These interventions are contraindicated for highly narcissistic and borderline patients who will not be able to tolerate and metabolize the intense feelings evoked. Also, leaders who have difficulties in addressing money matters freely and containing negative feelings may not be successful in using the fee as a clinical tool.


Ben-Noam, S. (2004). Money doesn't grow on trees, or does it? The Group Solution. The Newsletter of the National Registry of Certified Group Psychotherapists. Feb/March issue. Fehr, S.S. (2003). Introduction to Group Therapy: A practical guide (Second edition). Binghamton, NY: The Haworth Press. Gans, J.S. (1992). Money and psychodynamic group psychotherapy. International

Journal of Group Psychotherapy, 42 (1), 133-152. Rutan, J.S. & Stone, W.N. (2001). Psychodynamic group psychotherapy (Third edtition). New York: The Guilford Press.

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