Genital Herpes Causes and Treatment
Genital herpes is a virus that causes painful blisters which burst and turn into sores on the skin. Herpes is spread when the sore on one person touches another person's skin usually during sexual intercourse. Genital herpes usually affects the genitals or anus. Rarely, the sores may spread to the mouth during oral sex.
The infant is also vulnerable to maternal infection while passing through the birth canal. At this time, any active infection in the mother's genital area can have serious repercussions to her child. Conditions acquired in this way include conjunctivitis, genital herpes, or chlamydial infection. Staph, or strep infections, meningitis, hepatitis b, or listeriosis may also be passed on. Newborns sometimes contract a type of conjunctivitis called neonatal ophthalmia, caused by infection in the mother's cervix during birth from either gonorrhea, genital herpes, or chlamydia. The infection may spread to the entire eye and cause blindness.
Oral acyclovir Acyclovir is effective in managing both initial and recurrent infections of herpes and localized shingles. It can prevent subsequent viral attacks if taken continuously soon after infection. However, in cases of recurrent genital herpes, acyclovir therapy doesn't make the lesions heal quicker or ease symptoms.
Eye infections The most common infection of the eye is CONJUNCTIVITIS, also known as pinkeye. Most of these infections are caused by bacteria (such as staphylococci) or by viruses associated with a cold, sore throat, or illness such as MEASLES. Viral conjunctivitis is the version that often appears in schools, sweeping through classrooms in massive epidemics. Newborns may contract a type of conjunctivitis from their mothers during birth. This type of infection may be caused by common bacteria, organisms responsible for GONORRHEA or genital HERPES, or by a
Between herpes and cancer of the cervix new studies show that genital herpes probably has no role in cervical cancer. Treatment The antiviral drug acyclovir (Zovirax) became available in the 1980s to reduce the number and severity of attacks, but it is not a cure, since it does not kill the virus. Available in ointment, capsule, liquid, and IV forms, capsules are usually used to treat primary genital herpes or a severe recurrence, or to suppress frequent recurrences. Taking acyclovir at the first sign of a recurrence that is, during the tingling phase before lesions begin can shorten the healing time from four to five days to one day. Prevention Several vaccines are currently being tested in clinical trials, but no vaccine is currently available to prevent genital herpes. At least two companies are in the final stages of clinical trials for such a vaccine, however.
Infection Infections complicating the use of steroids include an increased risk of infection of all types, including viral, bacterial, fungal, and parasitic disease. Although viral infections are usually mentioned as a risk with steroid administration, including a risk of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), these infections are relatively uncommon. Shingles (herpes zoster) and flares of genital herpes are probably the most common viral infections seen. Genital herpes
Herpes Any of a variety of inflammatory skin conditions characterized by spreading or creeping small clustered blisters caused by the herpes simplex virus. Forms of the virus cause cold sores and the sexually transmitted disease genital herpes (see herpes, genital) characterized by blisters on the sex organs. The virus also causes many other conditions affecting the skin. Herpes simplex virus most commonly causes cold sores in infants and children, and genital herpes in adolescents. Herpes simplex virus is also responsible for eye infections in children and for lesions on the parts of fingers and at other sites.
One sexual encounter can lead to pregnancy or an individual's sexually transmitted infection. AGI finds that every time a teenage woman has sex she has a 1 percent risk of contracting human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a 30 percent risk of contracting genital herpes, and a 50 percent risk of contracting gonorrhea. The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) reports that although adolescents (ages fifteen to nineteen) represent less than 16 percent of the population of reproductive age (ages fourteen to forty-four), youth account for almost 27 percent of new STI infections (4 million of 15 million new STIs). Based on the 1999 YRBS, female adolescents (ages fifteen to nineteen) had the highest rate of chlamydia (about 2,484 per 100,000) and gonorrhea infection (534 cases per 100,000) among all U.S. women (404.5 cases per 100,000 and 130 cases per 100,000, respectively).
Chlamydia The most common sexually transmitted disease (STD) in the United States, infecting more than 4.5 million people each year. It is a serious but easily cured disease that is three times more common than gonorrhea, six times more common than genital herpes, and 30 times more common than syphilis. Between 1988 and 1992,
No clear active ingredient within Echinacea plants has yet been identified. This has resulted in great variability in content of marketed products. Research has suggested that these plants may exert their activity through stimulation of cytokine production (24,25) but a clear, specific mechanism of action has yet to be defined. A number of clinical trials have been done on different preparations of echinacea for the treatment and prevention of upper respiratory infections. Some studies suggest that the duration of colds may be reduced by up to 3 days (26,27) while others have shown no significant effect (28). Conflicting results also exist for use of echinacea for the prevention of respiratory infections (28,29). A recent Cochrane review analyzed 16 randomized clinical trials of echinacea for both treatment and prevention of the common cold (30). Definitive conclusions regarding efficacy were unable to be reached owing to study limitations and variation in species of plant studied,...
The male condom is a soft, flexible cover that fits over the penis. It may be made of latex, polyurethane, Tactylon, or treated animal tissue that is thin, strong, and flexible. (The female condom is described in Chapter 3.) Because a condom prevents semen from entering the vagina, it is a very effective barrier to pregnancy. Except for those made of animal skin, condoms also act as a barrier to viruses and bacteria, protecting both partners from sexually transmitted diseases such as syphilis, chlamydia, gonorrhea, genital warts, genital herpes, candidiasis, trichomoniasis, and AIDS. Some of these diseases may make you very sick and some can make you infertile.
Aloe is used in the treatment of wounds, burns, radiation burns, ulcers, frostbite, psoriasis and genital herpes. The healing properties may be attributed to antimicrobial, immune-stimulating, anti-inflammatory and antithromboxane activities. Allantoin has also been shown to stimulate epithelialisation, and acemannan has been shown to stimulate macrophage production of IL-1 and TNF, which are associated with wound healing (Liptak 1997). Genital herpes Two clinical studies have investigated the effects of Aloe vera 0.5 topical preparations in genital herpes, producing good results. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study has demonstrated that aloe vera extract (0.5 ) in a hydrophilic cream is more efficacious than placebo in the treatment of initial episodes of genital herpes in men (n 60, aged 18-40 years). Each patient was provided with a 40 g tube, containing placebo or active preparation with instructions on self-application of the trial medication to their lesions three times...
Genital herpes Genital herpes is a contagious viral infection primarily affecting the genitals of men and women. It is characterized by recurrent clusters of vesicles and lesions in the affected areas and is caused by the herpes simplex-2 virus (HSV-2). This virus is one of several species of the herpes virus responsible for chick-enpox, shingles, mononucleosis, and oral herpes (fever blisters or cold sores, HSV-1). Infections have reached epidemic proportions with 500,000 diagnosed each year in the U.S. One in five American adults has genital herpes.
The virus is highly contagious when the blisters are present it is often transmitted by kissing. The virus can also be spread by children who touch their blisters and then touch other children. About 10 percent of oral herpes cases in adults are acquired by oral-genital sex with a person with active genital herpes.
Herpes simplex virus type II causes 85 percent of genital herpes cases. Type I, which causes most herpes infections above the waist, is responsible for the other 15 percent. The infection is spread by contact with the genital secretions of a person with an active lesion. It is possible, however, for a person with no active lesion to shed virus and infect a sex partner. The virus can infect any skin or mucous membrane surface on the body. For example, a person with a cold sore who engages in oral sex can transmit genital herpes to a partner.
Every teen and young adult who has survived cancer should be counseled about safe sexual practices. Despite the prevalence of sexual messages in our culture, most teens are woefully underinformed about the facts. Many survivors think, erroneously, that if they are infertile, they do not have to be concerned about the use of condoms or other birth control. However, all sorts of diseases, some potentially fatal (hepatitis C, HIV ARC AIDS) and some not (genital herpes, genital warts, gonorrhea), can be transmitted through sexual intercourse.
A much greater concern is herpes simplex virus infection in newborn infants. The virus is most frequently transmitted to an infant from the mother during vaginal delivery or, sometimes, via ascending infection. Transmission is much more likely to occur during a vaginal birth in a mother who is having a first episode of genital herpes. In such cases, the rate of transmission may be 33 to 50 percent. Unfortunately, in most cases, infected neonates are born to women in whom neither the history nor the physical examination suggests active infection.
Genital herpes A prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial conducted over 1 year investigated the effects of an extract of the plant and root of E. purpurea (Echinaforce 800 mg twice daily) on the incidence and severity of genital herpes outbreaks in 50 patients (Vonau et al 2001 ). The study found no statistically significant benefit compared with placebo after 6 months of therapy.
Overall, application of zinc preparations greatly reduces or eliminates recurrence of genital herpes infections and resolves symptoms of herpes simplex infections (Kneist et al 1995, Finnerty 1986). Zinc sulfate gel applied every 2 hours was a more effective treatment than placebo in herpex simplex labial is in a double-blind study of 80 subjects (Kneist et al 1995). Another study of 200 volunteers with herpes simplex found that 0.25 zinc sulfate solution started within 24 hours of lesion appearance and applied 8-10 times daily cleared lesions within 3-6 days (Finnerty 1986). A randomised placebo-controlled study using a weak zinc solution (0.05 or 0.025 zinc sulfate) found no effects on frequency, duration or severity of herpes attacks, suggesting that stronger concentrations are required for effectiveness (Graham et al 1985).
In a study on patients with viral infections accompanied by leukopenia. i.m. treatment once a day on 3 successive days improved significantly the initial low leukocyte count in over half of the patients (142). On the other hand, a study of 50 patients with genital herpes over a 1-year period revealed