Control of pancreatic juice secretion

The control of exocrine secretion of the acinar cells of the pancreas is via peptides, such as the hormones secretin and cholecystokinin, and somatostatin, which acts mainly as a paracrine factor, and via neurotransmitters. The main hormones involved in stimulating secretion of pancreatic juice are secretin, which stimulates the secretion of the alkaline aqueous component, and cholecystokinin (CCK), which stimulates the secretion of the enzyme component. These hormones are produced in the...

Pathophysiology of GORD

Occasional episodes of GORD are common in health, particularly after eating. Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease develops when the oesophageal mucosa is exposed to gastric contents for prolonged periods of time, resulting in symptoms and, in a small proportion of cases, this leads to oesophagitis. Abnormalities of the lower oesophageal sphincter related to GORD In health the lower oesophageal sphincter is tonically contracted, relaxing only during swallowing. Some patients with GORD have reduced...