Vitamin E

activity was equal to 1 mg of synthetic a-tocopherol; on this basis natural source a-tocopherol is 1.49IU/mg. vitamin F Sometimes used for the essential fatty acids. vitamin G Obsolete name for vitamin b2.

vitamin H See biotin.

vitamin K Two groups of compounds have vitamin K activity: phylloquinones (vitamin Ki), found in all green plants, and a variety of menaquinone (vitamin K2) synthesised by intestinal bacteria. Vitamin K3 is a synthetic analogue, menadione.

Functions as coenzyme in carboxylation of glutamate to y-carboxyglutamate in a number of calcium binding proteins, including prothrombin and other proteins involved in the blood clotting system, the bone protein osteocalcin, and the product of the growth arrest-specific gene (Gas-6), which is important in regulation of growth and development.

Dietary deficiency is unknown, except associated with general malabsorption diseases. However, some newborn infants are at risk of developing haemorrhagic disease as a result of low vitamin K status, and it is general practice to give a single relatively large dose of the vitamin by injection.

See also anticoagulants; dicoumarol; warfarin.

vitamin L Factors extracted from yeast and thought at the time to be essential for lactation; they have not become established vitamins.

vitamin M Obsolete name for folic acid. vitaminoids Name given to compounds with 'vitamin-like' activity; considered by some to be vitamins or partially to replace vitamins. Include flavonoids (vitamin p), inositol, carnitine, choline, lipoic acid and the essential fatty acids (see fatty acids, essential). With the exception of the essential fatty acids, there is no evidence that any of them is a dietary essential. vitamin P Name given to a group of plant flavonoids (sometimes called bioflavonoids) that affect the strength of blood capillaries: rutin (in buckwheat), hesperidin, eriodictin and citrin (a mixture of hesperidin and eriodictin in the pith of citrus fruits). Now considered that the effect is pharmacological and that they are not dietary essentials, although they have antioxidant activity. Called vitamin P from the German permeabilitats vitamin, because of the effect on capillary permeability and fragility. vitamin PP The PELLAGRA-preventing vitamin, an old name for niacin before it was identified. vitamin Q See ubiquinone.

vitamin T Factor found in insect cuticle, mould mycelia and yeast fermentation liquor, claimed to accelerate maturation and promote protein synthesis. Also known as torulitine. Said to be a mixture of folic acid, vitamin B12 and deoxyribosides (DNA); hence not a particular vitamin. vitellin The major protein of egg yolk; approximately 80% of the total; a phosphoprotein accounting for 30% of the phosphorus of egg yolk.

VLDL Very low-density lipoprotein, see lipoproteins, plasma. VOC Volatile organic compounds vodka Made from neutral spirit, i.e. alcohol distillate mainly from potatoes, with little or no acid, so that there is no ester formation and hence no flavour. Polish vodka is flavoured with a variety of herbs and fruits. voidage The fraction of the total volume occupied by air (the degree of openness) of a bed of material in fluidised-bed drying. VolTM Commercial ammonium carbonate, a mixture of ammonium bicarbonate and carbamate. Used as aerating agent in baking, as it breaks down to carbon dioxide, ammonia and steam on heating, without leaving any residue. volvulus Twisting of part of the gastrointestinal tract, leading to partial or complete obstruction. votator Machine used for the continuous manufacture of margarine; the fat and water are emulsified, and the subsequent conditioning process carried out in the same machine. VP Vacuum packaging. VSP Vacuum skin packaging.

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