Conclusion And Contraindications

It has been shown that gallows and self-humor tend to be used by individuals as an important defense mechanism when exposed to extremely stressful traumatic situations.

This intervention is not recommended if the group is not cohesive or if the therapist is uncomfortable with strong affect as the ultimate goal is to elicit strong suppressed affect that has been correlated with a traumatic experience.

It, too, is contraindicated if there is a preponderance of paranoia and or persecutory anxieties among group members. Conversely, gal lows and self-humor, if colluded with by the therapist in group psychotherapy, prevents access to deeper feelings enabling the "working through" process and the subsequent healing to take place.

REFERENCES

Brende, J.O. (1981). Combined individual and group therapy tor Vietnam veterans.

International Journal of Group Psychotherapy, 31: 367-378. Goodwin, M. &.Weiss, D. (1998). Double trauma: A group therapy approach for Vietnam veterans suffering from war and childhood trauma. International Journal of Group Psychotherapy, 48: 39-53. Herman, J.L. (1992). Trauma and recovery. New York: Basic Books. Howard, S. (2000). Measuring Outcomes in a PTSD Day Program for Vietnam Veterans. Unpublished Dissertation, as Section 11 of the examination for Fellowship of The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists. Australia. Roller, P., Marmar, C.R. & Kanas, N. (1992). Psychodynamic group treatment of post traumatic stress disorder in Vietnam veterans. International Journal of Group Psychotherapy, 42: 225-246. Ostrower, C. (2000). Humor As a Defense Mechanism in the Holocaust. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Tel-Aviv University, Israel. Parson, E.R. (1993). Posttraumatic narcissism. Healing traumatic alterations in the self through curvilinear group psychotherapy. In J.P. Wilson & B. Raphael (Eds.). International Handbook of Traumatic Stress Syndromes. New York: Plenum Press.

Walter, J.L. & Nash, J.L. (1981) Group therapy in the treatment of Vietnam combat veterans. International Journal of Group Psychotherapy, 31: 379-389.

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