Vaccine Driven Virulence Evolution in Other Diseases

Are there any examples where vaccines have driven the pathogen towards higher virulence Vaccines against smallpox, measles and polio have been remarkably successful. Among these, only polio virulence has been shown to increase in response to vaccination pressure (Kew et al., 2002) in this case it was the attenuated vaccine strain that reverted to virulence and transmissibility rather than the wild-type strain changing in response to vaccination. In the case of measles and smallpox, the vaccine...

Plant Target Genes of AvrBs3

In vitro secretion and in vivo translocation studies demonstrated that AvrBs3 is secreted by the T3SS and localizes to the plant cell nucleus (Szurek et al., 2002). Prior to nuclear localization, AvrBs3 homodimerizes via the repeat region and interacts with importin a via the NLSs in the plant cell cytoplasm (Guirlebeck et al., 2005 Szurek et al., 2001, 2002 D. Guurlebeck und U. Bonas, unpublished data). Based on the fact that the AAD is essential for function we wondered if AvrBs3 modulates...

Unraveling the Genetic Mysteries of the Cat New Discoveries in Feline Inherited Diseases and Traits

Abstract The domestic cat is one of man's most beloved species, living in households as companions, working on farms for vermin control, and co-habitating in urban environments as semi-feral occupants. Advances in veterinary medicine provide health care and diagnostics for the domestic cat on a comparable level to humans. Fancy breeds result in the selection of aesthetically pleasing traits and, sometimes, undesired health conditions, both of which can be useful as models for human development,...

Human Malaria

We next turned our attention to human malaria, asking the question as to whether the relationships we observed in our mouse model in the laboratory also existed in human malaria in its natural environment. Using data from a large longitudinal cross-sectional population survey in Nigeria (the Garki project), it was observed that virulence, persistence and transmissibility were positively correlated when assessed across the whole population (Fig. 3). In these data, however, the relationships are...

Population Structure of 85 Dog Breeds

Fig. 2 Population structure of the domestic dog. Figure is derived from the work of Parker et al. (2004). Five dogs from each of 85 breeds were genotyped using 85 (CA)n repeat-based microsatellites. Markers spanned all autosomes at 30 Mb density. Analysis was performed using the computer program structure. Analysis at K 2, 3, and 4 divided the population of 85 breeds into the most likely groups based on allele sharing. Group 1 is comprised largely of Asian breeds such as the Lhasa Apso, Shar...

Hypothesis for Pathogen Virulence

Pathogens that kill their host lose their source of ongoing survival and transmission. So why are they virulent This question captured the attention of evolutionary biologists in the early 1980s until then, it was generally accepted that, given enough evolutionary time, all parasites would evolve to be non-harmful to their hosts. However, this is clearly not true many ancient host-parasite associations are still problematic for both host and pathogen. Furthermore, throughout human history,...

Wax Moth Injection Model

The wax moth caterpillar infection system involves the sub-dermal injection of a low dose of bacteria into the caterpillar and monitoring viability over several days. By injecting a dilution series of the bacteria, quantitative measurements can be made of the LD50, the initial dose required to cause 50 lethality. Wild-type PA14 is an incredibly potent killer, with an LD50 of between 1 and 2 bacteria, whereas attenuated mutants have elevated LD50s (indicating a higher initial does required for...

Canine Linkage Disequilibrium

Fig. 4 Canine linkage disequilibrium. Summarized previously in Sutter et al. (2004) and Sutter and Ostrander (2004). Five breeds were analyzed and five loci each and the results averaged for each breed. D' statistic is shown for each breed and for human. Gray shading indicates background level. LD decay at the 50 level is indicated in upper right of each panel. LD extends the farthest for the Akita, at 3.7 Mb, and the shortest for the Golden Retriever, at 0.48 Mb. For human the comparable...

Comparative DNA Sequence Analysis of Resistant and Susceptible Cultivars at the PiCO39 t Locus

A large insert DNA (100 kb average insert size) library of CO39 was constructed in a binary plant transformation cosmid vector pCLD04541 and screened with co-segregating marker RGA38 as well as BAC end sequence probes from the Nip-ponbare BAC libraries of Clemson University Institute for Genomics. Single BAC clones hybridizing to co-segregating markers were identified in the Nipponbare (susceptible) BAC library. The DNA sequence of 6 BAC clones (phrap score > 30) at the Pi-CO39 (t) locus was...

Annotation of the PA14 Genome

We predicted ORFs in the PA14 genome (Lee et al., 2006) using a combination of automated BLAST and Glimmer2 algorithms (Delcher et al., 1999 Salzberg et al., 1998) and we annotated 5973 PA14 genes (322 more than PAO1 Table 1). Each PA14 ORF was assigned a unique LocusName, beginning with PA14_ followed by five numerals. ORFs were numbered sequentially with respect to their position on the chromosome, starting with PA14_00010 (dnaA), and increasing in increments of 10 to allow for future...

Mareks Disease

MD is a T cell lymphoma disease of domestic chickens induced by a naturally oncogenic, highly cell-associated a-herpesvirus referred to as the Marek's disease virus (MDV) (Marek, 1907 Churchill and Biggs, 1967 Nazerian and Burmester, 1968 Solomon et al., 1968). The disease is characterized by a mononuclear infiltration of the peripheral nerves, gonads, iris, various viscera, muscles, and the skin. Partial or complete paralysis is a common symptom of MD due to accumulation and proliferation of...

Genomic Sequence of P aeruginosa Strain PA14 31 Comparative Alignments with Strain PAO1

To determine if the acquisition of strain-specific genes contribute to the enhanced virulence of PA14, we sequenced the PA14 genome and compared it to the genome of the less virulent isolate, PAO1 (Lee et al., 2006). PA14 has a slightly larger chromosome of 6.5 MB as compared to the 6.3 MB genome of PAO1. As expected, the overall similarity at the nucleotide level is high, with approximately 91.7 of the PA14 genome present in PAO1, and 95.8 of the PAO1 genome present in PA14 (Table 1). Various...

Roles of Plant Hormones in Plant Resistance and Susceptibility to Pathogens

Lionel Navarro, Rajendra Bari, Alexandre Seilaniantz, Adnane Nemri, and Jonathan D.G. Jones Abstract Plants and animals trigger an innate immune response upon perception of pathogen-associated molecular patterns PAMPs such as flagellin. In Arabidop-sis, flagellin perception elevates resistance to Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 Pst DC3000 , although the molecular mechanisms involved remain elusive. A flagellin-derived peptide transiently enhances the accumulation of a plant microRNA that...

Canine SINEs and Their Effects on Phenotypes of the Domestic

Wahl, Christine A. Rees, George M. Strain, Edward J. Cargill, Sharon L. Vanderlip, and Keith E. Murphy Abstract Short interspersed elements SINEs are mobile elements that contribute to genomic diversity through the addition of genetic material. Recent genomic analyses have vastly augmented our knowledge of both human- and canine-specific SINEs. SINEC_Cf is a major SINE of the canid family that has undergone recent expansion and is thought to be present in half of...