Laser Lithotripsy

In laser lithotripsy, laser light at a particular wavelength is focused on the surface of a stone to achieve stone fragmentation. An oscillating plasma, consisting of a gaseous collection of ions and free electrons, is created to induce wave-mediated fragmentation of stones. Laser lithotripsy is performed under direct visualization using the chol-angioscope or under fluoroscopic guidance. The latter has greater potential to damage the bile duct wall. A recent-generation device can differentiate between the light reflection patterns of the bile duct wall and those of stones. The laser pulses are automatically interrupted when readings indicate that the probe is aimed at tissue rather than stone. Experience with this modality is limited, however. The success rates of bile duct stone clearance with laser lithotripsy have been reported at 64% to 97%.31,32

A new pulsed, solid-state laser system equipped with higher laser energy, doublepulse neodymium:YAG laser (FREDDY) (World of Medicine, Berlin, Germany), has been developed in Germany. This system promises to combine the advantages of

Fig. 4. EHL under direct cholangioscopic guidance. (A) Large stone (arrows) is noted in the bile duct. (B) Baby scope is introduced through the working channel of mother scope for fragmentation of stone.

dye and solid state lasers, such as reliability, effectiveness, and low cost.26 Complete stone removal is achieved in 88% to 94%. Transient hemobilia occurred in 15% of the patients, mostly those who underwent the procedure with fluoroscopic guidance alone.33,34

Get Rid of Gallstones Naturally

Get Rid of Gallstones Naturally

One of the main home remedies that you need to follow to prevent gallstones is a healthy lifestyle. You need to maintain a healthy body weight to prevent gallstones. The following are the best home remedies that will help you to treat and prevent gallstones.

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