Vinegar nonbrewed or nonbrewed condiment A solution of

acetic acid, 4-8%, coloured with caramel. vinegar, rice Made from saké.

vine leaves Leaves of the grape vine, Vitis vinifera, used in Mediterranean cuisine.

Composition/100 g: (edible portion 95%) water 73 g, 389 kJ (93 kcal), protein 5.6g, fat 2.1 g (of which 20% saturated, 7% mono-unsaturated, 73% polyunsaturated), carbohydrate 17.3g

(6.3 g sugars), fibre 11g, ash 1.6g, Ca 363 mg, Fe 2.6mg, Mg 95 mg, P 91 mg, K 272 mg, Na 9mg, Zn 0.7mg, Cu 0.4mg, Mn 2.9mg, Se 0.9 |g, vitamin A 1376 |g RE (18579 |g carotenoids), E 2mg, K 108.6mg, B1 0.04mg, B2 0.35mg, niacin 2.4mg, B6 0.4mg, folate 83 |g, pantothenate 0.2 mg, C 11mg. vinification The process of fermentation of sugars in grape juice to make wine. viosterol Irradiated ergosterol; vitamin d2. VIP See vasoactive intestinal peptide. Virginia date See persimmon.

VirolTM A vitamin preparation based on malt extract.

virpa See sowans.

viscera The organs within a body cavity, used especially for the abdominal viscera, liver, spleen, gastrointestinal tract, kidneys, etc.

viscoelastic Material such as cheese, dough or gelled food, that has both viscous and elastic properties (see viscosity); when a shear stress is removed it does not return to its original shape, but is deformed.

viscogen Thickening agent for whipping cream. Two parts of lime (calcium oxide) in six parts of water, added to five parts of sugar in ten parts of water; used at the rate of 3-6 g/L of cream.

viscometer Instrument for measuring the viscosity of liquids. viscosity Of a liquid or gas, its resistance to flow. Decreases with increasing temperature for liquids, but increases for gases. Dynamic viscosity is the ratio of shear stress : shear rate. Kinematic viscosity is dynamic viscosity/DENsnY.

See also dilatant; plastic fluids; pseudoplastic; Reynolds number; rheopectic; thixotropic; viscoelastic. viscosity, dynamic (or absolute) The ratio of shear stress : shear rate for fluids that exhibit a linear relationship between shear stress and shear rate (Newtonian flow). vision The process of vision is mediated by photosensitive pigments formed by reaction between retinaldehyde (vitamin a aldehyde) and the protein opsin. The pigments are known variously as visual purple (because of its colour), rhodopsin (in the rod cells of the retina) and iodopsin (in the cone cells, with sensitivity to different wavelengths of light in different cells). Exposure to light results in bleaching of the pigment, with loss of the retinaldehyde and a conformational change in the protein, which leads to closure of a sodium channel in the retinal cell, and initiation of a nerve impulse. visual pigments, visual purple See vision. vitafoods Foods designed to meet the needs of health-conscious consumers that enhance physical or mental quality of life and may increase health status. vitamers Chemical compounds structurally related to a vitamin, and converted to the same active metabolites in the body. They thus possess the same kind of biological activity, although sometimes with lower potency.

When there are several vitamers, the group of compounds exhibiting the biological activity of the vitamin is given a generic descriptor (e.g. vitamin a is the generic descriptor for retinol and its derivatives as well as several carotenoids). vitamin There are 13 organic compounds (thus excluding trace minerals) essential to human life in very small amounts. Eleven of these must be supplied in the diet (vitamins A, B1, B2, B6, B12, C, E, K, folic acid, biotin and pantothenic acid); two (niacin and vitamin d) can be made in the body if there is sufficient of the amino acid, tryptophan, and sunlight, respectively. The word may be pronounced either veitamin or vittamin.

Vitamins A, D, E and K are grouped together as fat-soluble vitamins, because they are soluble in lipids, but not in water. Vitamin C and the B vitamins (including pantothenic acid, biotin and folic acid) are grouped together as the water-soluble vitamins since they are all soluble in water, but not lipids.

vitamin A (see p. 495) Fat-soluble vitamin, occurring either as the preformed vitamin (retinol) found in animal foods or as a precursor (carotenes) found in plant foods. Required for control of growth, cell turnover and fetal development, maintenance of fertility and maintenance of the normal moist condition of epithelial tissues lining the mouth and respiratory and urinary tracts; essential in vision. The main active metabolites in the body are retinaldehyde, all-trans- and 9-cis-retinoic acids.

Deficiency leads to slow adaptation to see in dim light (poor dark adaptation), later to night blindness; then drying of the tear ducts (xerophthalmia) and ulceration of the cornea (ker-atomalacia) resulting in blindness.

The vitamin A content of foods is expressed as retinol equivalents, i.e. retinol plus carotene; 1 |g retinol = 6 |g P-carotene = 12 |g other active carotenoids = 3.33 international units.

See also conjunctival impression cytology; relative dose response test; retinol binding protein; vision. vitamin A toxicity Retinol in excess of requirements is stored in the liver, bound to proteins, and is a cumulative poison. When the storage capacity is exceeded, free retinol causes damage to cell membranes. carotene is not toxic in excess, since there is only a limited capacity to form retinol from carotene.

Retinoic Acid Metabolites
The Miracle Of Vinegar

The Miracle Of Vinegar

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