Amebiasis is a form of colitis caused by the protozoan Entamoeba histolytica. It is mainly transmitted by faecal contamination of water or food. Ingested cysts form trophozoites in the small bowel. The amoebae penetrate host tissues causing necrosis without inflammation. Carriers of Entamoeba histolytica are often asymptomatic but may suffer from amoebic diarrhoea. Diagnosis of amebiasis requires demonstration of Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites and cysts in stool samples. Amebiasis is usually treated with dramatic effect with oral antibiotics, most often diodohydroxyquin.

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