Tuscorora rice See rice wild

Tuxford's index Formula for assessing height relative to weight in children. The index is >1 for heavier than average children and <1 for lighter than average. For boys, TI = [weight (lb)/height (in)] - [336 x age (months)/270];for girls,TI = [weight (lb)/height (in)] - (308 x age (months)/235].

TVB Total volatile bases, measured as an index of freshness of fish.

See also trimethylamine.

TVP Textured vegetable protein.

Twaddell Scale for measurement of density of solutions; density = 1 + (°Twaddell/200). 1% salt = 1.4° Twaddell, density = 1.007; 2% salt = 2.8° Twaddell, density = 1.014; 4% salt = 5.6° Twaddell, density = 1.028; 10% salt = 14.6° Twaddell, density = 1.073; 20% salt = 30.2° Twaddell, density = 1.151.

TweensTM Non-ionic surface active agents derived from spans by adding polyoxyethylene chains to the non-esterified hydroxyl groups, so making them water-soluble. Polysorbate 40 is a mixture of polyoxyethylene esters of oleic esters of sorbitol anhydrides used in medicinal products as an emulsifying agent.

TX numbers Systematic classification of toxins produced by food poisoning bacteria according to: type of infection: 1 = intoxica tion, 2 = toxin produced in host without adherence, 3 = toxin produced in host with adherence to cells, 4 = toxin produced by invasive bacteria, 5 = toxin produced by bacteria causing systemic infection; type of toxin: 1 = enterotoxin, 2 = neurotoxin, 3 = nonprotein toxin; target or mechanism of action; individual toxin number. Shown as TX x.x.x.x.

Tyndall effect Dispersion of light by a colloidal suspension (see colloid), commonly determined as turbidity by measuring the light emitted at 90 ° to the direction of incident light.

typhoid Gastrointestinal infection caused by Salmonella typhi, transmitted by food or water contaminated by faeces of patients or asymptomatic carriers. Paratyphoid is due to S. paratyphi.

tyramine The amine formed by decarboxylation of the amino acid tyrosine; chemically p-hydroxyphenylethylamine.

tyrosinase See phenol oxidases.

tyrosine A non-essential amino acid, abbr Tyr (Y), Mr 181.2, pKa 2.43,9.11,10.13 (—OH), codons UAPy. Can be formed from the essential amino acid phenylalanine, hence it has some sparing action on phenylalanine. In addition to its role in proteins, tyrosine is the precursor for the synthesis of melanin (the black and brown pigment of skin and hair), and for adrenaline and noradrenaline.

tyrosinosis genetic disease due to lack of p-hydroxyphenylpyru-vate oxidase (EC, affecting the metabolism of tyrosine and leading to excretion of p-hydroxyphenylpyruvate in the urine. Treatment is by restriction of dietary intake of phenylalanine and tyrosine.

tzatziki Greek; grated cucumber in yogurt, flavoured with garlic, olive oil and vinegar.

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