Typical Response

Patients have generally been receptive to hardiness enhancement therapy. It has appeared to be an effective intervention based on patients' feedback and their reported improvement in confidence levels associated with overcoming their presenting stressor.


Patients are suited for a hardiness enhancement intervention if they are psychiatrically stable, warrant an improved stress coping skill set, and are motivated to overcome or address their presenting problem(s).

Most individuals are inherently resilient and do not warrant professional interventions to cope with tragedy, problems, or stress. However, for those that do, hardiness enhancement group therapy is a valuable tool toward resilience and improved functioning as a result of hardy attitudes, transformational coping, supportive interactions, and healthy self-care.


Kobasa, S. C. (1979). Stressful life events, personality, and health: An inquiry into hardiness. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 37, 1-11. Maddi, S. R. (2002). The story of hardiness: Twenty years of theorizing, research, and practice. Consulting Psychology Journal, 54, 173-185. Maddi, S. R. (2007). Relevance of hardiness assessment and training to the military context. Military Psychology, 19(1), 61-70. Maddi, S. R. & Kobasa, S. C. (1984). The hardy executive: Health under stress.

Homewood, IL: Dow Jones-Irwin. Wong, N. (2005). Group psychotherapy and combined individual and group psychotherapy. In B. J. Sadock & V. A. Sadock (Eds.), Kaplan & Sadock's comprehensive textbook of psychiatry, (Eighth edition, pp. 2568-2585). New York: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

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Easing Your Stress With Yoga

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