U

ubichromenol Cyclised derivatives of ubiquinones.

ubiquinones Coenzymes in the respiratory (electron transport) chain in mitochondria, also known as coenzyme Q or mito-quinones; widely distributed in nature. Chemically, derivatives of benzoquinone with isoprene side chains. There is no evidence that they are dietary essentials; they may have antioxidant activity.

ucuhuba butter A yellow solid fat obtained from ucuhuba nuts, the fruit of Myristica surinamensis. 90% saturated, 7% mono-unsaturated, 3% polyunsaturated, vitamin E 0.6mg/100mL.

udon Japanese; fine transparent noodles made from wheat.

UFA Unesterified fatty acids, see fatty acids, non-esterified.

ugli citrus fruit; cross between grapefruit and tangerine, also called tangelo (USA); first produced in Jamaica in 1930. UHT See ultra-high-temperature sterilisation. UL Tolerable upper intake level of a nutrient; maximum intake (from supplements and enriched foods) that is unlikely to pose a risk of adverse effects on health. ulcer A crater-like lesion of the skin or a mucous membrane resulting from tissue death associated with inflammatory disease, infection or cancer. Peptic ulcers affect regions of the gastrointestinal tract exposed to gastric juices containing acid and pepsin: gastric ulcer in the stomach and duodenal ulcer in the duodenum.

Treatment was formerly conservative, with a bland diet, followed if necessary by surgery. Now treated by inhibition of gastric acid secretion using histamine receptor antagonists or inhibitors of the proton pump. May be caused or exacerbated by infection with Helicobacter pylori. ulcerative colitis See colitis.

ullage Air space left in cask or bottle after some liquid has been

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