Spaghetti See pasta

spaghetti squash A gourd, also called cucuzzi, calabash, suzza melon; often classed as summer squash but not a true squash. Only after cooking does the flesh resemble spaghetti in appearance.

Composition/100 g: (edible portion 71%) water 92 g, 130 kJ (31kcal), protein 0.6g, fat 0.6g, carbohydrate 6.9g, ash 0.3g, Ca 23 mg, Fe 0.3 mg, Mg 12mg,P 12mg,K 108 mg, Na 17 mg, Zn 0.2 mg, Mn 0.1 mg, Se 0.3 |g, vitamin A 3 |g RE, B1 0.04mg, B2 0.02mg, niacin 0.9 mg, B6 0.1 mg, folate 12 |g, pantothenate 0.4 mg, C 2 mg.

SpamTM Canned pork luncheon meat; a contraction of 'spiced ham'.

Spanish toxic oil syndrome Widespread disease in Spain, 1981-1982, with 450 deaths and many people chronically disabled, because of consumption of an oil containing aniline-denatured industrial rape seed oil, sold as olive oil. The precise cause is unknown.

SpansTM Non-ionic surface active agents derived from fatty acids and hexahydric alcohols. Oil soluble, in contrast to tweens which are water-soluble or disperse well in water. Used in bread, cakes and biscuits as crumb softeners (antistaling agents), to improve dough, and as emulsifiers.

sparging Spraying fine droplets of aqueous alkali onto oil heated to 75-95 °C to remove free fatty acids as soaps that are water-soluble.

See also acid number; rancidity. spastic colon See irritable bowel syndrome. spatchcock Small birds split down the back and flattened before grilling. Spitchcock is eel treated similarly. SPE See sucrose polyesters.

spearmint The common garden (culinary) mint; hybrid of Mentha spicata, M. suaveolens (apple mint) and M. villosa (M. alopecuroides, Bowles' mint). specific dynamic action See diet-induced thermogenesis. specific electrical resistance Electrical resistance of 1cm3 of a product, placed between two 1 cm2 electrodes that are located 1 cm apart.

specific gravity Of a liquid, its mass divided by the mass of the same volume of water at the same temperature, or its density divided by the density of water at the same temperature. specificity (1) Of an assay; the extent to which what is measured is due to the analyte under investigation, rather than other compounds that may also react.

(2) In relation to enzymes, the ability of an enzyme to catalyse only a limited range of reactions, or, in some cases, a single reaction, and to show considerable specificity for the substrates undergoing reaction. spectrograph Instrument that produces a photographic record of wavelength and intensity of light or other electromagnetic radiation.

spectrometer Instrument for measuring wavelength and intensity of light or other electromagnetic radiation. spectrophotofluorimeter (spectrophotofluorometer) Instrument for measuring wavelength and intensity of light emitted by a solute at right angles to the beam of exciting light of a specific wavelength.

See also fluorimetry. spectrophotometer Instrument that measures the amount of light absorbed at any particular wavelength, which is directly related to the concentration of the material in the solution. Used extensively to measure substances that have specific absorption in the visible, infrared or ultraviolet range, or can react to form coloured derivatives. spelt Coarse type of wheat, mainly used as cattle feed. spent wash Liquor remaining in the whisky still after distilling the spirit. A source of (unidentified) growth factors detected by chick growth. When dried is known as distillers' dried solubles.

spermyse Medieval English; soft cheese made and eaten in summer. Also called green cheese. spherocyte Abnormal red blood cell that is spherical rather than disc shaped. Characteristic of some types of haemolytic anaemia.

sphincter A ring of concentric muscle that surrounds an orifice and can close it partially or completely on contraction. sphingolipids Class of phosphatides in which the 18-carbon dihy-droxyalcohol sphingosine serves a similar function to glycerol in phospholipids. Important in cell membranes, especially in nerve tissue. The major sphingolipid is sphingomyelin. sphingomyelin See sphingolipids.

sphygmomanometer Instrument for measuring arterial blood pressure.

spices Distinguished from herbs in that part, instead of the whole, of the aromatic plant is used: root, stem or seeds. Originally used to mask putrefactive flavours. Some have a preservative effect because of their essential oils, e.g. cloves, cinnamon and mustard. spina bifida Congenital neural tube defect due to developmental anomaly in early embryonic development. Supplements of folic acid (400 pg/day) begun before conception reduce the risk. spinach Leaves of Spinacia oleracea.

Composition /1O0g: (edible portion 72%) water 91.4g, 96kJ (23kcal), protein 2.9g, fat 0.4g, carbohydrate 3.6 g (0.4g sugars), fibre 2.2 g, ash 1.7g, Ca 99mg, Fe 2.7mg, Mg 79mg, P 49mg, K 558 mg, Na 79 mg, Zn 0.5 mg, Cu 0.1 mg, Mn 0.9 mg, Se 1 pg, vitamin A 469 pg RE (17 824 pg carotenoids), E 2mg, K 482.9 mg, B1 0.08mg, B2 0.19 mg, niacin 0.7mg, B6 0.19mg, folate 194 pg, pantothenate 0.1 mg, C 28 mg. An 85 g serving is a source of Fe, vitamin E, a good source of Mg, a rich source of Mn, vitamin A, folate, C. spinach beet See swiss chard.

spinach, Chinese Leaves of Amaranthus gangeticus, also known as bhaji and callaloo. spinach, Philippine Variety of purslane (Talinum triangulare) cultivated in the USA and cooked in the same way as spinach. Spinkganz German; goose breast, dry-brined and smoked. spiny lobster shellfish, family Palinuridae, see lobster. spirits Beverages of high alcohol content made by distillation of fermented liquors, including brandy, gin, rum, vodka, whisky; usually 40% alcohol by volume (equivalent to 31.7g per 100mL). Silent spirit is highly purified alcohol, or neutral spirit, distilled from any fermented material. spirometer Or respirometer; apparatus used to measure the amount of oxygen consumed (and in some instances carbon dioxide produced) from which to calculate the energy expended (indirect calorimetry). spirulina Blue-green alga which can fix atmospheric nitrogen; eaten for centuries round Lake Chad in Africa and in Mexico. Many health claims are made, but are negated by the small amounts eaten.

Composition /100g: water 91 g, 109kJ (26kcal), protein 5.9g, fat 0.4 g, carbohydrate 2.4 g, ash 0.6 g, Ca 12 mg, Fe 2.8 mg, Mg 19mg, P 11 mg, K 127mg, Na 98mg, Zn 0.2mg, Cu 0.6mg, Mn 0.2mg, Se 0.7 |g, vitamin A 3 |g RE, B1 0.22 mg, B2 0.34 mg, niacin

1.2 mg, B6 0.03 mg, folate 9 |g, pantothenate 0.3 mg, C 1 mg. splanchnic Relating to the viscera.

spleen Abdominal organ whose main function is destruction of aged red blood cells and recycling the iron. As a food it is called melts.

Composition /100g: water 78 g, 423 kJ (101kcal), protein 17.2 g, fat 3.1g (of which 50% saturated, 40% mono-unsaturated, 10% polyunsaturated), cholesterol 250mg, carbohydrate 0g, ash

1.3 g, Ca 9mg, Fe 41.9mg, Mg 21 mg, P 280 mg, K 358 mg, Na 84mg, Zn 2.8mg, Cu 0.1 mg, Mn 0.1 mg, Se 32.4|g, vitamin B1 0.05mg, B2 0.35mg, niacin 7.9mg, B6 0.11mg, folate 4|g, B12 5.3 |g, C 23mg. A 100 g serving is a source of Zn, a good source of vitamin B2, a rich source of Fe, P, Se, niacin, vitamin B12, C.

SPME Solid phase microextraction, a rapid technique for extracting volatile flavour components using fibres of polar or nonpolar polymers, prior to chromatographic separation and identification.

spongiform encephalopathy Progressive degenerative neurological diseases including scrapie (in sheep), bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE, in cattle) and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (in human beings). Believed to be caused by prions. BSE is believed to originate from infected meat and bone meal in cattle feed concentrates, and early onset Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (new variant or nvCJD) has been linked to consumption of beef from animals affected by BSE.

A ban on specified bovine offal in food and feedstuffs, a ban on sale of meat from cattle more than 30 months old (reducing to 24 months in 2005) and a policy of slaughtering affected animals have resulted in a dramatic fall in the number of confirmed cases of BSE. The important unknown factor is the incubation period in human beings. spores Bacterial spores are a resting state, resistant to heat, which can germinate to produce bacteria under suitable conditions. Spore formation only occurs in some species, when the organism encounters adverse conditions (e.g. dryness, lack of nutrients).

Spore-forming species, especially of Bacillus and Clostridium, are a health hazard because the spores are resistant to most sterilisation techniques. sports drinks Solutions of glucose plus electrolytes to mimic those lost in sweat; generally isotonic with blood plasma to avoid potential problems of water intoxication. Sometimes known as 'bottled sweat'.

sprat Small oily fish, Sprattus (Clupea) sprattus, fresh or frozen; young are canned as brisling.

See also herring; whitebait. spray dryer Equipment in which the material to be dried is sprayed as a fine mist into a hot-air chamber and falls to the bottom as dry powder. Heating is very brief, so nutritional and functional damage are minimal. Dried powder consists of light, hollow particles.

spread, fat A general term for fats that are spread on bread (yellow fats), including butter, margarine and low-fat spreads that cannot legally be called margarine. Reduced fat spreads contain not more than 60% fat, and low-fat spreads not more than 40%, compared with 80% fat in butter and margarine. Very low-fat spreads contain less than 20% fat. springers See swells.

spring greens Young leafy cabbage eaten before the heart has formed, or leaf sprouts formed after cutting off the head.

See also collard. spring rolls Chinese (and general south-east Asian); pancakes filled with quick fried vegetables and meat; may be served as soft pancakes prepared at the table or rolled and deep fried. Also known as pancake rolls and Imperial rolls; loempia in Indonesian, and nem in Vietnamese, cuisine. sprouts (1) See Brussels sprouts (2) See bean sprouts. spruce beer Western Canada; branches, bark and cones of black spruce (Picea mariana) boiled for several hours, then put in a cask with molasses, hops and yeast, and allowed to ferment. sprue, tropical Name given (by Dutch in Java) to a tropical disease characterised by atrophy of the intestinal villi, with fatty diarrhoea and sore mouth, and signs of undernutrition due to poor absorption of nutrients. Both an unidentified infectious agent and folic acid deficiency have been suggested as causes. spurtle Scottish; wooden stick traditionally used to stir porridge.

Also known as theevil. squab Young pigeon; also general name for pigeon in the USA; squab pie is W. of England dish made from meat, apples and onions.

squalene Acyclic intermediate (triterpene hydrocarbon) in the synthesis of cholesterol. Acts as a feedback inhibitor and repressor of the rate-limiting enzyme of cholesterol synthesis (hmg coa reductase, EC, so may have a hypocholes-terolaemic action. Found in small amounts in fish liver oils and in relatively large amounts in olive oil, but only small amounts in most other plant oils. squash (1) Varieties of the gourd Cucurbita pepo. Grouped with courgettes, squashes and pumpkins.

Butternut squash, composition /100g: (edible portion 84%) water 86.4g, 188kJ (45kcal), protein 1g, fat 0.1g, carbohydrate 11.7g (2.2g sugars), fibre 2g, ash 0.8g, Ca 48mg, Fe 0.7mg, Mg 34 mg, P 33 mg, K 352 mg, Na 4mg, Zn 0.2 mg, Cu 0.1 mg, Mn 0.2mg, Se 0.5|g, vitamin A 532|g RE (8531 |g carotenoids), E 1.4mg, K 1.1mg, B1 0.1mg, B2 0.02mg, niacin 1.2mg, B6 0.15 mg, folate 27 |g, pantothenate 0.4 mg, C 21 mg. A 100 g serving is a source of Mg, vitamin E, folate, a rich source of vitamin A, C.

Summer squash, composition /100g: (edible portion 95%) water 95g, 67kJ (16kcal), protein 1.2g, fat 0.2g, carbohydrate 3.3g (2.2g sugars), fibre 1.1 g, ash 0.6g, Ca 15mg, Fe 0.3 mg, Mg 17 mg, P 38 mg, K 262mg, Na 2mg, Zn 0.3 mg, Cu 0.1 mg, Mn 0.2mg, Se 0.2|g, vitamin A 10|g RE (2245|g carotenoids), E 0.1 mg, K 3mg, B1 0.05mg, B2 0.14mg, niacin 0.5mg, B6 0.22mg, folate 29 |g, pantothenate 0.2 mg, C 17 mg. A 100 g serving is a source of vitamin B6, folate, a good source of vitamin C.

Winter squash, composition /100g: (edible portion 71%) water 90g, 142kJ (34kcal), protein 0.9g, fat 0.1 g, carbohydrate 8.6g (2.2g sugars), fibre 1.5g, ash 0.6g, Ca 28mg, Fe 0.6mg, Mg 14mg, P 23mg, K 350mg, Na 4mg, Zn 0.2mg, Cu 0.1mg, Mn 0.2 mg, Se 0.4|g, vitamin A 68|g RE (858|g carotenoids), E 0.1 mg, K 1.1 mg, B1 0.03 mg, B2 0.06 mg, niacin 0.5 mg, B6 0.16 mg, folate 24 |g, pantothenate 0.2mg, C 12mg. A 100g serving is a source of folate, a good source of vitamin C.

(2) Fruit squash is a concentrated sweetened fruit juice preparation which is diluted before drinking. squid (or calamar) Marine cephalopod with elongated body and eight arms, Loligo and Illex spp.

Composition /100g: water 79g, 385kJ (92kcal), protein 15.6g, fat 1.4g (of which 40% saturated, 10% mono-unsaturated, 50% polyunsaturated), cholesterol 233mg, carbohydrate 3.1 g, ash 1.4 g, Ca 32mg, Fe 0.7mg, Mg 33mg, P 221mg, K 246mg, Na 44 mg, Zn 1.5mg, Cu 1.9mg, Se 44.8|g, I 20|g, vitamin A 10|g retinol, E 1.2mg,B1 0.02mg, B2 0.41mg, niacin 2.2mg, B6 0.06 mg, folate 5 |g, B12 1.3 |g, pantothenate 0.5 mg, C 5mg. An 85 g serving is a source of I, a good source of P, vitamin B2, a rich source of Cu, Se, vitamin B12. squirrel cage disintegrator Machine for shredding food, consisting of two concentric cages fitted with knife blades along their length, which rotate in opposite directions, subjecting the food to cutting and shearing forces. SRD State registered dietitian; legal qualification to practise as a dietitian in the UK. stabilizers Substances that stabilise emulsions of fat and water, e.g. gums, agar, egg albumin, cellulose derivatives, lecithin (E-322) for crumb softening in bread and confectionery, glyceryl monostearate (E-471) and polyoxyethylene stearate (E-430-436) for crumb softening. The legally permitted list also includes superglycerinated fats (see fat, superglycinerated), propylene glycol alginate and stearate (E-570), methyl-, methylethyl- and sodium carboxymethyl-celluloses (E-466), stearyl tartrate (E-483), sorbitan esters of fatty acids (E-491-495). Bread may contain only superglycerinated fats and stearyl tartrate. See Table 7 of the Appendix.

See also emulsifiers. stachyose Tetrasaccharide,galactosyl-galactosyl-glucosyl-fructose; not hydrolysed in the small intestine, and a substrate for bacterial fermentation in the colon. Present in soya beans and some other legumes; gives rise to the flatulence commonly associated with eating beans. Also known as mannotetrose or lupeose.

stachys See artichoke, Chinese.

stackburn The deterioration in colour and quality of canned foods that have not been sufficiently cooled after canning, then stored in stacks which cool slowly. stadiometer Portable device for measuring height, with a vertical measuring board and a horizontal headboard. stagnant loop syndrome See blind loop syndrome. staling The crystalline structure of starch is lost during baking. Subsequently it recrystallises (undergoes retrogradation) and in bread the crumb loses its softness. Staling can be delayed by emulsifiers (crumb softeners) such as polyoxyethylene and monoglyceride derivatives of fatty acids. Retrogradation of starch also takes place in dehydrated potatoes. stanols Analogues of cholesterol that inhibit the absorption of cholesterol from the intestinal tract; trade name Benecol. St Anthony's Fire See ergot.

Staphylococcus aureus Food poisoning organism that produces enterotoxins (TX in the food. Onset of symptoms 1-6h, duration 8-24h.

starch A polysaccharide, a polymer of glucose units; the form in which carbohydrate is stored in the plant (glycogen is sometimes referred to as animal starch.) Starch is broken down by acid or enzymic hydrolysis (amylase), ultimately yielding glucose; it is the principal carbohydrate of the diet and, hence, the major source of energy for human beings and animals.

Starches from different sources (e.g. potato, maize, cereal, arrowroot, sago) have different structures, and contain different proportions of two major forms: amylose, which is a linear polymer and amylopectin, which has a branched structure. The mixture of dietary starches consists of about 25% amylose and 75% amylopectin.

starch, A and B Refers to larger granules of wheat starch, A 2535 |im, and smaller particles, B 2-8 |im. starch, animal See glycogen.

starch, arum From root of the arum lily (Arum maculatum and other spp.); similar to sago and arrowroot. starch blockers Compounds that inhibit amylase action and so reduce the digestion of starch. Used as a slimming aid, with little evidence of efficacy. starch, cold water swellable Starch that has been heated in a small amount of water so that it forms granules that will swell in cold water to form a gel, for use in instant desserts and other products. starch, derivatised See starch, modified. starch, enzyme-resistant See starch, resistant. starch equivalent A measure of the energy value of animal feedingstuffs; the amount of pure starch that would be equivalent to 100g of the ration as a source of energy. starch, inhibited See starch, modified.

starch, modified Starch altered by physical or chemical treatment to give special properties of value in food processing, e.g. change in gel strength, flow properties, colour, clarity, stability of the paste.

Acid-modified starch (thin boiling starch): acid treatment reduces the viscosity of the paste (used in sugar confectionery, e.g. gum drops, jelly beans).

Cross-linked starch: chains are cross-linked by phosphate or adipic diesters, to strengthen the granule and so control texture and provide heat, acid, and shear tolerance.

Derivatised starch (or stabilised starch): chemical derivatives such as ethers and esters show properties such as reduced gelatinisation in hot water and greater stability to acids and alkalis (inhibited starch); useful where food has to withstand heat treatment, as in canning or in acid foods. Further degrees of treatment can result in starch being unaffected by boiling water and losing its gel-forming properties.

Oxidised starch: peroxide, permanganate, chlorine, etc., alter the viscosity, clarity and stability of the paste (major use is outside the food industry).

See also starch, pregelatinised.

starch, oxidized See starch, modified.

starch, pregelatinised Raw starch does not form a paste with cold water and therefore requires cooking if it is to be used as a thickening agent. Pregelatinised starch, mostly maize starch, has been cooked and dried. Used in instant puddings, pie fillings, soup mixes, salad dressings, sugar confectionery, as binder in meat products.

starch, resistant Starch that escapes digestion in the small intestine but can be fermented in the colon. Depending on the analytical method, resistant starch may be included with dietary fibre. Chemically it is a glucan formed when starch is heated (apparently formed after gelatinisation by spontaneous self-association of hydrated amylose).

starch, stabilized See starch, modified.

starch, thermoplastic (or destructurised) A homogeneous thermoplastic material made from native starch by swelling in a solvent (plasticiser) followed by heating and an extrusion process; used to make biodegradable packaging films and foam trays (to replace polystyrene foam).

starch, thin boiling See starch, modified.

starch, waxy Starch containing a high percentage of amylopectin; they form soft pastes rather than rigid gels when gelatinised (see gelatinisation).

See also maize starch, waxy.

star fruit See carambola.

starter Culture of bacteria used to inoculate or start growth in a fermentation, e.g. milk for cheese production, or butter to develop the flavour.

Sta-SlimTM fat replacer made from starch. statins A family of related compounds (lovastatin, pravastatin, simvastatin) used to treat hypercholesterolemia. They act by inhibiting hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA reductase (hmg coa reductase, EC, the first and rate-limiting enzyme of cholesterol synthesis. steam baking An even temperature is maintained in the oven by means of closed pipes through which steam circulates. It is sometimes erroneously assumed that the bread is baked in steam. steam distillation Process for removal of volatile components by passing steam through the heated mixture, followed by condensation of the steam and volatiles. May be used either to purify a volatile compound such as an essential oil or to remove undesirable flavours from oils and fats. steam economy In evaporation of liquids, the amount of steam required to evaporate 1 kg of water. steapsin Obsolete name for lipase.

stearic acid Saturated fatty acid with 18 carbon atoms (C18:0);

present in most animal and vegetable fats. stearyl citrate Ester of stearyl alcohol and citric acid, used to chelate metal ions that might otherwise cause rancidity in oils. steatohepatitis Fatty infiltration of the liver. steatopygia Accumulation of large amounts of fat on the buttocks.

steatorrhoea Faeces containing a large amount of fat (>5g/day), and generally foul smelling. Characteristic of coeliac disease, and may also be due to fat malabsorption as a result of lack of bile or intestinal lipase. Treatment by feeding low-fat diet. steatosis Fatty infiltration of the liver; occurs in protein-energy malnutrition and alcoholism. steely hair syndrome See menkes syndrome. steep The process of leaving a food to stand in water, either to soften it or to extract its flavour and colour. Also the preparation of fruit liqueurs by steeping fruit in spirit. Stellar™ fat replacer made from starch. stenosis Abnormal narrowing of blood vessels or heart valves. stercobilin One of the brown pigments of the faeces; formed from the bile pigments, which, in turn, are formed as breakdown products of haemoglobin. stercolith Stone formed of dried compressed faeces. sterculia A bulk-forming laxative. See karaya gum. stereoisomerism See isomers. sterigmatocystin A mycotoxin.

sterile Free from all micro-organisms, bacteria, moulds and yeasts. When foods are sterilised, as in canning, they are preserved indefinitely, since they are protected from recontamination in the can, and also from chemical and enzymic deterioration. sterilisation, cold Applied to preservation with sulphur dioxide or by irradiation, high pressure, ultrasonication or electroporation. sterilisation, radiation See irradiation.

sterility, commercial In heat sterilisation, used to indicate that substantially all micro-organisms and spores which, if present, would be capable of growing in the food under defined storage conditions, have been inactivated. steroids Chemically, compounds that contain the cyclopenteno-phenanthrene ring system. All the biologically important steroids are derived metabolically from cholesterol; they include vitamin d (chemically a secosteroid rather than a steroid), and hormones including the sex hormones (androgens, oestrogens and progesterone) and the hormones of the adrenal cortex.

See also phytosterols; sitosterol; stanols. stevia leaves Leaves of the Paraguayan shrub, Stevia rebaudiana, the source of stevioside and rebaudioside, also known as yerba dulce.

stevioside Naturally occurring glucoside of steviol, a steroid derivative, which is 300 times as sweet as sucrose. Isolated from leaves of the Paraguayan shrub, yerba dulce (Stevia rebaudiana), the same source as rebaudioside. StevixTM Mixture of the sweet glycosides extracted from stevia leaves.

stickwater The aqueous fraction from pressing cooked fish in the manufacture of fish meal. Contains amino acids, vitamins and minerals, and is either added to animal feed or mixed back with the fish meal and dried. Also known as fish solubles. stilboestrol (stilbestrol) Dihydroxystilbene, a synthetic compound with potent oestrogenic activity; the first non-steroidal oestrogen synthesised (1938). Formerly widely used both clinically and for chemical caponisation of cockerels (see capon) and to stimulate the growth of cattle. Stilton Semi-hard, creamy white or blue-veined English cheese made only in a very restricted area of the Vale of Belvoir in Leicestershire, UK, but named after the village of Stilton, Huntingdonshire. Matured 3-4 months; for production of blue Stilton the cheese is pricked with stainless steel wires during ripening to encourage growth of the mould Penicillium roquefortii. stiparogenic Foods that tend to cause constipation. stiparolytic Foods that tend to prevent or relieve constipation. stirabout Irish name for porridge.

stir frying Chinese method of cooking; sliced vegetables and meat fried for a short time in a small amount of oil, normally in a wok, over high heat with constant stirring. St John's bread See carob. stobb Strawberry stalk.

stocker cattle Weaned calves grazed on grass, small grain pastures, grain stubble or legume pastures. stockfish Unsalted fish that has been dried naturally in air and sunshine; mostly prepared in Norway. Contains 12-15% water; 4.5 kg of fresh fish yield 1 kg stockfish.

See also klipfish. Stoke's law Equation to predict the stability of an emulsion as the rate of separation of the phases, based on the diameter of droplets in the dispersed phase, the density of the two phases and the viscosity of the continuous phase. Stomacher™ Paddle-action blender used to prepare food samples for microbiological testing. stomatitis Inflammation of the mucous membrane of the mouth. stondyng Medieval English; thick pottage such as frumenty. stork process The process of ultra-high temperature sterilisation of milk followed by sterilisation again inside the bottle. stout See beer.

strain Horticultural term for seed-raised plants exhibiting certain characteristics, which are not stable or predictable enough when propagated to be a cultivar. strawberry Fruit of Fragaria spp., a perennial herb of American origin, introduced into UK around 1600.

Composition /100g: (edible portion 94%) water 90.9g, 134kJ (32kcal), protein 0.7g, fat 0.3g, carbohydrate 7.7g (4.7g sugars), fibre 2g, ash 0.4g, Ca 16mg, Fe 0.4mg, Mg 13mg, P 24mg, K 153 mg, Na 1 mg, Zn 0.1 mg, Mn 0.4 mg, Se 0.4 |g, vitamin A 1 |g RE (33 |g carotenoids), E 0.3 mg, K 2.2mg, B1 0.02mg, B2 0.02 mg, niacin 0.4 mg, B6 0.05 mg, folate 24 |g, pantothenate 0.1 mg, C 59mg. A 100g serving is a source of Mn, folate, a rich source of vitamin C.

Alpine strawberry is Fragaria vesca semperflorens, a variety of the European wild strawberry. strawberry tomato See cape gooseberry. straw mushroom Volvariella volvacea, see mushrooms. straw potatoes Very thin strips of potato, deep fried. Also known as pommes allumettes. Strecker degradation A non-enzymic browning reaction between free amino acids and di- or tri-carbonyl compounds to form pyrazine derivatives. Will lead to loss of amino acids, and may be aesthetically damaging to food, but also exploited to yield desirable flavours in chocolate, honey and a variety of cooked and baked products.

See also maillard reaction. streptavidin Protein from Streptomyces spp. that is similar to avidin, and binds biotin with high affinity. streptozotocin antibiotic isolated from Streptomyces achromo-genes culture broth; specifically cytotoxic to the P-cells of the pancreatic islets, and used to induce experimental insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

See also alloxan. streusel Also known as chocolate vermicelli or chocolate strands, made by extruding a chocolate paste through a perforated die plate and setting the strands as they emerge. stroke Also known as cerebrovascular accident (CVA); damage to brain tissue by hypoxia due to blockage of a blood vessel as a result of thrombosis, atherosclerosis or haemorrhage. The severity and nature of the effects of the stroke depend on the region of the brain affected and the extent of damage. hypertension and hypercholesterolaemia are major risk factors. Strongyloides Genus of small nematode worms that infest the small intestine.

struvite Small crystals of magnesium ammonium phosphate that occasionally form in canned fish, resembling broken glass. STS Sorbitan tristearate, used as an emulsifying agent in chocolate manufacture. Stubbs and More factor For calculating the amount of fat-free meat in a product from total nitrogen content.

See also kjeldahl determination; nitrogen conversion factor.

stunting Reduction in the linear growth of children, leading to lower height for age than would be expected, and generally resulting in life-long short stature. A common effect of protein-energy malnutrition, and associated especially with inadequate protein intake.

See also anthropometry; harvard standards; nchs standards; nutritional status assessment; tanner standards; waterlow classification. sturgeon White fish, Acipenser spp. The roe is the source of caviar.

sublimation A change in state of directly from solid to vapour without melting. submaxillary gland One of the salivary glands. submucosa Layer of loose (areolar) connective tissue underlying a mucous membrane.

substantial equivalence Term used to denote oil, starch, etc., from a genetically modified crop, that does not contain protein or DNA, and cannot be distinguished from the same product from the unmodified crop. substrate The compound on which an enzyme acts, or the medium on which micro-organisms grow. subtilin antibiotic isolated from a strain of Bacillus subtilis grown on a medium containing asparagine. Used as a food preservative (not permitted in the UK), as it reduces the thermal resistance of bacterial spores and so permits a reduction in the processing time.

Sucaryl™ Sodium or calcium salt of cyclohexyl sulphamate (see cyclamate). succory See chicory.

succotash American; sweetcorn (maize) kernels cooked with green or lima (butter) beans. succus Any juice or secretion of animal or plant origin. Succus entericus is the intestinal juice. suchar Activated charcoal, used to decolourise solutions. sucking pig Piglet aged 4-5 weeks, usually stuffed and roasted whole.

sucralfate Complex of aluminium hydroxide and sulphated sucrose used to form a protective coat over the gastric or duodenal mucosa in treatment of peptic ulcers. Sucralose™ Chlorinated sucrose (trichlorogalactosucrose); 2000

times as sweet as sucrose, stable to heat and acid. sucrase (sucrase-isomaltase) See invertase. sucrol See dulcin.

SucronTM Mixture of saccharin and sucrose, four times as sweet as sucrose alone. sucrose Cane or beet sugar. A disaccharide, glucosyl-fructose. sucrose distearate See sucrose esters.

sucrose esters Di- and trilaurates and mono- and distearates of sucrose. Used as emulsifiers, wetting agents and surface active agents, e.g. for washing fruits and vegetables, as antispattering agents, antifoam agents and antistaling or crumb-softening agents (E-473).

See also sucrose polyesters. sucrose intolerance See disaccharide intolerance. sucrose monostearate See sucrose esters. sucrose polyesters (SPE) Mixtures of hexa- hepta- and octa-esters of sucrose and common fatty acids (C-12 to C-20 and above). Can replace fats and oils in foods and food preparation (trade names olestra, Olean) but pass through the gastroin testinal tract without being absorbed, hence known as fat substitutes or fat replacers.

Sudan gum See gum arabic.

suet Solid white fat around the kidneys of oxen and sheep, used in baking and frying. 58.3% saturated, 39% mono-unsaturated, 2.5% polyunsaturated, cholesterol 82mg/100g.

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