Virtual gastric banding by hypnosis

Neuro Slimmer System Gastric Surgery Hypnosis

There's a solution to everything and when it comes to losing weight, curing unhealthy food cravings, and getting in the shape you've always wanted, Neuro Slimmer System Gastric Surgery Hypnosis is the real and effective solution. It works by targeting your subconscious mind through hypnosis. The method that has been proven by many types of research around the world. Basically, the idea of the whole system is to plant a belief in your subconscious mind that you've gone through the Gastric Banding Surgery, a surgery that uses a silicon belt to slightly fasten your stomach near the esophagus to create two pouches in which the upper one is always smaller. This apparent drastic reduction in stomach size triggers your mind to fluctuate its limits of the fat reserves your body should have. The resulting effect is always a reduction in these reserves because your mind finally understands that you don't need to eat more or carry out unhealthy eating habits. As we said, the same result is achieved by the Neuro Slimming System Gastric Surgery Hypnosis and that too for a far lesser price, great precision, and no incision. The plus point of this program is that at the same price you get two bonuses in which the first one is preparatory audio sessions that motivates you or prepares you for the main audio course and the second one is a nutrition course aimed at helping you steer clear of all the cravings and settle for a healthy diet. Read more here...

Neuro Slimmer System Gastric Surgery Hypnosis Summary


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Highly Recommended

This is one of the best books I have read on this field. The writing style was simple and engaging. Content included was worth reading spending my precious time.

This ebook does what it says, and you can read all the claims at his official website. I highly recommend getting this book.

What other factors are used to determine if a person is a good candidate for bariatric surgery

With regard to emotional health, people with a history of anorexia nervosa are generally not considered good candidates for this surgery. Likewise, uncontrolled bulimia (self-induced vomiting, typically following binge eating) is generally a contraindication for bariatric surgery. If you have had an eating disorder in the past but have been well controlled for a long time, your doctor may consider you a good candidate.

Are there any other surgeries commonly performed following gastric bypass Are these also routinely covered by insurance

After the dramatic weight loss achieved with gastric bypass many men and women find themselves with a great deal of redundant skin in the upper arms. Some people call these batwings. It has been my experience that batwings are more troubling to women than men. Unfortunately because batwings rarely if ever result in a medical problem, you will be on your own if you choose to have surgery to remove this excess skin. The same is true regarding the removal of excess skin around the buttocks. By taking a risk and having gastric bypass surgery, I changed everything about my life, said Jenny. I remember the first time I could see the bones in my neck. I remember the first time I flew and didn't need an extension for my seat belt. I remember buying my first medium size top in a mall in Atlanta with my brother. I remember the first time someone I knew didn't recognize me. I remember the first time I looked in the mirror and didn't recognize myself. I remember the smile on my four-year-old...

What about gastric banding Is it more successful than verticalbanded gastroplasty

Duodenal Switch Gastric Bypass Surgery

Gastric banding (Figure 2.2), also known as lap band surgery, uses an inflatable silicone band to divide the stomach and create a very small stomach pouch. While the diameter of the band is generally about two inches (five centimeters), the surgeon can adjust the diameter by pumping saline into the band from a reservoir implanted under the patient's skin. Just as with vertical-banded gastroplasty, blockage of the band can be problematic, and unfortunately the reservoir implanted beneath the skin doesn't last forever. Consequently, weight regain with this method can also occur. In general gastric banding is no more successful than vertical-banded gastroplasty, and it too can result in iron and vitamin B12 deficiency.

Are there any age requirements for gastric bypass surgery

Until about a year ago gastric bypass surgery was almost exclusively an adult surgery. There is a growing recogni tion, however, that the obesity epidemic in this country also includes children. Many obese children develop adult diseases or conditions such as high blood pressure, type 2 diabetes, and high cholesterol. Obese children are often taunted and teased by their peers. Clearly, obesity can take a physical and emotional toll on the young. Because of these concerns a few centers in the United States are offering this surgery to carefully selected teens. In general surgeons wait until a teen has achieved adult height. For young women this is typically by thirteen or fourteen years of age, and for young men by fifteen or sixteen. As this book goes to press guidelines for selecting appropriate pediatric candidates for gastric bypass surgery are being drafted.

What about overall satisfaction A year after surgery how do people feel about their decision to have gastric bypass

My personal experience has been overwhelmingly positive. To date I have not encountered a single person who regrets the decision to undergo gastric bypass surgery. I am however only one physician. I have a friend who had gastric bypass surgery who ended up having not only the gastric bypass but the removal of her gallbladder at the same time. Is this common This is very common. Before surgery you will almost certainly undergo an ultrasound of your gallbladder. If you have existing gallstones then your gallbladder will be removed at the time of surgery. The reason this is done is that the rapid weight loss you will experience following gastric bypass can increase the risk of developing symptomatic gallstones. If you already have gallstones the risk is high enough that preventive removal of your gallbladder is warranted.

Have had a problem with binge eating Does this mean I am not a candidate for bariatric surgery

The short answer to this question is that gastric bypass surgery may actually be thought of as a treatment for binge eating. Binge eating disorder (BED) has been reported in as many as 68 percent of people undergoing gastric bypass surgery. Interestingly, some people who think they have BED really do not. In order to meet the strict definition of BED, episodes of binge eating must occur at least two days a week for a period of about six months. In addition to consuming large amounts of food over a period of about two hours, binge eaters describe a sense of loss of control. In other words they cannot stop themselves, nor do they feel in control of what or how much they are consuming. very distressed by their own behavior. Unlike people with bulimia, binge eaters do not vomit, and unlike people with anorexia nervosa they do not fast or exercise to excess to make up for the bingeing. While your doctor should be told of your BED, it is unlikely to preclude bariatric surgery. It is...

Have determined that I may be a candidate for bariatric surgery How many different types of procedures are there

There are four major weight loss procedures. These include vertical-banded gastroplasty, gastric banding, biliopancre-atic diversion with duodenal switch, and the most commonly used Roux-en-Y procedure. The pictures that follow will help you understand the goal of each procedure.

Do people keep their weight off following verticalbanded gastroplasty

While initial weight loss is quite good with vertical-banded gastroplasty, long-term maintenance is poor. Unlike most other forms of gastric bypass surgery, following vertical-banded gastroplasty most people are not troubled by eating sweets (as you will read later sugary foods can cause bloating, diarrhea, and abdominal pain following other types of surgery), and as a result they may consume excessive amounts of sweets. This behavior has been linked to poor long-term weight loss. At ten years this procedure has an 80 percent failure rate (meaning much of the initial weight lost is regained). In addition 15 to 20 percent of people who have this procedure require a reoperation due to blockage of the polypropylene band or reflux of stomach acid into the esophagus. Because of these difficulties, it is unlikely that your doctor will suggest vertical-banded gastroplasty.

Does verticalbanded gastroplasty result in any vitamin or mineral deficiencies

FIGURE 2.2 Gastric Banding B12 deficiency can result in a condition called pernicious anemia. Vertical-banded gastroplasty can result in a deficiency of both iron and vitamin B12. Although this is generally not a major problem, supplements of both iron and vitamin B12 are usually necessary. Because of the potential for vitamin and mineral deficiencies following gastric bypass surgery, it is crucial for you to maintain regular follow-up with the nurses, doctors, and dietitians at your gastric bypass center.

Planning Checklist for Gastric Bypass

Please give me a checklist of things I need to think about and or accomplish in order to be successful in losing weight using gastric bypass as a tool. I hope that you now have the information that you need about the medical and psychological aspects of gastric bypass surgery. If you decide gastric bypass surgery is right for you, I wish you every success.

Bariatric Surgery

Bariatric surgery is the practice of bypassing parts of the digestive tract to allow a morbidly obese patient (BMI 40) to lose weight either through consuming less food or through malabsorption. Malabsorption refers to food passing directly through the digestive tract without the nutrients being absorbed by the body. This practice is only recommended for patients for whom other weight-loss options, including medical diets, have failed, and if the patient has a serious condition assumed to be caused by the weight, such as diabetes or sleep apnea. They are usually at least 100 pounds overweight. These patients must have failed earlier psychological attempts at changing behavior, such as Weight Watchers or Jenny Craig. There can be no uncorrected metabolic diseases that may be responsible for the obesity, such as low thyroid function. Most importantly, the patients are screened (and most eliminated) for any psychological imbalance or unrealistic expectations of surgery and of weight...

Tell me about the restrictive procedures

Vertical-banded gastroplasty and gastric banding are purely restrictive procedures (see Figures 2.1 and 2.2). In vertical-banded gastroplasty (Figure 2.1), the stomach is stapled fairly close to where the esophagus (food tube) meets the stomach. The staples are placed in a vertical fashion and a polypropylene (plastic) band is placed near the bottom of FIGURE 2.1 Vertical-Banded Gastroplasty

What kinds of complications can occur in the first few months after the surgery

One of the big risks associated with gastric bypass surgery, especially if it is performed in the summer, is dehydration. Some people develop stomach ulcers or gastritis (irritation of the cells that line the stomach). This occurs in about 2 percent of people who have undergone the Roux-en-Y procedure (it is much more common in people who have undergone gastric banding). Stomach ulcers are generally responsive to medications and rarely require surgical correction. Another potential late complication of gastric bypass surgery is a hernia. This does not generally happen if a person has had a laparoscopic procedure. A hernia is really a tear in an abdominal muscle with a loop of bowel (intestine) poking through. It is most likely to occur following a surgical procedure that involves a large abdominal incision. We worry about hernias because sometimes the intestine gets stuck outside the abdominal muscle. In such a case the loop of bowel gets cut off from its blood supply and can...

Sample Letter from Your Primary Care Doctor or Surgeon

I am writing to request coverage for gastric bypass surgery for my patient Ms. Donna Smith. Ms. Smith is a thirty-three-year-old woman who is 5'3 tall and weighs 295 pounds, giving her a BMI of 52. She already suffers from many obesity-related disorders including diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and sleep apnea. She has also been diagnosed with polycystic ovary syndrome and has been unable to become pregnant. I believe all her obesity-related conditions will be markedly improved with gastric bypass surgery. Ms. Smith has been a diabetic for the last eight years. She is currently treated with Glucophage (metformin), Actos, and a nighttime dose of insulin. Despite this triple drug regimen, her blood sugar remains relatively poorly controlled. Her most recent fasting blood sugar was 170 mg dL and her HA1C was 8.0. I believe gastric bypass surgery would allow discontinuation of most if not all of her diabetes medications and allow full normalization of her blood sugar and HA1C....

Bibliography Of Gastric

Prospective Evaluation of Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass as Primary Operation for Medically Complicated Obesity. Mayo Clinics Proceedings 75 (2000) 673-80. Brolin, R. E. Bariatric Surgery and Long-Term Control of Morbid Obesity. Journal of the American Medical Association 288 (2002) 2793-96. Brolin, R. E. Gastric Bypass. Surgical Clinics of North America 81 (2001) 1077-94. Cariani, S., et al. Complications After Gastroplasty and Gastric Bypass as a Primary Operation and as a Reoperation. Obesity Surgery 11 (2001) 487-90. Choban, P. S., et al. Bariatric Surgery for Morbid Cummings, D. E., et al. Plasma Ghrelin Levels After Diet-Induced Weight Loss or Gastric Bypass Surgery. New England Journal of Medicine 346 (2002) 1623-30. Deitel, M., et al. Gynecologic-Obstetric Changes After Loss of Massive Excess Weight Following Bariatric Surgery. Journal of the American College of Nutrition 7 (1988) 147-53. Holzwarth, R., et al. Outcome of Gastric Bypass Patients. Obesity...

Is there any medication that can help prevent gallstones from forming during rapid weight loss

About six years ago, Megan and a close friend both began thinking seriously about gastric bypass. Megan researched the procedure After her mother's death, Megan began to again consider gastric bypass. She began by attending several support group meetings. Her father opposed the idea vigorously. Rather than trying to convince him on her own, Megan invited him to come to her support group with her. In the meeting he attended, medical staff first discussed the gastric bypass procedure and statistics, and then people were free to ask questions and make comments. At the conclusion of the meeting Megan's dad's mind was changed. If you want to do it, you should go for it, Megan's father said to her. The weight came off very rapidly at first. For the first six months Megan did not feel hungry. In fact she had to remind herself to eat. She has had very few complications, but has required one procedure. About a month after her gastric bypass, Megan suddenly couldn't keep anything down, even...

What does the RouxenY procedure entail Is this the type of surgery that celebrities like Al Roker and Carnie Wilson

Carnie Wilson Gastric Bypass Surgery

The Roux-en-Y procedure (Figure 2.4) is the most commonly performed bariatric surgery. Reportedly, both Al Roker and Carnie Wilson underwent the Roux-en-Y surgery. While it is primarily restrictive, it does have a malab-sorptive component (but nothing like the BDDS). This procedure creates a very small stomach pouch, which is stapled horizontally, separating it from the rest of the stomach. In some cases the small stomach pouch is physically separated from the rest of the stomach. Initially the stomach pouch can hold about one or two tablespoons of food. The small intestine is cut near the beginning of the jejunum (second part of the small intestine), and the long portion of the jejunum is attached to the newly created small stomach. Food travels from the small stomach directly into the jejunum. Digestive juices and bile still enter the duodenum, but these juices do not meet the food until farther downstream (see Figure 2.4). The portion of the intestine containing the digestive...

If I cannot exercise how will my surgeon assess my cardiac status prior to surgery

I was told I needed to lose fifteen pounds before I could be scheduled for a gastric bypass procedure. I am seeking this procedure because I have been unable to lose weight with traditional diets. Why do I need to go on a diet so that I can have a weight loss surgery Is the team at my gastric bypass center just trying to discourage me This does not seem fair.

What is an obesityrelated illness

Obesity-related illnesses and conditions include elevated cholesterol and triglycerides, gallstones, pancreatitis, abdominal hernia, fatty liver, diabetes and prediabetes, polycystic ovary syndrome, high blood pressure, heart disease, pulmonary hypertension, stroke, blood clots in the legs and lungs, sleep apnea, arthritis, gout, lower back pain, infertility, urinary incontinence, and cataracts. If you have one of these conditions gastric surgery can be considered when the BMI is 35 or higher. In many cases gastric bypass surgery can dramatically improve obesity-related conditions. I have had many patients who after gastric bypass surgery were able to give up their blood pressure, diabetes, and cholesterol lowering medications. Many young women who have been unable to become pregnant conceive and go on to have healthy babies (more on this later).

How can I rationalize surgically changing my insides and risking significant complications even death just to lose

This is a question that nearly every person who is contemplating bariatric surgery asks him- or herself along the way. Many wonder if they are risking their lives in the name of vanity. In the end, bariatric surgery is a bit of a leap of faith. You need to believe that weighing less is likely to make you a healthier, happier person. I can only speak for my patients when I say that each and every one of them has found the benefits of gastric bypass to far exceed any drawbacks. All of my patients who have undergone the procedure have told me they would do it again if necessary. Although most have had a relatively event-free recovery, they all admit that there were many bumps along the road.

Why do you think obese women are at greater risk of being depressed than obese men

What I can do is give you some background that will perhaps surprise you and maybe make you feel less alone. I can't, however, solve this issue for you. A history of sexual abuse should not preclude bariatric surgery, but if this is your situation, you will probably benefit from psychological counseling both before and after your surgery. These statistics are alarming. They are enough to make anyone very angry. They also might help to make you feel less alone. Knowing that you are not alone might help you to open up to your physician or counselor. Given that roughly one-quarter of obese women (the statistics are not as widely available for men) seeking bariatric surgery have experienced unwanted sexual advances and even rape, your doctor should have some experience in dealing with this issue. If your doctor doesn't have experience he or she will surely be able to refer you to a counselor who does. Getting help will allow you to enjoy your new body...

Why or how does GBS result in permanent weight loss

Bariatric surgery may allow weight loss in ways above and beyond just making the stomach much smaller and or bypassing a portion of the small intestine. Some scientists believe that weight loss following bariatric surgery is also the result of diminished blood levels of a recently discovered hormone called ghrelin, which is secreted by endocrine cells within the stomach. Blood ghrelin levels rise prior to meals and in the face of food restriction or starvation. amount of weight following gastric bypass surgery were noted to have blood ghrelin levels 72 percent lower than matched obese controls. In addition people who underwent gastric bypass were not found to have spikes in ghre-lin levels before meals. Since an increase in blood ghrelin is a potent stimulus to eat, this reduction in ghrelin level may be very important in the success of gastric bypass. Cummings and his colleagues postulate that one of the reasons weight loss diets fail to be successful in the long run in obese people...

What sort of medications can I expect to receive while in the hospital

Because gastric bypass puts you at risk for infection, your doctor will most likely order prophylactic (preventive) antibiotics. This preventive measure may save you from developing pneumonia or a wound infection. You will also be treated with blood thinners to prevent blood clots. Most people are also given medicines to prevent ulcer formation and to decrease the risk of developing nausea. You will be given pain medication. This medication is crucial. You want enough to prevent pain but not so much that you fail to breathe deeply or are too groggy to get up and walk. Finally, as mentioned earlier some centers will ask patients to initiate ursodiol aimed at the prevention of gallstones.

Why do I need to have a psychological evaluation prior to this procedure

While most people who discuss bariatric surgery with their physician have an essentially normal psychological makeup, a small but significant minority have serious psychological issues. While most of these psychological issues do not preclude undergoing gastric bypass surgery, they do need to be addressed. Sometimes the psychological problems can be treated prior to surgery. However, some issues will require therapy long after bypass surgery. Depending on what study you read, anywhere from 19 percent to 28 percent of people who request an evaluation for bariatric surgery will have had a history of major depression. A history of major depression should not exclude you if you otherwise qualify for gastric bypass surgery. However, if you are presently very depressed, you should be treated before gastric bypass is performed. It appears that certain people seeking gastric bypass are more likely to be depressed than others. People at greatest risk appear to be women and persons with binge...

What are the risks of the RouxenY procedure

Another risk is that occasionally food or liquids will leak out of the stomach instead of traveling directly into the jejunum. While this can be a serious complication occurring in about 1 percent of procedures, it can generally be corrected. If this happens to you, you will need to return to the operating room. In general, one day after your gastric bypass surgery you will go down to the radiology department and drink something called gastrographin (this is a liquid that will show up on an x-ray). After you drink the gastrographin you will have an x-ray to make sure there is no leakage. If there is a problem, it can be addressed immediately.

What is the best diet for me to follow prior to surgery

To lose the weight most bariatric surgery centers require, you will obviously need to restrict calories. Since you will need to restrict sugar (sugar is a simple carbohydrate) following surgery to avoid the dumping syndrome (see Chapter Two), it makes sense to get used to reducing sugar preoperatively. Most centers recommend a reduced fat, high protein diet, which can include a moderate amount of more complex carbohydrates (complex carbohydrates include whole grain breads and cereals and a wide variety of fruits and vegetables). I strongly urge you to get into the habit of drinking mostly water and other low- or no-calorie beverages. You do not want to drink calories. In general people treat calories that they drink differently than calories that they eat. For example, even though a sixty-four-ounce bottle of soda contains a whopping 800 calories we don't treat it as almost half of our 2,000-calorie allowance for the day. In general I would recommend aiming for somewhere

Am afraid to ask this question but what are my chances of dying during or immediately following weight loss surgery

This is obviously the most important question to ask. Death occurs in about 0.5 percent (one in every two hundred) of people who undergo this procedure. While the risk is low, it is not zero. This is about the same risk as any other major abdominal surgery. But this is elective surgery. Making the decision to have bariatric surgery may feel like taking a big

What are the complications of biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch and how much weight can a person expect to

Because this procedure works by prevention of nutrient absorption, vitamin deficiencies are a common problem. During the year following surgery, 30 percent of people develop anemia, and 30 to 50 percent of people develop a deficiency of the fat-soluble vitamins including vitamins A, D, E, and K. A small number of people (3 to 5 percent) actually develop protein-calorie malnutrition and require hospitalization for intravenous protein replacement. Because the potential for vitamin and mineral deficiencies following this particular surgical procedure is so great, it is crucial for you to maintain regular follow-up with the nurses, doctors, and especially dietitians at your gastric bypass center. Also, because food has limited contact with the intestines diarrhea (due to rapid transit time) and foul-smelling stools (due to incomplete digestion) are a common

Appeal Letter

I am writing to appeal the denial (dated September 3, 20XX) I received regarding coverage for gastric bypass surgery. After reviewing my policy and the current National Institutes of Health guidelines for surgical eligibility,* I have determined that I am a surgical candidate and should be covered. and polycystic ovary syndrome, I am clearly a candidate for surgery. There is little doubt that all of my obesity-related conditions will be markedly improved with gastric bypass surgery. I have been a diabetic for the last eight years. I am currently treated with Glucophage (metformin), Actos, and a nighttime dose of insulin. Despite this triple drug regimen, my blood sugar remains relatively poorly controlled. My most recent fasting blood sugar was 170 mg dL and my HA1C was 8.0. Based on data reported by the American Society for Bariatric Surgery, it is likely that gastric bypass surgery would allow discontinuation of most if not all of my diabetes medications and allow full normalization...

What are the surgeries for GERD

Laparoscopic surgery is common today and is regularly used to remove gallbladders and do gastric bypass surgery for obesity and anti-reflux surgery. The benefits of doing laparoscopic versus open surgery are hospital stays are shorter, the surgical wounds are smaller, recovery is much quicker, and the risk of developing a hernia at the surgical site is lower.

Dual energy Xray absortiometry DEXA A

Gastric banding Surgery to limit the amount of food the stomach can hold by closing part of it off. A band made of special material is placed around the stomach near its upper end, creating a small pouch and a narrow passage into the larger remainder of the stomach. The small outlet delays the emptying of food from the pouch and causes a feeling of fullness. Gastric bypass A surgical procedure that combines the creation of small stomach pouches to restrict food intake and the construction of bypasses of the duodenum and other segments of the small intestine to cause food malabsorption. Patients generally lose two-thirds of their excess weight after 2 years. Gastroplasty See also jejuno-ileostomy. A surgical procedure that limits the amount of food the stomach can hold by closing off part of the stomach. Food intake is restricted by creating a small pouch at the top of the stomach where the food enters from the esophagus. The pouch initially holds about 1 ounce of food and expands to...

Michael J Devlin Stephen A Wonderlich B Timothy Walsh and James E Mitchell

Bariatric surgery 58, 59, 61, 182-9, 194 behavior modification 102 behavioral activation strategies 61 component of body image 81, 85 problems 45, 69 skills 127 traits 249-50 therapy 132 community response to BED 254-6 comorbidity, definition 67 comorbidity in BED and dialectical behavior therapy 124 epidemiological perspective on 67-8 pharmacologic treatment for 162, 163, 167 prevalence of 7, 16 types and extent of 68-74 psychiatric disorders 5, 54, 59-61, 71, 125, 194 comorbidity in obesity 187 compensatory behaviors xxiv, 8, 115, 184 complex trauma 56 compulsive eating 102 constipation after bariatric surgery 184 costs of BED 235-6 costs of obesity to the community 4 cravings 47, 133, 176, 177, 197 Cuban Americans 17 cue reactivity model of binge eating 47 culturally diverse groups see racial and ethnic groups 126,132 diet industry 207, 234 diet paradigms 208-9 dietary restraint and dieting as a gateway to anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa 206 after bariatric surgery 184 BED...

Debra L Franko Meghan E Lovering and Heather Thompson Brenner

Busetto, L., Segato, G., De Luca, M., De Marchi, F., Foletto, M., Vianello, M., Valeri, M., Favretti, F., and Enzi, G. (2005) 'Weight loss and postoperative complications in morbidly obese patients with binge eating disorder treated by laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding', Obes Surg 15 195-201. Cachelin, F. M., Rebeck, R., Veisel, C., and Striegel-Moore, R. H. (2001) 'Barriers to Green, A. E., Dymek-Valentine, M., Pytluk, S., Le Grange, D., and Alverdy, J. (2004) 'Psychosocial outcome of gastric bypass surgery for patients with and without binge eating', Obesity Surgery 14 975-85. Latner, J. D., Wetzler, S., Goodman, E. R., and Glinski, J. (2004) 'Gastric bypass in a low-income, inner-city population eating disturbances and weight loss', Obesity Research 12 956-61. Mazzeo, S. E., Saunders, R., and Mitchell, K. S. (2005) 'Binge eating among African American and Caucasian bariatric surgery candidates', Eating Behaviors 6 189-96.

Jonathan Mond Anita Star and Phillipa

I'm a 32-year-old secretary working at a solicitor's office. I've been overweight since adolescence, but in recent years this problem has increased to the point where I'm severely obese, with a BMI well in excess of 40 kg m2. Over the years, I've tried a number of diet and healthy eating plans, but have never been able to adhere to the recommendations for any length of time. I live alone, have a strained relationship with my family and have few friends that I feel I can rely on. Generally, my diet is regular in that I eat three meals a day and these meals contain a wide variety of foods. However, to help cope with my feelings of isolation, I treat myself with luxury foods such as chocolate, cheesecake, and ice-cream. Because this sort of eating is linked to my emotions, rather than level of hunger, it can occur at any time. When I get home from work I often go to the fridge for a small snack trouble is, after eating the snack I'm unable to stop eating and continue to consume a large...

Scott Engel and James E Mitchell

I have been quite overweight all of my life. I was teased about my weight in grade school and in high school. Besides eating too much most of the time I also went on eating binges several times a week, when I would consume very large amounts of food, such as one or two pizzas or a quart of ice cream. During these times I felt driven , like I couldn't stop myself until the food was gone. I was very embarrassed by this and because of that I would isolate myself at home when no one else was around to do much of my eating. My parents worried about my weight and started encouraging me to diet during adolescence but nothing really seemed to work. I tried low-calorie diets, low-carbohydrate diets, low-fat diets, and just about everything else. I had a book shelf devoted just to self-help diet books. In my 20s my weight continued to increase and by the time I turned 30 I weighed about 300 pounds at 5'5 tall. My doctor was always telling me how I would develop health problems if I didn't lose...

Guidelines For Management Of Gallstone Disease

Gall Bladder

Current therapies of gallstone disease, including cholesterol gallstones. Novel and potentially effective medical therapies are denoted by the symbol ( ). See text for details. Results from meta-analyses indicate surgery as the gold standard for treating symptomatic gallstones.164-166 Laparoscopic cholecystectomy and small-incision cholecystectomy166 are safe and have similar mortality (from 0.1 to 0.7 ).122,165 Both approaches are cost-effective compared with open cholecystectomy.165 Compared with open cholecystectomy, convalescence and hospital stay are shorter and total cost is lower for laparoscopic cholecystectomy.122 Complication rates (including bile duct injuries) are similar for laparoscopic and open cholecystectomy.122,165 When looking at surgical options, a prophylactic cholecystectomy can be taken into account in a subgroup of asymptomatic patients bearing a high risk of becoming symptomatic children (who are exposed to long-term physical presence of stones167),...

Surgically Altered Anatomy

ERCP may be performed for a variety of clinical indications in patients with surgically altered gastrointestinal anatomy. Such procedures can be more technically challenging, time consuming, and often require a significant level of expertise to optimize success.72 Moreover, the obesity epidemic has led to further increases in bariatric surgery and increased the patient population with difficult to access pancreaticobiliary anatomy. ERCP in Billroth II predisposes to a higher risk of jejunal and periampullary perforation and should be done only by an endoscopist with a record of acceptable safety. Patients who have a Roux-en-Y anastomosis typically require the use of a long forward-viewing endoscope to access the major papilla for the performance of ERCP. The longest roux limbs are encountered in patients who have undergone a standard Roux-en-Y gastric bypass for bariatric indications or in those individuals in whom bowel resection proximal to the ligament of Treitz has not been...

1997 Naafa Cherry Hill Convention Monica

These surgeries remain both highly profitable and extremely dangerous . . . Almost 2 of the patients undergoing gastric bypass surgery for morbid obesity will die within the first 30 days, according to a report presented October 21st 2003 at the American College of Surgeons 2003 Clinical Congress. Abstract from the ACS 2003 Clinical Congress.

Strategies for Weight Loss and Weight Maintenance

Gastrointestinal surgery (gastric restriction vertical gastric banding or gastric bypass Roux-en Y ) is an intervention weight loss option for motivated subjects with acceptable operative risks. An integrated program must be in place to provide guidance on diet, physical activity, and behavioral and social support both prior to and after the surgery.

Food Pyramids Obesity And Diabetes

High Iron Saturation Level

A more radical method of weight loss involves surgery. This method should only be used when the person is morbidly obese, meaning more than 100 pounds overweight, and when other methods have been unsuccessful. Several surgical interventions exist. All of the procedures limit the amount of food that can be taken into the digestive tract or limit the absorption of nutrients once the food gets into the system. In one procedure, a band, called an adjustable gastric band, can be placed around the stomach. This band can be tightened or loosened as needed to restrict the size of the stomach. A more radical procedure, called a gastric bypass, involves stapling part of the stomach to make a smaller pouch and attaching a segment of the small intestine to this pouch (Figure 8.1). This method limits both the amount taken into the stomach and the amount of nutrients that can be absorbed through the small intestine. A third surgical method, called vertical banded gastroplasty, makes a small stomach...

Hypercholesterolemia high blood cholesterol

Roux-en Y bypass See gastric exclusion the most common gastric bypass procedure. Surgical procedures See jejuno-ileostomy, gas-troplasty, gastric bypass, gastric partitioning, gastric exclusion, Roux-en Y bypass and gastric bubble. Vertical banded gastroplasty A surgical treatment for extreme obesity an operation on the stomach that involves constructing a small pouch in the stomach that empties through a narrow opening into the distal stomach and duodenum.

Pathophysiology of Stone Formation

Rapid weight loss is a recognized risk factor for cholesterol gall stone formation. As many as 30 of obese patients on restricted calorie intake may develop (usually asymptomatic) gall stones. This rate is higher, up to 50 , for obese patients who undergo gastric bypass surgery. It has been shown that hepatic cholesterol secretion increases in patients with low calorie intake. Other predisposing factors for the same patients are increased mucin secretion and decreased gall bladder motility. Gall stone formation may be prevented in this high-risk population possibly through prophylactic administration of a bile salt, ursodeoxycholic acid.

Risks Associated with Dieting

Bariatric (branch of medicine that deals with the treatment of obesity) surgeries are aimed at helping people lose weight. These surgeries, as all surgeries, can be dangerous and should be utilized only as a last resort. A report published in 2005 found that 17 percent of 219 gastric-bypass patients had major complications, including gastric leaks, hemorrhages, and obstructions. One patient even died from complications of a gastric leak. The same report found that 6 percent of i54 gastric-band patients had major complications, including stomach perforations, blood clots, and one death from complications during surgery (Anon. Surgically Slim 2006 26). Another study found a drastic increase in the amount of hospitalizations following the surgery. These visits were for various complications after surgery. The study found significant and sustained increases in the rates of hospital admission for morbidly obese patients after RYGB Roux-en-Y bypass . Annual rates of hospital admission after...

Types of Obesity Surgery

Gastric restriction Gastric restriction can by achieved by gastroplasty or gastric banding. Gastro-plasty techniques involve the fashioning of a proximal pouch of the stomach by vertical stapling and a constrictive band opening, thereby restricting the Gastric banding involves the external 'pinching off' of the upper part of the stomach with a band usually made of Dacron. A modification of the gastric banding is an inflatable circumgastric band attached to a subcutaneous reservoir that allows access by a hypodermic syringe to inject or withdraw fluid thereby tightening or enlarging the bandwidth. This operation can be performed laparoscopically, significantly improving the perioperative safety of operating for the severely obese patients. Gastric restriction operations require strict dietary compliance because an intake of high caloric liquids or soft foods are not inhibited by the narrow outlet and may explain a failure to lose weight. The advantage of these techniques is very low...

Dietary Intake and Body Mass

Although higher body weight is typically associated with a greater skeletal mass, obese individuals may sequester nutrients needed for skeletal health, such as vitamin D, in adipose tissue. Bariatric surgery as a treatment for morbidly obese individuals is becoming more common and leads to a loss of both body weight and bone mass. The long-term impact of this surgery on skeletal health is not yet fully elucidated, and it remains unclear if the amount of bone lost following surgery is solely a response to the decrease in body weight or if it is also associated with other adverse consequences of this surgery on bone health.

Can diabetes be cured

Perhaps the closest we have been able to come in the search for a true cure for diabetes is the effect of bariatric surgery ( weight loss surgery ), which either involves procedures to restrict the entry of food into the stomach or procedures to bypass the stomach and upper intestine, thus reducing food absorption. Procedures of the bypass type have shown prolonged remission of diabetes in up to 80 of cases for as long as 10 years. Remission for 10 years or more is approaching a definition of a true cure, and in the future this and other medications or procedures that provide a long-term reversal of obesity may come to be generally accepted as curing type 2 diabetes. Bariatric surgery

Dietary Interventions

Bariatric surgery causes weight loss through either a diminished capacity for intake or malabsorption. A long-term analysis of 10 non-PWS adolescents with a mean weight of 148 kg demonstrated a mean 5-year weight loss of 30 kg in 90 of patients only 1 patient regained the weight. Bariatric surgery was initially attempted in PWS in the early 1970s. Gastro-plasties were performed with the goal of decreasing PWS-related hyperphagic tendencies. More than half of PWS patients required subsequent revisions of the gastric pouch due to inadequate weight loss. The overall experiences with bariatric surgery in PWS are summarized in Table 1. The reported outcomes of bariatric Table 1 Outcomes of bariatric surgery in Prader-Willi syndrome Gastroplasty 1980 Anderson 91 gastric bypass 11 9 gastroplasty Vertical banded gastroplasty adjustable gastric band

Trisha M Karr Heather Simonich and Stephen A Wonderlich

Because BED displays a strong relationship to obesity, it is interesting to consider the rates of child maltreatment in obese samples that may or may not display BED. For example, the Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) study (Felitti et al. 1998), which included 13,177 members of a Health Maintenance Organization (HMO), found that a history of child maltreatment was strongly linked to the risk of having a body mass index (BMI) 40. Other studies have also found increased rates of child abuse in obese samples (Lissau and Sorensen 1994 Williamson et al. 2002). In a series of more recent studies, obese people who are candidates for bariatric surgery have also been examined in terms of their histories of childhood maltreatment. Using the CTQ, Grilo et al. (2005) found that 69 per cent of bariatric surgery candidates scored above the clinical cutoff on the CTQ, which is two to three times higher than normative values. In a similar study, Grilo et al. (2006) also reported the same rate of...

Weight Loss Surgery

Fourteen RCTs compared the weight-reducing effect of different surgical interventions. 515-522, 524 692, 706, 733 756, 757 One study compared the effectiveness of a very low-calorie diet to surgery. 515 Another study compared the effectiveness of horizontal-banded to vertical-banded gastroplas-ty in a pretreated, very low-calorie formula diet group. 516 Six studies compared two or more of the following procedures gastroplasty (vertical or horizontal), gastric bypass, and gastric partitioning. 517-522 Seven studies reported long-term (1 year or more) follow up. 515, 517-522 Two studies looked at comorbidity factors associated with weight loss. 517, 519

Surgery for Weight Loss

Considerable progress has been made in developing safer and more effective surgical procedures for promoting weight loss. Surgical interventions commonly used include gastroplasty, gastric partitioning, and gastric bypass. These procedures are designed primarily to reduce food consumption. They have replaced previous procedures that were designed to promote malabsorption of nutrients. The latter procedures were fraught with side effects that made their use impractical or dangerous. Evidence Statement Gastrointestinal surgery (gastric restriction vertical gastric banding or gastric bypass Roux-en Y ) can result in substantial weight loss, and therefore is an available weight loss option for well-informed and motivated patients with a BMI 40 or 35, who have comorbid conditions and acceptable operative risks. Evidence Category B. Surgical procedures in current use (gastric restriction vertical gastric banding and gastric A recent retrospective study of severely overweight patients with...

Obesity and Sleep Apnea

The evidence that treatment of obesity ameliorates obstructive sleep apnea is reasonably well established. Although the studies are small, both surgical and medical approaches to weight loss have been associated with a consistent but variable reduction in the number of respiratory events, as well as improvement in oxygenation. In general, surgical interventions, which have included a gastric bypass or jejunoileostomy,

Deficiency Signs And Symptoms

There are three forms of beriberi dry, wet and cerebral, also known as Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome. Dry beriberi is associated with peripheral neurological changes whereas cerebral beriberi involves alterations to ocular function, cognitive function and produces ataxia, which can also be fatal. In addition to neurological changes, wet beriberi is associated with cardiovascular changes characterised by peripheral vasodilation, sodium and water retention, increased cardiac output and myocardial failure, which can advance to become fatal in severe cases. Although alcoholism is the major cause of Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome, it has also been reported in several other conditions such as hyperemesis gravidarum and hyperemesis due to gastroplasty (Gardian et al 1999, Ogershok et al 2002, Seehra et al 1996, Spruill & Kuller 2002, Tan & Ho 2001, Togay-lsikay et al 2001, Toth & Voll 2001). PRIMARY DEFICIENCY


Gastrointestinal surgery is considered a last resort for those who are severely obese after diet and exercise regimes have failed. According to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, gastrointestinal surgery alters the digestive process of the stomach, thereby limiting caloric intake (Connor 2002). In the view of many, celebrities are responsible for the recent popularity of the surgery. Randy Jackson (1956-) and Al Roker, for example, are two celebrities who have publicized their success with gastric-bypass surgery. They, along with shrinking stars, have popularized both general familiarity with the surgery and the procedure itself. In essence, the no-longer-larger-than-life (Contreras et al. 2002 58) act as walking billboards for the operation. In 2003, Jackson, a judge on American Idol, underwent the surgery and lost over 100 pounds, and Roker weighed 325 pounds before he underwent gastric-bypass surgery. Roker, in an interview with U.S.A. Today, noted that it is just as...

Chevese Turner

The cornerstone of treatment for any eating disorder is talk therapy. A multidis-ciplinary team approach is utilized by many out-patient, residential, and in-patient centers so that nutrition, medication, and co-morbid conditions can be assessed, monitored, and treated. This said, because BED often goes untreated for years, people often seek one or more of the following before realizing that another approach is necessary for overarching health commercial diets, bariatric surgery, major dietetic changes like vegetarianism, veganism, no sugar or white flour, or low-fat and low-carbohydrate diets.


In the case of type 2 diabetes, the reason that diet and exercise are so effective is because lack of exercise and weight gain are the most significant causes of the disease and reversal of these issues can essentially reverse the problem of development of diabetes. Figure 3 (Question 11) shows the increasing likelihood of developing diabetes with increasing weight and this is discussed in Question 11. However, if one loses weight, one is able to travel back down the slope of diabetes to a large extent. Reduction in weight can reduce or even eliminate the need for medications in many patients, even those who have been on insulin injections for several years. The most striking example of this is bariatric surgery, which has been shown to reverse diabetes and to do so for several years, being effective as long as weight reduction is maintained. This is further discussed in Question 5. and sustaining successful weight reduction and also to the fact that the body's own insulin production...

Operative findings

Earlier on approximately 80 of patients would have had a surgical laparotomy after imaging studies and in a third of those only a biopsy would have been feasible. Half of those operated on would have had a biliary bypass performed and some of those also a gastric bypass with 5-10 undergoing only a gastric bypass (Brooks 1976). Many patients will still have laparotomy but are then found to be unresectable. A surgical biliary bypass is then advisable and an operative bypass of the hepatic or common duct is preferred over the gallbladder (Nagorney 1999). If there is no gastric outlet obstruction at that stage the value of a prophylactic gastric bypass is debated but it is well documented that a significant number of those patients who have longer prognosis and initially have only a biliary bypass will later develop gastroduodenal obstruction and will need a second intervention (Gudjonsson 1987).

Sensory input

Ghrelin is an orexigenic peptide hormone that the stomach and duodenum secrete into blood in response to several hours of fasting (Cummings et at., 2002). Secretion promptly stops upon eating. The diurnal variation in ghrelin release is thought to set meal patterns in humans. Average circulating levels may contribute to long-term intake regulation. Removal of large parts of ghrelin-producing tissue during gastric bypass surgery may be an important mechanism for the sustained weight loss following such intervention.

Respiratory System

The obesity-hypoventilation syndrome may be associated with, or exacerbated by, obstructive sleep apnea, a syndrome characterized by repeated collapse of the upper airway and cessation of breathing with sleep. Obstructive sleep apnea occurs when the tongue obstructs the glottis and prevents entry of air into the trachea. Up to 50 of massively obese people have sleep apnea. The risk of arrhythmias and sudden death increases during apneic episodes. Weight reduction usually reduces the severity of sleep apnea, and massive weight reduction, such as that after gastric bypass surgery, eliminates the disease in most patients.

Rapid Weight Loss

At least 25 of morbidly obese individuals have evidence of gallstone disease even before undergoing weight reduction surgery.30 Low calorie diets and rapid weight loss (particularly after bariatric surgery), ironically, are then associated with the development of gallstones in 30 to 71 of these obese individuals losing weight.1,31,32 Weight loss exceeding 1.5 kg week after bariatric surgery particularly increases the risk for stone formation.33 Furthermore, stones are most likely to become apparent during the first 6 weeks after surgery when weight loss is most profound.34 Such gallstones are usually clinically silent sludge in the gallbladder and small stones (microlithiasis) often disappear. Following bariatric surgery, only 7 to 16 develop symptoms, best predicted by a weight loss exceeding 25 of their preoperative body weight.30 Strategies for ameliorating this complication have ranged from routine prophylactic cholecystectomy, through regular ultrasound surveillance to detect...

Primary Prevention

Certain groups of patients have a high risk of development of gallstones. These include patients undergoing gastrectomy for gastric malignancy (14 to 26 of patients develop gallstones within 5 years)28,29 and patients undergoing gastric bypass procedures for morbid obesity (22 to 28 of patients develop gallstones within 1 year).30,31 Some surgeons perform routine prophylactic cholecystectomy because of the high incidence of gallstones in these patients.28 Other surgeons, however, do not recommend routine prophylactic cholecystectomy, because most patients developing gallstones are asymptomatic.31-33 Currently, a randomized controlled trial is underway to investigate whether prophylactic cholecystectomy is indicated in patients undergoing gastrectomy for gastric cancer.34 Currently,

Callas Maria 192377

For starlets to slim down, the opera community continues to pressure its sopranos to do the same. More recently, dramatic soprano Deborah Voigt underwent gastric bypass in June 2004. Voigt was dismissed from a Covent Garden production of Strauss's Ariadne auf Naxos, because, Voigt claims, she had big hips, of which Covent Garden disapproved. This led her to follow in the path of Maria Callas in an attempt to slim enough to sing Strauss's Salome through bariatric surgery. SLG Shruthi Vissa See also Bariatric Surgery Celebrities


As noted, genetics and lifestyle are the main factors in most cases of overweight or obese youth. The precise role of behavioral modification, pharmacologic agents, and bariatric surgery remain unclear at this time and are not appropriate for most youth (61,68,69). Most appropriate in the care of these patients is a vigorous attempt by clinicians to prevent major weight gain by measures to improve poor nutrition and increase physical activity through organized and unorganized sports activity (66,70,71). Any type of physical activity is good if the youth enjoys the sport. Water-based sports may be the best choice for many overtly obese youth, but nearly any type of activity is important. The key to effective physical activities is that the youth enjoys them, and the clinician should not be surprised if choices change from time to time. The key principle is to use sports as a way of encouraging adolescents to make regular physical exertion a part of their...

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Virtual Gastric Banding

Virtual Gastric Band Hypnosis Audio Programm that teaches your mind to use only the right amount of food to keep you slim. The Virtual Gastric Band is applied using mind management techniques, giving you the experience of undergoing surgery to install a virtual gastric band or virtual lap-band, creating a small pouch at the top of the stomach which limits how much food can be eaten. Once installed, the Virtual Gastric Band creates the sensation of having a smaller stomach that is easily filled and satisfied with smaller amounts of food.

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