have helped many persons, but their use also has created many problems. In Forbes magazine (November 2004), the following statement was made The 1990s made pill-popping for happiness an acceptable therapeutic alternative for millions of even mildly depressed patients.

Understanding Bipolar Disorder

Bipolar disorder is a biological illness that affects your ability to regulate your mood and leads to feelings of extreme happiness, intense sadness, or heightened irritability. It is considered an illness because, like other medical disorders such as heart disease or diabetes, it occurs after a biological change in your body, has well-described symptoms, and causes distress to people who have it.

Examples of Participants Responses

Pat reported how saddened she felt about her mother's unsatisfied life. She realized that this sadness was unconsciously hindering her own pleasure and feelings of happiness in her own life. By identifying with her mother, Pat was not allowing herself nor her family to enjoy more in life.

Beecher Catharine 180078

B eecher came from a large family of thirteen children and was home-schooled while helping care for her large family. At the age of ten, Beecher began education at a private school. She noticed the limited resources and curriculum available to young women and began teaching herself subjects not offered in school. Beecher convinced herself that her mission in life was to find happiness in living to do good, (Anon. American Family) and decided that there was a need for higher-education schools for women. In 1823, Beecher founded the Hartford Female Seminary, where her sister Harriet Beecher studied. The school began with only seven students, and in three years grew to nearly 100 students. Beecher went west with her father, Lyman Beecher, the controversial Calvinist preacher, and organized the Western Female Institute in Cincinnati, which prospered until 1837.

Selfperception As Relational Not Causal

The role of the situation in self-perception constitutes another aspect of the difference between James's view and self-perception theory, a difference that requires emphasis. A major component of the relationship that constitutes feelings is between the behaviors emphasized by James and the social and physical context in which the behaviors occur. A smile in relationship with the arrival of a friend constitutes happiness, but a smile in relationship to the arrival of a relative given to lengthy descriptions of her

The basics of emotion physiology

If you compare the bodily responses you experience in anger and fear and in happiness and sadness, they will probably seem different to you. This apparent difference in physiological reactions between the emotions led many researchers to consider that there might be specific bodily patterns of response associated with each emotion. Ever since William James's time (the 1880s), we have known that physiological arousal is a necessary part of emotion, so the search for specific bodily mechanisms involved in this process has been carried out for 120 years, but without much success. There appear to be some broad differences in heart rate between happiness, surprise and disgust, on the one hand, and anger, fear and sadness, on the other. But in general any differences between the emotions physiologically are swamped by individual differences in reactivity from one person to the next.

Cognitions About The Situation Cognitions About The Behavior

Equally important are the cognitions about the behaviors and their contexts. A smile in response to a photographer's request that you say Cheese is less likely to make you feel happy, and a pounding heart and sweaty palms will be less disturbing if you realize they are the product of too many cups of coffee. In fact, a feeling of happiness is not a direct consequence of the smile, but rather is a product of the relationship between the smile and the context in which it occurs. The default interpretation of a smile appears to be happiness, and the default interpretation of a frown is anger, but both can be disqualified easily. A substantial portion of the literature to be reviewed in later chapters demonstrates the ways in which manipulations of contextual understandings of behavior change its impact on feelings.

Is my child being aloof

On June 5th 2001, we were informed that our three year old has Autism To say the least we are both devastated by this news. For the last two days I have had moments that have left me weeping and very depressed. My every thought is now directed at my son and his happiness and future. I want to do everything right, and any advice or information that you could provide would be much appreciated. I have read your information provided on your web site Hope-TLC. Thank you so very much for your efforts to help people like myself.

Manipulating Expressions Directly

On the other hand, the results for the experimental subjects were exactly what James would have expected. When subjects were in the smile position, they reported significantly higher levels of happiness, and when they were in the frown position, they reported significantly higher levels of anger. On the average, the events for this group of 60 subjects were like those I had experienced in my car Adopting facial expressions of emotion led to the corresponding emotional feelings.

Are The Effects Of Expressions Big Enough For Selfperception Theory

The second question concerns the particular effects in these experiments. For a number of reasons, the experimental effects seem likely to underestimate what happens in everyday life. Perhaps the most important of these reasons is that the expression manipulations are inevitably very crude. To disguise the purposes of these experiments, the procedures for manipulating expressions all produce approximations to real expressions. To the extent that the manipulated expressions do not match the subjects' own natural expressions, the magnitude of the effects would be underestimated. Consider, for example, the kinds of expressions that are produced by asking people to hold a pencil in their mouth or to pronounce the sound u. They certainly have some of the features of a natural expression of happiness or disgust, but equally clearly the expressions are only approximations. Insofar as they do not produce the complete, natural expression, we would expect the intensity of subjects' experiences...

Conclusion Let your results dictate your approach

In the Declaration of Independence, it is written, All men are created equal. This truism could be interpreted in different ways depending on the context If you are referring - as Thomas Jefferson was - to unalienable rights, such as life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness, then virtually everyone would agree. However, if you're referring to physical and metabolic characteristics, then nothing could be further from the truth It would be more correct to say that no two people are ever created equal.

The Profundity In A Word

Based on my work in group therapy with the elderly, I have observed a number of healing and curative factors. These curative factors are the installation of hope, acceptance, a decrease in social isolation, finding of a new identity and meaning in life, support, catharsis, amelioration of fears, education, assistance in processing and dealing with painful or intense feelings, and an opportunity to help others (Cohen, 2000). Individuals who have lost a spouse often feel hopeless that they can return to a life of happiness and joy. They may even feel hopeless that they will ever just stop feeling sad all the time. We will look at specific interventions in bereavement groups that exemplify the installation of hope. One particularly effective intervention in the installation of hope is to have bereavement groups that are mixed among people who are more recently bereaved and those who are further along in the bereavement process (Roy and Sumpter, 1983). Those who are more recently bereaved...

Chemicals Increasing Arousal

In these studies (Marshall & Zimbardo, 1979 Rogers & Deckner, 1975), subjects were injected with adrenalin and placed in conditions that should have aroused euphoria or at least happiness. Instead, participants reported increased negative emotions. In company with similar effects with a different, hypnotic manipulation of arousal (Maslach, 1979), these results led Marshall and Zimbardo, as well as Maslach, to propose that arousal had a negative bias and was experienced as unpleasant, even when the situation and its attendant cognitions implied a happy experience. Other studies manipulated arousal by other kinds of drugs, such as ephedrine or caffeine, that have less powerful effects than epinephrine. The results have been mixed at best (Manstead & Wagner, 1981 Reisenzein, 1983, 1994). These studies vary on a multitude of dimensions, so any conclusion about the differences between the studies that do and do not support Schachter's theory must be tentative. However, it does...

January 2002 the early signs

I always felt very excited going to pick the boys up from the airport after a trip to see their father, but when Joe walked through into the arrivals lounge at Heathrow with his brother and grandparents, I tried not to show how shocked I was. He was literally a shadow of his former self. Rather than looking tanned and healthy from three weeks in the sun, he looked gaunt and tired. In contrast Tom looked radiant and was a bundle of energy and happiness, despite having just travelled halfway round the world. On the way home, Tom chattered away happily about all the places they had visited and the things they had done, whilst Joe sat quietly gazing out of the car window.

Emotional Arousal Misattributed to Nonemotional Causes

Most people erroneously recall the Schachter and Singer (1962) study as showing that epinephrine increased feelings of both anger and euphoria. They probably misremember these results because the study did produce some other dramatic effects on feelings of both anger and happiness. These involved the group of subjects who were told what the consequences of the adrenalin would be. In that study, you will recall, three groups of subjects were injected with epinephrine. The groups differed in what they were told about the effects of the injections. One group was told nothing, and a second group was misinformed about the effects. The third group was told accurately what the effects would be pounding heart, sweaty palms, flushing, and so forth. This informed group had received

Monitoring Mental Activity

When normal subjects were shown film clips that provoked the emotions of happiness, fear, or disgust, oxygen-15 water studies of regional brain blood flow showed increased neuronal blood flow in the primary and secondary visual cortex, as well as in limbic regions Paradiso et al., Am. J. Psychiatry 154(3) 384-389, 1997 .

Franklin Benjamin 170690

At age sixteen, Franklin read Thomas Tyron's The Way to Health, Long Life and Happiness (1683), which recommended temperance in eating and drinking, and moderation in their sleep and exercise. By such methods as these the seeds of vice might more easily . . . be subdued and a foundation laid for the building upon an

Are Behaviors Sufficient To Produce Emotional Feelings

Feelings, including anger, fear, happiness, sadness, disgust, guilt, and romantic love. The behaviors manipulated have included facial expressions, postures, gaze, tone of voice, breathing patterns, overt actions, and autonomic arousal. Clearly, inducing people to act emotionally does lead to emotional feelings, as James and self-perception theory predicted. Emotional behaviors do seem to be sufficient. First of all, both expressions and postures have been shown to have very specific effects on feelings that cannot be explained by simple variations in pleasantness (Duclos & Laird, 2001 Duclos et al., 1989 Flack et al., 1999a Flack et al., 2000 Flack et al., 1999b Levenson et al., 1991 Levenson et al., 1990 Levenson et al., 1992) and also on memories (Laird et al., 1989 Laird et al., 1982 Schnall & Laird, 2002). In addition, the pattern of confirming and disconfirming results of tests of Schachter's theory of emotion (Schachter & Singer, 1962) actually supports indirectly the...

Experimenter Bias And Compliant Participants

What is needed is a true double-blind design in which neither the experimenter nor the participants are aware of which treatment the participants were receiving. Unfortunately, in almost all this research, the experimenter administers the treatment and has to know what it is supposed to be. However, many of the studies discussed already contain a different kind of double blindness. In these studies, the expectation is that individual participants will differ in their response to the self-perception manipulations, and these differences will be predictable from some other measure. For example, in two studies people who were field dependent were not expected to respond to self-perception manipulations, whereas those who were field independent would (Edelman, 1984). In one of these, Joan Duncan (Duncan & Laird, 1977) manipulated facial expressions into smiles and frowns and might have influenced people to be happier in the smile and angrier in the frown. However, she also was expecting...

Theoretical Explanations Of The Effects Of Behaviors On Feelings

Individual differences in the effects of self-perception manipulations are consistent across a wide variety of manipulated behaviors and feelings. Since many self-perception experiments share the same logical shape and produce logically identical results, we would naturally assume that similar processes were involved. The individual difference results strongly reinforce that assumption, because they establish empirical links among the effects of the different kinds of emotional behaviors. The same process seems to lead from mutual gaze to romantic love, from a smile to a feeling of happiness, from increases in arousal to feelings of anger or fear, and from changes in posture or appearance to feelings of confidence. Clearly, any theory about the effects of behavior on feelings needs to be able to account for these consistencies across kinds of feeling and kinds of behavior.

Improved Concentration

In a RCT, exposure to lavender aromatherapy during breaks resulted in significantly higher concentration levels during the afternoon period when concentration was found to be lowest in a control group (Sakamoto et al 2005). Lavender oil aromatherapy has also been found to reduce mental stress and increase arousal rate (Motomura et al 2001), elicit a subjective sense of 'happiness' (Vernet-Maury et al 1999) and to produce increased relaxation, less depressed mood and faster and more accurate mathematical computations (Field et al 2005). In a RCT, lavender aromatherapy tended to enhance calculating speed and calculating accuracy in female but not male subjects (Liu et al 2004), but results from another study suggest 2007 Elsevier Australia

Marriage and identity

This is a description of some of the behaviours of happy couples in successful long-term relationships. Turning the coin over, these ways of behaving in a relationship could be seen as prescriptions for happiness, actions to aim at if one wishes to develop a satisfactory and enduring relationship. Although they might come easily to some couples, for others they take work.

Limitations of the Dispositional Perspective

When one considers that most people tend to be generally happy with their lives,22 the notion of a more or less automatic return to a positive affective set point may not sound bad. However, there may be significant limitations to the strong nature view of SWB and its implications for mental health intervention (or nonintervention) with cancer survivors. In particular, although traits clearly account for a substantial portion of the variation in SWB, they do not explain all of the variance, and mere documentation of trait-SWB relations does not illuminate the mechanisms or processes through which traits may be causally linked to SWB.23 Indeed, other evidence suggests that SWB is multiply determined, that non-trait person and environment factors play important roles in affective regulation, and that some people experience quite substantial and long-term changes in SWB over time (see Lent4 for a review). Thus, there is no guarantee that people will effortlessly or invariably return to a...

Ceremony and help in the kindergarten

Ifa child in the kindergarten dies, preschool children need an explanation of what has happened in a simple language adjusted to their age. If there is time to inform parents, it is very safe for children to sit on their lap while what happened and why is explained. Owing to their lack of experience and concept development we need to be sure that children have understood what is being said in order to reduce misunderstandings. Safe surroundings with physical closeness is very important for young children, together with good advice to parents about how they can follow up the event at home. Parents should expect and allow more clinginess and temporary sleeping in the parents' room they should keep up ordinary routines and so on. It can be said to children that sometimes we become sad, angry or afraid after someone dies. If that happens they can seek out Mama or Papa or one of the adults in the kindergarten to get some comfort and talk with him or her about their feelings. If they start...

Summary And Evaluation

Emotional content can be broadly divided into the pleasant and the unpleasant emotions. In the pleasant emotion category are happiness and the associated judgment of life satisfaction. On most people's lists of primary emotions, there is only one major pleasant emotion, whereas there are many varieties of unpleasant emotions. From a trait perspective, under pleasant emotions we discussed dispositional happiness. Some people are happier than others, and psychologists are developing theories and gathering data to understand why people dif fer on happiness and how people might increase their level of trait happiness.

Are Behaviors Sufficient To Produce Feelings

The most distinctive, most disputed premise of self-perception theory is that behaviors come first and produce the feelings. The direct empirical prediction of this premise is that if we can manipulate the behaviors, then the feelings will follow. Exploring this premise, a wide variety of behaviors have been manipulated, including facial expressions, postures, patterns of gaze and of breathing, hand holding, levels of sympathetic arousal, speeches, essays, various instrumental actions, ease of processing of stimuli, and the amount and fluency with which material comes to mind when remembering. These behaviors have been shown to affect emotional feelings, including anger, happiness, sadness, disgust, guilt, fear, and romantic attraction, as well as feelings of liking and disliking, confidence, pride, boredom, desire or wanting, familiarity, and realness. Clearly we have a very broad sample of different kinds of behaviors and of different feelings, and in every case the evidence is that...

Case Illustration

However, as the following case illustrates, a patient may have a long and arduous struggle reconciling sexual orientation with opposing values. The patient held a negative view of himself as a gay man, and his belief that he would never find true love or happiness resulted in behavior that exacerbated his depression. He had developed a self-defeating pattern of engaging in anonymous sexual encounters that were immediately reinforcing but ultimately confirmed his self-effacing beliefs.

Modifications in Timing Presentation and Implementation of Interventions

Quite often emphasis during early sessions is placed on developing affect recognition and labeling skills, and on assisting the patient to appreciate how life events, thoughts, and emotions influence one another. Techniques such as attending to physiological changes and somatic experiences associated with anger, tension, and happiness, may prove helpful in

Setting Wellness Goals

As you now know, tracking your symptoms, building social support, managing stress, establishing daily routines, getting enough sleep, exercising regularly (but not excessively ), and making time for relaxation are all helpful strategies for maintaining wellness. Additional self-care approaches include participating in the activities you enjoy, eating a healthful diet, connecting with supportive people, and making sure you stay centered. Working on these wellness goals will ensure that you're making your health and happiness a priority.

Making the World a Bit Nicer

A powerful way of achieving happiness is through helping others. Being kind to others helps you in two ways First, you're likely to enjoy the feeling you get from giving service or kindness to others. Second, doing something nice for another person takes your mind off your own problems.

Exercising Self Control

In pursuing happiness, avoiding the quick fix is very important. Quick fixes come in all shapes and sizes alcohol, drugs, chocolate, a new car, a better house, more clothes, blah, blah, blah. Such things are fine in moderation, of course, but they don't create lasting happiness.

Servants Success Steps

Are you happy with how you are treated If not, or if you want a more productive, happier life serve more. Send a handwritten thank you to someone who touched you in some way. Fill up your spouse's gas tank without being asked. Take out the garbage or put the newspaper in the recycle bin. Fill up the soap dispenser or put the new toilet paper roll on the way your spouse prefers. Rake a neighbor's yard. Put flowers on the table. Live a life of giving. God so loved us, He gave His son. To have a friend, be a friend. Ask someone over for a fresh food, homemade dinner. Fresh, delicious meals are a special treat.

The Privacy of Mental Objects

The feelings are not just about the behaviors, however. The feelings are actually at a level above the level of the behavior and the context. That is, feelings consist precisely of the relationship between the behavior, such as a smile, and the context, such as meeting a friend. A smile in that context is happiness. An approving speech in the context of an apparent free expression of opinion is a positive attitude. A feeling of fluency in the absence of any other explanation is familiarity. However, just as the behaviors are public, so, too, are the contexts. They are, after all, no more than social systems and settings. Now we can turn to examine the processes such as thinking, imagining, remembering, puzzling, and solving, all of which seem to involve a different kind of privacy. When I wonder if I am actually foolish or happy, my answer seems to be derived entirely from the self-perception of the complex patterns of my public behavior. I may not be any better at recognizing those...

My Chronic Fatigue Story

My life consisted of fighting my way through work each day, and collapsing on the sofa in the evening. Sleep, that refreshing friend, could not revive my energies, no matter how long I rested. Work was all I could muster. Off hours and weekends were spent attempting to rest and recover. My girlfriend, now my wife, Carmen, wondered how we would ever have a life together. We wanted children, and many other happy things. If all I had energy for was work, how could I help raise children have a home have a happy life together

How I Was Cured of Chronic Fatigue

I lost 11 of my best years to sickness, but I am not bitter. I am thankful that the next years of my life can be that normal happy life Carmen and I have always desired. We have 2 daughters now, the second one came in 1995. Together, Carmen and I have enough energy to make it all work.

Posture And Emotional Feelings

Probably the most distinctive expressive feature of happiness is the smile. In contrast, the facial expression of sadness is much less distinctive. Instead, the most striking expressive behavior of sadness is the slumped, curled-up posture. Self-perception theory would certainly expect that postures would play the same role in producing emotional feelings as any other kind of expressive behavior.

Categorical versus Dimensional Approach to Emotion

Categorical Model Psychology

Happiness can be thought of as a state or as a trait. People high in trait happiness experience frequent happiness states, or have a lower threshold for becoming happy. Moreover, happiness is recognized around the world through the expression of smiling. People from all cultures smile when they are happy. Happiness can be thought of as a state or as a trait. People high in trait happiness experience frequent happiness states, or have a lower threshold for becoming happy. Moreover, happiness is recognized around the world through the expression of smiling. People from all cultures smile when they are happy. Desire, happiness, interest, surprise, wonder, sorrow Anger, disgust, anxiety, happiness, sadness

Management of Emotions

Fmri Scan Examples Psychology

Studies that directly address this question. For example, psychologists James Gross and Robert Levenson (1993, 1997 Gross, 2002) designed studies in which some of the participants were asked to suppress the expression of any emotions they were feeling while they watched a video designed to evoke the emotions of happiness (a comedy routine), then sadness (scenes from the funeral of a child, showing a distraught and highly emotional mother). Half of the participants were randomly assigned to the suppression condition, in which they were told, If you have any feelings as you watch the video, please try your best not to let those feelings show . In other words, try to behave in a way that a person watching you would not know you were feeling anything at all. The other half of the participants were assigned to the no suppression condition, in which they were simply told to watch the video and were given no instructions to inhibit their emotions. Other studies suggest that emotional...

Emotion in the arts and in sport

Although sport is about performance, it is obvious that what makes the performance is the emotional reactions to it on the part of both participants and observers. Almost any emotion can impede sporting performance. Go to play any sport while in the grip of some or other emotion (anxiety, anger, jealousy, guilt, even an overabundance of joy or elation) and your performance is likely to suffer. On the other hand, a moderate level of anxiety and perhaps a general background state of happiness are likely to enhance sporting performance.

Overjustification And Motives To

Note that this research highlights one of the features of self-perception theory that perhaps has not been emphasized sufficiently in the earlier chapters Feelings are not derived solely from behaviors. Rather, the feelings represent a kind of interpretation of both the behavior and the context in which it occurs. Or, more directly, the content of feelings, what the feeling is about, is the relationship between action and context. Smiling when uncoerced may be happiness, but the same smile in response to a photographer's request is not happy. Gazing into another's eyes with no

Closer Look Empirical Studies of Repression

Another way to examine repression is to ask subjects to recall childhood experiences associated with pleasant and unpleasant emotions. This is exactly what psychologists Penelope Davis and Gary Schwartz did in 1987. They asked their subjects to recall and describe childhood experiences that they associated with happiness, sadness, anger, fear, and wonder. The researchers' findings showed that the repressors, defined as high defensive-low anxious persons, did recall fewer negative emotional experiences than the other subjects and that the repressors were substantially older at the time of their earliest negative emotional memories. Somewhat surprisingly, the repressors also had limited access to positive memories. This finding illustrates what may be one of the costs of repression pleasant as well as unpleasant emotional memories may be diminished or lost to conscious recall.

The Erratic Cluster Ways of Being Unpredictable Violent or Emotional

The antisocial person shows a general disregard for others and cares very little about the rights, feelings, or happiness of other people. The antisocial person has also been referred to as a sociopath or a psychopath (Zuckerman, 1991). Adults with this disorder typically had a childhood that was fraught with behavioral problems. Such early childhood behavioral problems generally take the form of violating the rights of others (such as minor thefts) and breaking age-related social norms (such as smoking at an early age or fighting with other children). Other common childhood behaviora problems include behaving aggressively or cruelly toward animals, threatening and intimidating younger children, destroying property , lying, and breaking rules. Behavioral problems in childhood are often first noticed in school, but such children als come to the attention of the police and truant of ficers. Sometimes even very youn children, during an argument with another child, use a weapon that can...

Closer Look The Six Myths of Self Esteem

After crushing these myths about self-esteem, we can ask the question So, what good is self-esteem As described elsewhere in this chapter, self-esteem improves persistence in the face of failure. Persons high in self-esteem perform better in groups than those with low self-esteem. Also, having a poor self-image is a risk factor for developing certain eating disorders, especially bulimia. Low self-esteem is also related to depression, and high self-esteem is related to happiness. High self-esteem also is related to social confidence and taking the initiative in making new friends. It is most likely the case that successes in academics, in the interpersonal domain or in one's career, lead to both happiness and to self-esteem. Consequently, efforts to artificially boost children's self-esteem (through unconditional praise, for example) might fail. Rather we should encourage and praise children when they put effort into learning or achieving the skills necessary to succeed in the various...

Situating Abstract Concepts

Nevertheless, it seems quite plausible that introspective content could be simulated in mental images (for specific proposals, see Barsalou, 1999,2003a). It seems possible to simulate the introspective experiences of emotions (e.g., happiness), drive states (e.g., hunger), and cognitive operations (e.g., comparing two imagined objects). There is no empirical or theoretical reason for believing that introspective content could not be simulated as part of a conceptual representation. Thus, we will assume that the presence of introspective content in conceptual representations does not constitute evidence against embodied theories of knowledge.

Peer Social Status and Emotion Regulation

In a subsequent study (Underwood, 1997), we sought to explore the relation between peer social status and several aspects of the pragmatics of emotion regulation with peers (Parke, 1994) children's choices to express and to control positive and negative emotions, and expectations of peer reactions to different emotional responses. Children in the second, fourth, and sixth grades responded to hypothetical vignettes read aloud, depicting situations provoking strong emotion in classroom situations happiness at good fortune, pride in accomplishments, sadness, anger, disappointment, and embarrassment. For each hypothetical vignette, children were asked to imagine that they were in the situation, experiencing the designated strong emotion. For each situation, children responded to two types of questions. First, they chose one of four possible responses, arranged on a continuum from most expressive to most dissembling expressing the emotion strongly, expressing the emotion but in a subdued...

Arthur M Glenberg David Havas Raymond Becker and Mike Rinck

According to the strong embodiment claim, part of understanding emotional language is getting the body into (or moving toward) the appropriate bodily state because that is what gives the words their meaning. Consequently, if bodily systems are already in (or close to) those appropriate states, then understanding should be facilitated, and if the bodily systems are in inappropriate states, those states should interfere with language understanding. More concretely, if we are reading about pleasant events, we should be faster to understand those sentences if we are in a happy state than if we are in an unhappy state. Conversely, if we are reading about unpleasant events, we should be faster to understand those sentences if we are in an unhappy state than if we are in a happy state. Note that these predictions are based on two assumptions. The first is a dimensional assumption, namely that the bodily states corresponding to happiness are further away from those corresponding to...

Facial asymmetry and emotional valence

Left hemiface judged more happy during The resting left hemiface is judged either more happy (Stringer & May, 1981) or miserable (Campbell, 1978) than the right heiniface. Lateral composites indicated asymmetry of the resting face (Bennett, Delmonico, & Bond, 1987), and these expressions were judged to be more left-sided (Borod & Koff, 1990 Borod et al., 1988 Moreno et al., 1990) and affect laden (McGee & Siknner, 1987). We (Mandal, Asthana, Madan, & Pandey, 1992) conducted a study to examine the asymmetrical nature of the resting facial state with the hypothesis that the left side of the face will be emotionally more involved than either the right side or the whole face. The left-side facial composites were judged by observers to be more emotional than the right-side composites or normal faces. Although Borod and Koff

The Longing For Merger

What, then, is the aim of love beyond the pursuit of simple pleasure, sex, or happiness Beyond pleasure, love seems to aim for release from the self. Love's potential to enrich or deplete, to give joy or sorrow, can only be understood within the context of the lover's desire for merger with the beloved. Ultimately, people do not achieve their deepest joy in solitude, but in the concordance of two souls. The aim of love is nothing less than to overcome separateness and achieve union or merger with the beloved. In that merger (or perhaps I should say in that imaginative merger) the lover achieves both an exaltation of feeling and a profound sense of release. The longing for union and for the elusive and complex gratifications it promises is so compelling that the lover willingly foregoes lesser pleasures and endures any pain. The peremptoriness of the wish is such that the lover will sacrifice anything whatsoever to fulfill it even his reason. So it is that love sometimes appears to be...

Ampicillin Amcill Omnipen Polycillin Principen

Laughter is also quite common, which seems to be a reaction to physical or mental stimuli. Although AS children experience a variety of emotions, continual happiness is most common. Parents may first notice this laughter at the age of one to three months. Giggling, chortling, and constant smiling soon develop and appear to represent normal reflexive laughter, but cooing and babbling are delayed. Other symptoms include

Content of Emotional Life

In lists of primary emotions, happiness or joy are typically the only pleasant emotions mentioned (though some theorists include interest as a pleasant emotion). In trait approaches to emotion, the major pleasant disposition is happiness and the associated feelings of being satisfied with one s life. We begin with these concepts. Definitions of Happiness and Life Satisfactio Over 2,000 years ago, Greek philosopher Aristotle wrote that happiness was the supreme good and that the goal of life was to attain happiness. Moreover, he taught that happiness was attained by living a virtuous life and being a good person. Countless other scholars and philosophers have of fered many other theories on the sources of human happiness. For example, unlike Aristotle, eighteenth-century French philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau speculated that the road to happiness lies in the satisfaction of one' s desires and the hedonistic pursuit of pleasure. In the late nineteenth century , the founder of...

The Somatic Appraisal Model of Affect

The second level of affect, basic emotions, is also referred to as primary emotions (Damasio, 2003). SAMA defines basic emotions as specific and relatively consistent representations of physiological, chemical, and neural responses evoked by certain brain systems when a person perceives or recalls objects or situations. Basic emotions are prototypic and characterized by autonomic and simple judgments, positive negative, approach withdraw, which primarily involve the limbic system, and occur in the 'low road' (Ledoux, 1996, p. 164) of stimuli processing. This unconscious appraisal is 'quick and dirty' (Ledoux, 1996, p. 163) it evaluates incoming stimuli from the external environment in relation to survival or life preservation. Basic emotions are elemental affects in that they are largely innate (Damasio, 1999, 2003 Ledoux, 1996 Panksepp, 1990) and somewhat instinctive. Basic emotions are generally accepted to include happiness, sadness, fear, anger, disgust (Ekman, 1993), and...

Moral concepts Emotions in Moral Cognition

The preceding observations can be summarized by saying that moral disapprobation takes on various forms. It is context sensitive. The same may be true for moral approbation. We may feel gratitude or admiration when a stranger does something good, and we might feel pride or self-righteousness when we do good ourselves. Disapprobation and approbation refer to ranges of emotions. In a word, they are sentiments. Sentiments can be defined as dispositions to experience different emotions in different contexts (Prinz, 2004). For example, the sentiment of liking ice cream may involve feeling happiness when ice cream is obtained, sadness when it is unavailable, and craving when it comes to mind. Disapprobation and approbation are sentiments that can be defined as dispositions to experience various different emotions as a function of context.

Can Positive Emotions Repair Negative Feelings

The positive psychology movement has in recent years investigated the role of positive emotions in well being. One key study set out to test the hypothesis that a positive emotion such as happiness can work to undo the effects of a negative emotion (Fredrickson & Levenson, 1998). That is, the experience of a negative emotion like fear or anger can be repaired if feelings of happiness are aroused.

Two Views of Well Being

At this point, I should clarify what I mean by emotional well-being. Ryan and Deci7 noted that the study of well-being in psychology emerged from two relatively distinct, though overlapping, philosophical perspectives (a) the hedonicposition, which views well-being in terms of the experience of personal happiness or the balance between positive and negative affect and (b) the eudaimonic position, which holds that well-being involves the quest to achieve growth, purpose, and meaning in one's life. These two broad perspectives have given rise to two relatively distinct lines of inquiry. Specifically, the hedonic view has nurtured development of the literature on emotional or subjective well-being (SWB8), while the eudaimonic view has fostered the study of psychological well-being (PWB9). Consistent with their differing theoretical and philosophical roots, factor analyses of SWB and PWB measures suggest that they reflect somewhat distinct underlying dimensions of well-being (i.e.,...

Arriving at Acceptance

Don't get us wrong we want you to feel good most of the time. But as far as we know, the only humans who don't feel some anxiety or sadness are, well . . . dead. Besides, if you don't know sadness, it's difficult to know what happiness is. Without worry, you wouldn't appreciate calm. Accept a certain degree of difficult emotions as part of your life.

The specific emotions

Are some emotions more important than others When we are in the all-encompassing throes of a particular emotion, it seems as significant at the time as any other. We might be as wracked with envy over a rival's promotion as we are consumed by anger over a social slight or trembling with anxiety at the thought of an impending speech. However, there is one sense in which some emotions do seem to be more important than others, in that they are more basic to survival. For example, fear is probably more linked to fundamental survival than is envy, or joy happiness is more important to survival than pride. The usual list of primary or basic emotions is fear anxiety, anger, sadness and happiness, with disgust sometimes added as a fifth. You have been meaning to do a large job in the garden for some weeks. You eventually get round to it and spend the entire day digging, weeding and clearing up. As twilight approaches, you finish the job and stretch your back, looking round at the cleared...

You Are Known by Your Fruit

Fructose, which is fruit sugar not to be confused with high fructose corn syrup (HFCS), does not stress the pancreas like white table sugar. Eating fruit can help restore needed nutrients and improve bowel function, all which are needed to live a happy life Some fruit, though, should be eaten in moderation. Patients who suffer with left neck and mid-back pain may have a common source for that pain the regular consumption of bananas, raisins, grapes, pineapple, and any dried fruit. All of these fruits are loaded with sugar.

Our Bodies Our Minds Our Cultures Our Selves

Traditional Western views of the mind and body, such as that of Descartes, divorced high-level, rational thought from what were thought of as the basal, emotional, instinctual processes of the body (Damasio, 2005 1994 ). By contrast, recent work in affective and social neuroscience has revealed a new view of the mind. Far from divorcing emotions from thinking, this research collectively suggests that emotions, such as anger, fear, happiness and sadness, are cognitive and physiological processes that involve both the body and mind (Damasio et al., 2000). As such, they utilize brain systems for body regulation (e.g. for blood pressure, heart rate, respiration, digestion) and sensation (e.g. for physical pain or pleasure, for stomach ache). They also influence brain systems for cognition, changing thought in characteristic ways from the desire to seek revenge in anger, to the search for escape in fear, to the receptive openness to others in happiness, to the ruminating on lost people or...

Internationalcultural Perspectives On Quality Of Life

What is meaningful survivorship in one culture may be very different in another, often defined as the cultural consensus on what quality of life means. For example, Chaturvedi found in a sample of Indian cancer patients, family members, and their caregivers the 10 most important factors related to quality of life.30 In this culture, she found that the level of individual functioning was not nearly as meaningful to them as was having peace of mind, spiritual satisfaction, satisfaction with religious acts, and happiness with family. These results contrast the values that most North Americans and Europeans have regarding the importance of the independence of the individual.

Table 121 Prayers for Healing

Send me, O God, your healing, so that I may quickly recover from the illness that has come upon me. Sustain my spirit, relieve my pain and restore me to perfect health, happiness and strength. Grant unto my body your healing power so I may continue to be able to bear testimony to your everlasting mercy and love, for you, O Lord, art a faithful and merciful healer. (This nondenominational example was selected by the pastoral care staff at the Mount Zion Medical Center, which is affiliated with the University of California at San Francisco.)

Emotion Memory And Judgment

In a second study (Laird et al., 1982, Study 2), as part of an apparently unrelated task, the subjects heard a number of emotional sentences, such as Oh, be careful and That really makes me mad, each spoken by a different person. These sentences expressed emotions of happiness, sadness, fear, and anger. Later, and unexpectedly, participants were asked to recall as many sentences as possible. Different groups of subjects tried to recall the sentences while in happy, angry, sad, and fearful expressions. Consistent with the first study, subjects recalled more of each type of sentence while they were in a congruent expression. These two studies demonstrated that emotional feelings affected the ability to recall emotional material that was not personally relevant. A third study (Laird, Cuniff, Sheehan, Shulman, & Strum, 1989) looked at the effects of expressions on recall of personal history. Subjects were asked to remember incidents from their own lives while they maintained...

If it wasnt for Alex

The answer wasn't the only thing I couldn't quite understand. I was taught that happiness is a choice (I went there to learn how to cure autism) and that I could choose to be happy even if my son was to remain autistic. Furthermore, in choosing to be happy with his autism, I would be doing myself a favour and be helpful to my son. In theory this is a positive thought. I have yet to meet a parent who readily reached the so-called 'happiness mode' before he or she could communicate with the child or at least be positively reassured that the child is even reachable. Equally, I have yet to meet the autistic adult who didn't feel hurt by their parents' continued search for a 'cure'.

Emotional life

Emotion colours everything that we do. Emotion is always present in one form or another as a basic aid to our survival. It is our emotional reactions to the world that allow to us determine which parts of it are safe for us and which are dangerous, which will bring happiness and which will bring sadness or anger or depression. Emotion is both a very basic and primitive part of our existence and also a very sophisticated and important part of our survival. At the most fundamental level, emotion provides us with information about ourselves that is essential in our struggle to deal with daily life.

Comorbid Conditions

Perspective, psychological disorders are distinguished by the form and content of their associated dysfunctional cognitions, beliefs, attitudes, and processes The key differences among the neuroses are revealed in the content of the aberrant thinking rather than in its form (Beck, 1976, p. 82). The thought content associated with depression is believed to center on significant losses, particularly with reference to the loss of something considered essential to one's happiness. This can be contrasted with disorders such as mania, which is associated with an exaggerated positive view of self, world, and the future, or anxiety, which is associated with threat or danger. As reviewed elsewhere, there is considerable support for the content specificity hypothesis in terms of depression and anxiety (R. Beck & Perkins, 2001), although there has been less research evaluating specificity between depression and other disorders. Furthermore, although the content specificity hypothesis was...

What Is Mania

Mania is more than just having a lot of energy or feeling great about yourself. Mania is a serious condition that is diagnosed when a person experiences several symptoms associated with an elevated or high mood that go beyond what most people experience. Mania includes symptoms such as increased energy, racing thoughts, inflated self-esteem, a decreased need for sleep, abnormal irritability, extreme happiness, poor judgment, and overparticipation in risky activities. These symptoms must be present during a period of least one week to be considered mania (see Table 2.1 for more details).

Mental Illness

Jonathan Haidt, a psychologist from the University of Virginia, proposes a happiness hypothesis, the idea that altruism evolved to enhance societal living. Genes encode loyalty to one's group and respect for authority. Morality evolves by natural selection in the face of human beings competing aggressively with one another. A principle evolved that One should do no harm and do unto others as you would have them do unto you.

Aromatherapy

Citrus aurantium var. dulcis The essential oil is used to convey warmth and happiness and improve mood (Battaglia 2003), reduce stress, and promote sleep (Miakeet al 1991), and aid concentration (Baron & Thomley 1994). It is traditionally known as 'the oil of communication and happiness'. It is also used to improve digestion and as a carminative to relieve gastric cramping and discomfort. Citrus aurantium var. amara The essential oil is used to reduce anxiety, muscle tension and promote relaxation. It is used in cosmetics to repair broken capillaries, stimulate cell regeneration and to manage acne-prone skin.

Experimenter Bias

None of the subjects in this research recognized that the writing positions created expressions of emotion, or that the purpose of the research involved their emotional feelings. In an elaboration of the Strack et al. procedure, Soussignan (2002) found that more intense, Duchenne smiles produced stronger feelings of happiness than did less intense, and arguably less genuine-seeming, smiles.

Pleasure And Love

The importance of our relationships may come to supersede simpler pleasures, so that the happiness we seek in mutuality may take priority over pleasures experienced more narrowly. According to Marilyn French, Mutual pleasures are the sacred core of life food, body warmth, love, and sex. These things are sacred because they are necessary, because they confer pleasure in the giving and the receiving so that it is impossible to say who is giving and who is receiving. They satisfy the profoundest needs, and in their satisfying, satisfy two. Some of our most profound pleasures are grounded in mutuality and can only be realized in love. Love, then, draws on many pleasures sensual, aesthetic, mutual, and selfish. Only by understanding the complexities of these can we grasp the lovers' willingness to undergo hardships or pain. The resulting happiness or pleasure is of a different order from pleasure as it is commonly defined, one that is experienced as more fundamental, necessary even, to the...

Ethnopsychology

The search for linguistic correlates of basic emotions is motivated by robust findings of biological invariance in facial expressions associated with five or six discrete emotions, often labeled with the English language terms anger, disgust, fear, happiness, surprise, and shame (Ekman 1992). Inspired by research on color categorization that shows color lexicons everywhere to be structured according to a small set of prototypic categories, numerous authors have speculated that prototype models may be an effective means of representing emotion concepts as internally structured categories (Gerber 1985 Russell 1991) or scenarios (Lakoff and Kovecses 1987).

The Psychiatrist

A psychiatrist or other mental health provider such as a psychiatric mental health nurse practitioner (PMHNP), medical social worker, or psychologist can be helpful with co-morbid mood disorders that do not respond to the standard therapies used in primary care. Unipolar disorder (depression without mood swings), anxiety disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, an anxiety disorder that develops after exposure to an ordeal) are more common in FM than the general population. There is additional evidence that a mild form of bipolar disorder (mood swings that move from depression to exaggerated happiness) may also be overrepresented in FM. Any of the psychiatric providers mentioned earlier can diagnose these conditions and provide cognitive behavioral therapies and other counseling strategies to improve symptoms. Additionally, a psychiatrist or PMHNP can prescribe medications for mood disorders. Because sleep disorders such as insomnia are common in mental health conditions,...

Case Example 4

W viewed his family, particularly his mother, as having an agenda for him that had little to do with his interests. He complained that when he was a child, his mother took his toy gun away unfairly when another child complained to her about it, and that this exemplified her willingness to listen to others while failing to consider his own happiness. When Mr. W wanted to pursue architecture as a profession, his mother threatened to no longer speak with him, insisting that he become a lawyer instead. Mr. W therefore experienced her as consistently withdrawing her love if he disagreed with her. His father was a more benign figure but, sadly, was minimally involved with his son.

Why Am I Doing This

Other researchers (e.g., Ford, 1992 Wentzel, 1991) have adopted a more complex perspective on goals and motivation, arguing that there are many different kinds of goals individuals can have in achievement settings. For example, Ford (e.g., Ford, 1992 Ford & Nichols, 1987) defined goals as desired end states people try to attain through the cognitive, affective and biochemical regulation of their behavior. Similar to Rokeach's (1979) human values and Eccles' attainment value (Eccles, 1983), Fords' set of goals included affective goals (e.g., happiness, physical well-being), cognitive goals (e.g., exploration, intellectual creativity), and subjective organization goals (e.g., unity, transcendence). Like Deci and Ryan's self-determination theory, his list of important goals also included self-assertive goals such as self-determination and individuality, integrative social relationship goals such as belonging-ness and social responsibility, and task goals such as mastery, material...

One Day at a Time

A dream of happiness, and every tomorrow a vision of hope. Today, well-lived What a meaningful phrase Living well each day means dealing with life in the most positive manner our resources will allow. It may not bring happiness every hour or even every day. It may sometimes include having a good cry, the kind of brief release that enables us to get on with living. But making the most of each day is of utmost importance to people with Parkinson's it gives us control over our lives and a sense of satisfaction and accomplishment. Best of all, while we are actively

Causes

Societal influences also contribute to this illness. Increasingly, Westernized culture portrays thinness as a coveted physical ideal associated with happiness, vitality, and well-being, while obesity is perceived as unhealthy and unattractive. This has encouraged a growing sentiment of body dissatisfaction, particularly among young women. Endless images of unrealistically thin models and actors in all forms of media further promote body dissatisfaction one of the strongest risk factors for the development of disordered eating.

The Beat Goes On

The information that I have received from Dr. DeMaria has changed my life. I had been dealing with numbness in my legs and arms with unsteadiness and fatigue. I also have MS and take prescription Avonex for the MS. By changing my diet (no sugar, no dairy, eating healthier and reducing stress) and taking the supplements suggested by Dr. Bob along with subluxation correction, I feel 1,000 better. I now have more energy. I don't feel poorly any longer and this has led to a more positive mental outlook. Even with the MS, Dr. Bob has shown me how to work with my disorder and what is best for my situation in order to lead to a healthy, happy life. Dave Page

Probe Detectors

The brain chemistry of happiness can now be a focus of biological research, just as it has become a part of economic theory, sociology, psychology, and psychiatry. Jeremy Bentham defined happiness in terms of utility, i.e., the sum of good emotions minus the bad. Human beings strive by their actions to increase pleasure and avoid pain. We can measure and correlate objective measurements of brain chemical processes with the emotions of pleasure, fear, and pain, and perhaps modify the undesirable brain chemistry when it is not helpful. Simple, probe radiation detectors can be used in many of these studies.

Substance Abuse

Thomas DeQuincey (1785-1859) in his book Confessions of an English Opium-Eater stated his belief that laudanum, when taken to ease the pain of his toothache was the secret of happiness. He wrote, My vanished pain is now a trifle in my eyes Here was the secret of happiness, that which philosophers had disputed for so many ages happiness that might now be bought for a penny, and carried in the waist-coat pocket portable ecstasies that might be corked up in a pint bottle and peace of mind that could be sent by the mail

Suggestions

Watch video programmes with him (drama) and watch his body language. Is he hiding behind the sofa Is his body shrivelling If you can relate to his body language, pause the tapes and discuss what happened. Encourage him to ask you questions about what motivates each character's behaviour. Tell him that all the people are motivated by emotions. Explain that the source of one emotion could vary, yet the emotion itself is the same. For example, he is happy to receive a toy train his sister is happy to receive a flower Cinderella is happy to go to the ball. The happiness is equal. If his toy train broke, his

Self Help

This increasingly competitive culture is fueling a growing self-help industry based on the myth that success and happiness can be achieved through proper life management, and consumers, it appears, are buying in with big dollars. In 2005, one historian reported that the self-improvement industry, inclusive of books, seminars,

A kinder world

For almost every other disability there is something mechanical to ease the difficulty. For autism there isn't. There is no white cane or guide dog, hearing aid, wheelchair, ramp, etc. For autism there is knowledge and love. There is education and a hope that the non-autistic would want to turn towards his inner kind self and befriend the autistic. In helping your child put thoughts into words, you cannot stop his life's ups and downs, but you can help him express them, share them and live a happier life.

Final Word

Our goal in this book has been to help you give your child the best chance possible for a full and happy life. As your understanding of the strengths associated with AS-HFA grows, so will your ability to conquer its challenges. And as you overcome the difficulties that your child's disorder presents, you will be more able to celebrate the gifts and joys that your unique son or daughter brings to your life. The challenges may never entirely go away, but with your understanding and proper treatment as early as possible, your child and family can expect lots of improvement over the years. The more we learn about Asperger syndrome and high-functioning autism, the more likely it is that your child will, in fact, lead a full and happy life.

Promoting Positives

In this chapter, we go beyond depression and anxiety and reach for true happiness. Why Because science tell us that happiness doesn't just feel good happy people have better immune systems, live longer, have lower blood pressure, and have more empathy for others. Happy people are also more productive and make more money. That's a pretty good argument for finding happiness. If happiness is such a good thing, you may wonder what exactly makes people happy. Although happy people usually make a little more money, research shows that money alone doesn't lead to more happiness. Unless you're in extreme poverty and struggling to put food on the table, studies indicate that even winning a big lottery payout doesn't increase happiness for very long. And, surprisingly, power, youth, and good looks don't seem to contribute much at all to people's reported happiness. As psychologists, we see firsthand how often those with money, looks, and power suffer from depression and anxiety. Basically rich,...

Letting Go

One way people ruin their chances for happiness is by holding on to resentments, anger, and rage. When you've been wronged, it's natural to feel upset, and anger can be useful, at least for a while. Anger helps you defend yourself when attacked because it revs up your body to right a wrong. Forgiving isn't the same as saying that the wrong was okay. Forgiveness gives back the peace that you had before the event occurred. And letting go of your anger allows you to regain your previous happiness.

Figure 189

Research in this area has been strongly influenced by Beck's schema theory, which predicts that there should be facilitated processing of schema-congruent information in attention and perception. However, Bower's (1981) network theory is also relevant. It has mainly been applied to memory, but has implications for other aspects of cognitive functioning. According to network theory, whenever the node corresponding to an emotion is activated, activation spreads out to all of the related nodes. If someone is happy, then nodes relating to happy personal experiences and similar concepts to happiness (e.g., euphoria, joy, contentment, and so on) will be activated. This widespread activation should facilitate performance across a wide range of tasks involving processing of happiness-related information.

Review Of Literature

Asymmetry in facial expressions has been studied from still photographs and videotapes (see Table 1), and investigators have attempted to examine hemifacial asymmetry during posed facial emotion. Campbell (1978) used composite faces of nine different expressors depicting the happy (smile) emotion. He found that the left hemiface was judged to be expressing happiness more intensely than the right hemiface. Sackeim and Gur (1978) used composite faces posing six different emotions and a neutral expression. Participants rated each composite photograph on a 7-point scale of expressed intensity. The left-side composites were judged as expressing emotion more intensely than the right composites. In a somewhat different methodology, observers were asked to rate left-left and right-right facial composites with bipolar adjectives. Results revealed that left-left composites were rated as 'healthier, stronger, harder, more active, more excitable'. In contrast, right-right composites were rated as...

Lynn Grefe

I remind people that we - NEDA - are not in charge of National Eating, but rather represent an organization dedicating itself to serving those with eating disorders and their families. Therefore, as society tackles this so-called obesity epidemic, our role is to protect those affected by BED and not allow them to get lost in the fray of inappropriate attention and treatment. This is no easy task, and it is often confusing in a weight-biased culture where the diet industry continues to be the only winner. Those in the eating disorder field know that 95 per cent of dieters regain their weight within five years (Grodstein et al. 1996 Neumark-Sztainer et al. 2007), and with shows like ABC TV's The Biggest Loser selling the myth that dramatic weight loss equals health and happiness, more and more people are likely to get caught in the body mass confusion.

Good vs Evil

Should morality determine our actions In 1784, Maximilien Robespiere wrote Let us establish morality upon an eternal and sacred basis let us inspire in man that religious respect for man - the profound sentiment of his duties, which is the sole quantity of social happiness.

Ambivalent Surrender

Yet, unfortunately, such happiness can be short-lived, the radical surrender of self ultimately offending both lover and beloved. Insofar as he surrenders himself, the lover can be depleted if the beloved comes to devalue or scorn him. What began as a quest for transcendence can end in the impoverishment of servitude or even slavery. Or, as sometimes happens, the lover discovers the beloved to be less than a god and becomes disenchanted. This is the fundamental mechanism in one of the most commonly observed love relationships, the see-saw affair, in which first one and then the other of the lovers appears unilaterally head-over-heels in love with an unresponsive partner. Only when the lovesick partner begins to withdraw does the other dare yield to his own impulse to surrender. These love affairs appear peculiar to outsiders, but it is the very lack of simultaneity that allows the lovers turns at surrender. The participants themselves appear to suffer, but they are clearly in the grip...

Vegetarianism

V egetarianism in itself may or may not be considered dieting. Political, ideological, and religious restrictions or prescriptions for food intake fall largely outside of the purview of a dieting culture. Francis Bacon undertook a self-cure by consuming fruit and vegetables. But it was Thomas Tyron (1634-1703), in his The Way to Wealth, Long Life and Happiness, who first and most dramatically linked Bacon's diet to the original ways of Eve and Adam in Gen. 1 29. Man could return to paradise, but only if s he ate no meat. Emanuel Swedenborg (1688-1772), the Swedish mystic, advocated abstinence based on his theological views. He placed all animals on the level of man

Response Sets

There are two views regarding the interpretation of social desirability . One view is that it represents distortion or error and should be eliminated or minimized. The other view is that social desirability is a valid part of other desirable personality traits, such as happiness, conscientiousness, or agreeableness. We will first consider ho psychologists have viewed social desirability as distortion. Viewing social desirability as distortion does not assume that the person is consciously trying to create a positive impression. A social desirability response set may not actually be an outright ef fort to distort responses and, so, is dif ferent from outright faking or lying. Some people may simply have a distorted view of themselves or have a strong need to have others think well of them. For this reason, most psychologists have resisted calling this response set lying or faking (cf. Eysenck & Eysenck, 1972, for a dif ferent opinion). Nevertheless, many personality psychologists...

High Blood Pressure

To help reduce emotional stress, I recommend the Release Technique, described in Transforming the Mind and moving on from that, the New Life Course for personal development would be a great life enhancer. The course teaches many ways to manage mental stress and increase happiness.

Survivors

In the current chapter, although there is unquestionably some overlap, we will focus on interventions that place somewhat greater emphasis on the emotion-focused end of the coping spectrum, which more often subscribe to a more eudiamonically-oriented approach to achieving well-being, that is, by aiming to uncover meaning and purpose in one's life, rather than exclusively teaching cognitive coping strategies. The underlying aim is to establish and elaborate a framework of eudiamonic well-being that will persist regardless of fluctuations in day-to-day subjective well-being or hedonic happiness. Although it is theoretically appealing to apportion coping and well-being into such categories, undoubtedly the stress-reduction interventions discussed in this chapter act on many levels to support symptom reduction and enhanced well-being.

After the Diagnosis

When they first receive a diagnosis of high-functioning autism or Asperger syndrome, parents experience a wide range of reactions, from one extreme of shock, grief, or denial to another extreme of relief and even happiness. More commonly, there is a mixture of negative and positive feelings. Many parents have known for a long time that there was something different about their child and have actively sought an explanation, but still hope that nothing is really wrong and their fears will prove unfounded. Parents worry about the stigma of a label, about the future, and about their child's ability to live independently and be happy. They wonder if they need to change their expectations for their child or treat him or her differently. But with a diagnosis comes the promise of intervention and support. If a condition is common enough to have a name, then perhaps there is something known about how to treat it. And there must be others with this condition You will meet other parents who know...

Harvesting from

Why pay others to frolic in the luscious gardens of Earth, picking flowers and enjoying themselves making herbal products You can do all that frolicking, immersing yourself in wondrous herbal beauty, and uplifting your mind and spirit. Making your own herbal medicine both enhances your happiness and boosts your immune system.

Universal Emotions

Evolutionary psychologists have taken three distinct perspectives on the study of emotions, such as fear , rage, and jealousy . One view , represented by the work of Paul Ekman, is to examine whether facial expressions of emotion are interpreted in the same ways across cultures, on the assumption that universality is one criterion for adaptation (Ekman, 1973, 1992a, 1992b). In other words, if all humans share an adaptation, such as smiling to express happiness, that adaptation is likely to be a core part of human nature. A second evolutionary view is that emotions are adaptive psychological mechanisms that signal various fitness a fordances in the social environment All these evolutionary perspectives on emotions hinge on the proposition that they are universal and universally recognized in the same way . Ekman (1973, 1992a, 1992b) pioneered the cross-cultural study of emotions. He assembled pictures of several different faces, each of which showed one of seven emotions happiness,...

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