Secretory mucosa of the stomach

The mucosa of the stomach can be considered as two distinct regions: the upper region comprising the fundus and the body of the stomach, the oxyntic glandular region, and the lower antral and pre-pyloric region, which secretes the hormone gastrin. The secretory cells of the oxyntic region produce gastric juice. The major secretory cells present in this area are parietal (or oxyntic) cells, which secrete hydrochloric acid and intrinsic factor, which is a glycoprotein necessary for the absorption of vitamin B12. The chief (or peptic) cells secrete pepsinogen, the precursor of the proteolytic enzyme pepsin.

The antrum and pylorus contain the pyloric glands; these glands contain mucous cells, which secrete mucus and pepsinogens, and G cells, which secrete gastrin. The pyloric and cardiac glands also have enterochromaffin cells, which secrete serotonin. The gastric mucosa also contains nine different types of endocrine cells, which secrete hormonal products such as glucagons and somatostatin. Both parietal and pyloric glands secrete bicarbonate.

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