The Unconscious Process Of Identification

A process group is often about countering or disconfirming a patient's negative identifications and encouraging the individual to speak with his or her own true voice. Group therapy helps the patient do this in a number of ways including exploration of the negative identification, confrontation of the identification, providing new sources of identification, and by encouraging the patient to gain healthier identifications (Rutan & Stone, 2001). McWilliams (1994) writes that it is the capacity...

Responses To The Intervention

The response of both the client and the group to this particular intervention was perceived according to each member's own history. Some shed their own tears others sat in silence caught up in their own memories and thoughts. I asked the client to look around the room at the faces of all the others. I asked her if she wanted some feedback. She observed their empathy and sensitivity to her pain. I asked her to first state her own feelings about what had just occurred. She described her...

Conclusion And Contraindications

Obviously, there are powerful humanitarian reasons to try to help the traumatized as soon as practicable. This is especially so in the case of the major disasters. Nevertheless, the fact remains that the majority of people who experience traumatic or critical incidents recover within four to six weeks. Therefore, in most cases, early intervention is either uncalled for or is likely to be counter-productive. It is a psychological process that is akin to grief in that it is a normal human...

Contraindica Tions

It has been my experience that there are no contraindications to this intervention. If your clients are too young or too cognitively underdeveloped to appreciate existential issues, their moods will still benefit from expressing gratitude and grief and feeling support in the group (assuming the group is supportive). Arkoff, A., (1995). The Illuminated Life. Boston Allyn and Bacon. Erickson, E.H., (1968). Identity. Youth and Crisis. New York W.W. Norton & Co. Inc. Yalom, I.D., (1980)....

Presented Issue

A client disclosed sadly that her cat of fourteen years had suddenly passed away. Over the weeks, she had revealed that a new relationship had usurped her time with her pet, as all her available time after work had been dedicated to developing this new romance, leaving little time and attention for her animal. This client holds a high professional position. Her job is demanding, quite often she keeps longer hours than her staff. Due to the pressure of the job and her new boyfriend, the cat was...

The Intervention

I began with the use of guided imagery, (Bandler & Grinder, 1975 Bradshaw 1988), and asked the client to close her eyes and go to the last time things were well with her cat and her. I had her visualize that moment. In only seconds, the tears flowed. I asked her to tell her pet that this would be the last time they would be together. The group watched in awe as her state transformed into one of deep grief. Her head held in her hand, she began to weep. I prompted her to tell him whatever she...

The Group Therapist As Storyteller

Storytelling reveals meaning without committing the error of defining it. MAKING UNCONSCIOUS AMBIVALENCE CONSCIOUS In my view, one important function of the group is the education and acculturation of its members, in order to achieve a level of psychological sophistication where they can identify the psychody-namics of their fellow members and themselves. My own orientation is eclectic and psychodynamic. Like most of us, when I began training, I received a psychoanalytic background, which has...

Equality In Human Relations

For many individuals, group therapy provides special skills to deal with problems in social situations. Among the difficulties experienced by clients is the inability to ask for acknowledgment of their personal rights and needs. The foundation of this problem may be a resistance to express both positive and negative feelings, a lack of confidence to be direct, and a judgment that their requests are unreasonable and unacceptable to others. Alberti and Emmons (1990) suggest that Assertive...

Contraindications And Recommendations

The I's can be used in all situations from group therapy to everyday communication. The more practice I as a therapist have in utilizing this technique in my life, the greater my skill in applying the concept in my group communication. With even more practice, in highly charged emotional moments, I can assist the group more effectively. Very quickly, as therapists, we can discover the shift in thinking and expression provided with this technique. As therapists develop proficiency with using the...

Exploring Attachment in a Treatment Group for Men Who Batter

Programs for men who batter have proliferated in the last three decades, with ensuing debate on how to best treat this population. Researchers, practitioners, and activists have researched this population in an attempt to both explain why men resort to violence in their relationships and to devise effective treatment programs. Research suggests that shorter-term, structured treatment models presented simultaneously with court monitoring offer the most promise in reducing partner violence...

The Transitional Object

The concept of transitional objects to reinforce object constancy has been a long-established precedent in the study of child development and the psychodynamic model of psychotherapy (Baldwin, 1967 Stone & Church, 1973 Rutan & Stone, 2001). Yalom (1985) posited that in group psychotherapy, the individual client and or the group as a whole might view the therapist as a transitional object. In my groups, I often utilize a small, inanimate object to serve as a transitional object that ties...

Step Two Beginning the Ritual

The session opens with the therapist announcing that the group is saying goodbye to a peer that day. The therapist then takes out the rock and is the one who begins the ritual. It might go something like this TH Martha, one characteristic that made me choose this rock (holding it up for others to see) is that it is seemingly perfect, expect for this one tiny flaw. Yet, notice that the imperfection does not detract from the rock's beauty, but actually enhances it. We all know how you struggled...

Conclusion And Contraindication

This extraordinary group had taken me in and allowed me to share with them their grief in the place where their mourning took place. The members felt a greater connection to me the leader, and the cohesion of the group became even more intensified. The group members felt well understood and accepted by the leader, who never judged how they mourned or the timing of their grieving process. The contraindication in this intervention was in relation to me-the leader. In my decision to extend the...

Verbatim Patient Disclosure

The patient states I've left two messages for my daughter she doesn't call me back. I'm not surprised I was at a dinnerparty and the seat next to me remained empty no one likes me and it is always like that. TH Can you share with us why this means that no one likes you and why you generally feel that no one likes you PT That's just how I feel. When I don't get a call back it means no Multiple questions and statements are then asked and given by other patients in the group. My focus is toward...

Contraindications

During the assessment process, we need to be alert to our own responses Is this a person with whom you can imagine working, in a group Do you look forward to it If you are aware of anxiety or reluctance, what makes you imagine it will be different for others and for whom in particular One of the great benefits of groups is that they contain more resources than the therapist's alone, but it's neglectful to disregard our own feelings. If in doubt, give the assessment process a bit longer....

Diminishing Dissociative Experiences

For War Veterans in Group Therapy 217 Clients' Responses to the Intervention 219 Conclusion and Contraindications 219 Chapter 42.1 Am Part of the Group Matrix 221 Description of Group and Client Population 222 Description of Interventions 222 Typical Response to the Intervention 224 Conclusions and Contraindications 224 Chapter 43. To Err Is Human Turning Our Mistakes Chapter 44. The Ability to Verbalize One's Needs Clearly Patient's Statements Elicit the Type of Intervention 234

The Polite And The Not So Polite

I have the fortune or misfortune, depending on your perspective, to work with primarily very nice and gracious clients. However, that is not always an enviable position when trying to facilitate a group of highly passive and respectful adults in a psychodynamic psychotherapeutic group. The issues arise on how to encourage them to confront one another with honest feedback how to ask for honest feedback and expect to get it how to practice new behaviors like assertiveness or even some of their...

The Hot Seat

Early in my training in Gestalt therapy, I became acquainted with the dual-chair technique, originally introduced by Frederick (Fritz) Perls, founder of Gestalt therapy. I was struck by the versatility and power of this method, not only to increase self-awareness but also to promote interaction among group members (Glass, 2001). As originally practiced by Perls, an individual indicated his or her willingness to engage with the therapist by taking the hot seat, a chair facing the therapist. An...

Acceptance of Group Resistance in a School Based Anger Management Group with Urban Adolescents

Some call them other people's children (Delpit, 1995, p. 137). They are a unique clinical population not only because they are adolescents, but because many of them come from high-risk environments where extreme emotional reactivity is the norm. Gangs are prevalent in their urban neighborhoods. Some have seen family members shot in the street. When they come to school, some of them are ready and eager to learn, and appear to have made sense of the trauma that is part of their daily existence....

Dysfunctional Thought Record DTR or Automatic Thought Record

The classic psychodrama techniques of role reversal, doubling, self-presentation, interview in role reversal, mirroring, future projection, surplus reality, empty chair, and other action techniques (Moreno, 1934 Blatner 1996 Kellerman, 1992) can be applied directly to situations indicated in the DTRs. During the initial didactic sessions, we found that it is extremely helpful to teach the group members how to complete a DTR. It is important to introduce the DTR as a self-reflection strategy for...

Contributors To Group Therapy

Uri Amit, EdD, is a former chief psychologist (psychologist IV) at the Massachusetts Treatment Center for the Sexually Dangerous Persons, Bridgewater, Massachusetts. He is currently a senior clinician at the Ann Klein Forensic Center-Special Treatment Unit in Avenel, New Jersey. He is a diplomate of the American College of Forensic Examiners. Ainara Arnoso, PhD, Master in Group Analysis, is a teacher at the Department of Social Psychology and Methodology of CCC at the University of the Basque...

The Emotionally Disconnected Group

Expressing and working with emotions in the present moment of the group often represent a major challenge to people who are disconnected from their feelings and or acculturated to presenting a nice, accommodating stance in the presence of conflict. This reluctance to express so-called negative feelings is often closely associated with a suppression of body awareness and, therefore, little access to emotional awareness that can be stated in words. These disconnections can be bridged by the use...

Integrating Cognitive Behavioral with Psychodramatic Theory and Techniques

This brief chapter combines psychodrama and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) techniques in applied group settings. We illustrate the application of some CBT techniques that were found helpful in the three phases of psychodrama with college students and patients diagnosed with mood, substance abuse, anxiety, and personality disorders. Although both CBT and psychodrama models stress the discovery process through Socratic questioning, the use of certain structured CBT techniques (e.g., the...

Guidelines And Intervention For A Group Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Gcbt Psychodrama

In applying the various CBT techniques within the context of psy-chodrama, it is important to devote the first one or two sessions (at least three hours each) to educating the participants about the GCBT model (cognitive behavioral and psychodrama) to create a safe and secure environment in which individuals can share their concerns freely with group members. The initial didactic sessions convey the notion that the group format is, foremost, a problem-solving approach for working through...

Stress Inoculation Training

In 2004, Hurricane Ivan left its destructive wake through Florida's panhandle and the coastal regions of Alabama and Mississippi. Furthermore, due to the Global War on Terrorism operations and the storm's destruction of several military treatment facilities, I became the sole military psychologist providing psychosocial interventions for the region at Naval Hospital, Pensacola, Florida. To address the burgeoning and heterogeneous myriad of patients suffering from various anxiety disorders, I...

Bridging As a Tool to Avoid Scapegoating

A good scapegoat is nearly as welcomed as a solution to the problem. The concept of scapegoating, a unified dislike or hatred of one member by the majority of the group, is often misunderstood as a phenomenon that is done to a member of a group rather than a collusion between a group and a member's defensive patterns Gans, 1989 . The role of the scapegoat is often placed upon a group member by the remainder of the group as a way to disavow negative thoughts, feelings, or behaviors that they may...