Potato tule See arrowhead

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poteen Irish name for illicit home-distilled spirit; American equivalent is moonshine. pot liquor Liquid left in the pan after cooking vegetables. pot pie American; meat or poultry pie baked in an uncovered vessel with a crust of pastry or biscuit dough. pottage A thick soup of stewed vegetables (sometimes with meat); literally 'what is put in a pot'. pottle Traditional English wine measure; 1/2 gallon (= 2.25L). poularde A neutered hen bird.

poultry General term for farmyard birds (as opposed to wild game birds) kept for eggs and/or meat; chicken, duck, goose, guinea fowl, pigeon and turkey. poultry, New York dressed Poultry that has been slaughtered and plucked but not eviscerated. pound cake American name for Madeira cake; rich cake containing a pound, or equal quantities, of each of the major ingredients, flour, sugar and butter (and eggs). poussin Young chicken, 4-6 weeks old.

powdor fort, powdor douce Medieval English; mixed spices. Powdor fort was hot, containing ginger, pepper and mace, powdor douce was milder, containing ginger, cinnamon, nutmeg and cloves.

pozol Latin American; balls of fermented maize dough mixed with water and eaten as a porridge; various bacteria and yeasts are involved in the fermentation. Chorote is similar, but ground cocoa beans are mixed with the dough. PPAR receptor Peroxisome proliferation activation receptor, a steroid hormone-like nuclear receptor protein that binds long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids or eicosanoid derivatives (prostaglandins and leukotrienes). Also activated by fibric acid derivatives used as hypolipidaemic agents, and thiazolindine-dione hypoglycaemic agents. May act to modulate gene expression alone or as a heterodimer with the retinoid X receptor. PP factor or vitamin See niacin. ppm Parts per million (= mg/kg). PPP Product processing packaging.

prahoc Cambodian; fermented fish paste prepared by pressing fish under banana leaves before salting and sun-drying. prairie chicken American game bird, Tympanuchus cupido and T. pallidicinctus.

prairie oyster Traditional cure for a hangover; a raw egg with Worcestershire sauce and brandy; the egg is swirled with the liquid but the yolk remains intact. pravastatin See statins.

prawns Shellfish of various tribes of suborder Macrura; Palae-monida spp.,Penaeida spp. and Pandalida spp. In UK smaller fish are known as shrimp and larger as prawns; in USA all are called shrimp. The deep-water prawn is Pandalus borealis; common pink shrimp is Pandalus montagui; brown shrimp is Crangon spp.

Composition/100g: water 76g, 444kJ (106kcal), protein 20.3 g, fat 1.7g (of which 23% saturated, 23% mono-unsaturated, 54% polyunsaturated), cholesterol 152mg, carbohydrate 0.9g, ash 1.2 g, Ca 52 mg, Fe 2.4 mg, Mg 37 mg, P 205 mg, K 185mg, Na 148 mg, Zn 1.1 mg, Cu 0.3 mg, Mn 0.1 mg, Se 38 |g, I 100|g, vitamin A 54 |g retinol, E 1.1 mg, B1 0.03mg, B2 0.03mg, niacin 2.6mg, B6 0.1 mg, folate 3|g, B12 1.2|g, pantothenate 0.3mg, C 2mg. A 50g serving is a source of Cu, P, a good source of Se, a rich source of I, vitamin B12.

See also dublin bay prawn; lobster; scampi. PRE Protein retention efficiency, a measure of protein quality. pre-albumin See transthyretin. PreamTM Non-dairy creamer.

prebiotics Non-digestible oligosaccharides that support the growth of colonies of certain bacteria in the colon. They include derivatives of fructose and galactose, and lead to the growth of bifidobacteria, so changing and possibly improving the colonic flora. probiotics and prebiotics are sometimes termed synbiotics. They are considered to play a role as functional foods. precipitator, electrostatic A device for removing powder particles from an air stream by passing it between two electrodes, so that particles become charged and can be removed at an earthed electrode.

precision Of an assay; the degree of reproducibility of a result, determined by calculation of the variance between replicate analyses.

See also accuracy. preforms Small dense pellets made in an extruder from pre-gelatinised cereal dough, which are suitable for extended storage until they are converted to used to make snack foods by frying, toasting or puffing. (Also known as 'half products'.)

pregnancy, nutritional needs Pregnant women have slightly increased energy and protein requirements compared with their needs before pregnancy, although there are metabolic adaptations in early pregnancy which result in laying down increased reserves for the great stress of the last trimester, and high requirements for iron and calcium. These increased needs are reflected in the increased reference intakes for pregnancy (see Tables 3-6 of the Appendix). premature Usually a preterm birth, but also used when the infant weighs less than 2.5 kg when born at term, as a result of intrauter-ine undernutrition. premier jus Best-quality suet prepared from fat surrounding ox and sheep kidneys. The fat is chilled, shredded and heated at moderate temperature.When pressed, premier jus separates into a liquid fraction (oleo oil or liquid oleo) and a solid fraction (oleostearin or solid tallow). preservation Protection of food from deterioration by microorganisms, enzymes and oxidation, by cooling, destroying the micro-organisms and enzymes by heat treatment or irradiation, reducing their activity through dehydration or the addition of chemical preservatives, and by smoking, salting and pickling. preservation index In pickling, the acetic acid content expressed as a percentage of total volatile constituents. preservatives Substances capable of retarding or arresting the deterioration of food; examples are sulphur dioxide, benzoic acid, specified antibiotics, salt, acids and essential oils. See Table 7 of the Appendix. press cake Solid residue remaining after extraction of liquid component from foods; especially residue from oilseeds. Used as animal feed and in a number of fermented foods, including bongkrek, dage and oncom. pressure, absolute Total pressure above zero (a perfect vacuum), as opposed to pressure expressed above atmospheric pressure (measured using a pressure gauge) or below atmospheric (measured using a vacuum gauge). pressure cooking See autoclave; papin's digester. preterm Birth before 37 weeks of gestation.

See also post-mature; premature. pretzels German; hard brittle biscuits in the shape of a knot, made from flour, water, shortening, yeast and salt. Also called bretzels. prevalence rate Measure of morbidity based on current sickness in a population at a particular time (point prevalence) or over a stated period of time (period prevalence).

See also incidence rate.

PRI Population reference intake of nutrients; see reference intakes.

prickly ash Bark and berries of Zanthoxylum americanum and Z. cIava-herculis, used as a food flavour, reputed to be a circulatory stimulant, and antirheumatic. Also known as toothache bark.

prickly pear Fruit of the cactus Opuntia spp., also called Indian fig, barberry fig, tuna or sabra fruit, an important part of the diet in certain areas of Mexico. The stems or pads are nopales.

Composition/100 g: (edible portion 75%) water 88 g, 172 kJ (41 kcal), protein 0.7g, fat 0.5g, carbohydrate 9.6 g, fibre 3.6g, ash 1.6g, Ca 56mg, Fe 0.3mg, Mg 85mg, P 24mg, K 220mg, Na 5mg, Zn 0.1 mg, Cu 0.1 mg, Se 0.6 |g, vitamin A 2 |g RE (28 |g carotenoids), B1 0.01 mg, B2 0.06mg, niacin 0.5mg, B6 0.06mg, folate 6 |g, C 14 mg. A 100g serving (1 fruit) is a good source of Mg, vitamin C.

primigravida Woman experiencing her first pregnancy.

primipara Woman who has given birth to one infant capable of survival.

See also parity.

principal component analysis Mathematical technique for condensing a metabolomic spectrum to a single point on a graph, permitting rapid comparison between different species, experimental and control groups, etc.

prions Small, glycosylated proteins (Mr 27000-30000) in the brain cell membranes; to a considerable extent they are species-specific. A modified prion, designated PrPsc, resistant to digestion, heat and chemical agents, is the cause of spongiform encephalopathies .

Pritikin programme Low-fat, low-cholesterol diet combined with exercise, to prevent heart disease, developed by Nathan Pritikin, 1979.

probiotics Preparations of microbial culture added to food or animal feed, claimed to be beneficial to health by restoring balance to the intestinal flora. Organisms commonly involved include Bifidobacterium spp., Enterococcus faecium, Lactobacillus spp., Saccharomyces bulardii.

See also bacteriocins; milk, acidophilus; prebiotics.

probucol Drug used in treatment of primary hypercholesterolemia; acts by inhibiting synthesis of cholesterol and increasing catabolism of low-density lipoprotein (see lipoproteins, plasma).

procarcinogen A compound that is not itself carcinogenic, but undergoes metabolic activation in the body to yield a carcinogen, commonly as a result of phase i metabolism.

processing Any and all processes to which food is subjected after harvesting, for the purposes of improving its appearance, texture, palatability, nutritive value, keeping properties and ease of preparation, and for eliminating micro-organisms, toxins and other undesirable constituents. processing aids Compounds used in manufacturing to enhance the appeal or utility of a food or component; clarifying and clouding agents, catalysts, flocculants, filtration aids, crystallisation inhibitors. proctitis Inflammation of the rectum. proctocolitis Inflammation of the colon and rectum. pro-enzyme See zymogen.

proglucagon Precursor of the peptide hormone glucagon, syn-thesised in pancreatic a-islet cells and endocrine cells of the gastrointestinal tract; post-synthetic modification leads to formation of glucagon, oxyntomodulin and glp-1. progoitrins Substances found in plant foods which are precursors of goitrogens.

programming The idea that nutritional and environmental factors in utero or during early post-natal life can modify gene expression and hence programme metabolism permanently. See also epigenetics. pro-insulin The inactive precursor of insulin, in which the A- and B-chains are joined by the c-peptide; the form in which insulin is stored in pancreatic P-islet cells before release. A small proportion of insulin secretion is pro-insulin. A rare variant of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus is due to genetic lack of the pro-insulin converting enzyme (carboxypeptidase e), so that only pro-insulin is secreted. prolactin Hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary that stimulates milk secretion after childbirth. Also known as lactogenic or luteotrophic hormone, and luteotrophin. prolamins The major storage proteins of the endosperm of cereals, including gliadin (wheat), zein (maize), hordein (barley) and avenin (oats). Characterised by solubility in 70% alcohol, but not water or absolute alcohol; especially rich in proline and glutamine, low in lysine. proline A non-essential amino acid, abbr Pro (P), Mr 115.1, pKa

1.95,10.64, codons CCNu. PromegaTM Mixture of long-chain marine fatty acids: eicos-apentaenoic (EPA, C20:5 o3) and docosohexaenoic (DHA, C22:6 0)3) acids.

promoter A compound that is not itself carcinogenic, but enhances the activity of a carcinogen if given subsequently.

See also cocarcinogen.

Pronutro™ Protein-rich baby food (22% protein) developed in South Africa; made from maize, skim-milk powder, groundnut flour, soya flour and fish protein concentrate with added vitamins.

proof spirit An old method of describing the alcohol content of spirits; originally defined as a solution of alcohol of such strength that it will ignite when mixed with gunpowder. Proof spirit contains 57.07% alcohol by volume or 49.24% by weight in Great Britain. In the USA it contains 50% alcohol by volume. Pure (absolute) alcohol is 175.25° proof UK or 200° proof USA. Spirits were described as under or over proof; a drink 30° over proof contains as much alcohol as 130 volumes of proof spirit; 30° under proof means that 100 volumes contains as much alcohol as 70 volumes of proof spirit. Nowadays alcohol content is usually measured as per cent alcohol by volume. proopiomelanocortin (POMC) Peptide hormone precursor that is normally modified by carboxypeptidase e. POMC neurons in the central nervous system mediate feeding behaviour and insulin levels, and peptides derived from POMC are ligands for the hypothalamic melanocortin receptor, which inhibits feeding behaviour. See also agouti mouse; fat mouse. propanetheline See atropine.

propellant Gas used to expel a product from a container. propionates Salts of propionic acid, CH3CH2COOH, a normal metabolic intermediate. The free acid and salts are used as mould inhibitors, e.g. on cheese surfaces; to inhibit rope in bread and baked goods (E-280-283). propolis Waxy substance produced by bees, used to seal the hive; has antioxidant and antibacterial activities, and sold as a nutritional supplement, with little evidence of efficacy. propyl gallate An antioxidant, E-310.

ProsparolTM An emulsion containing 50% vegetable fat, 1.7 MJ

(405kcal)/100g; used as a concentrated source of energy. prostaglandins Locally acting hormones (paracrine agents) synthesised from long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids; see eicosanoids.

prosthetic group Non-protein part of an enzyme molecule, unlike a coenzyme, covalently bound to the protein; either an organic compound or a metal ion. Essential for catalytic activity. The enzyme protein without its prosthetic group is the apo-enzyme and is catalytically inactive. With the prosthetic group, it is known as the holo-enzyme.

See also coenzyme; enzyme activation assays. protamines Small water-soluble proteins found especially in sperm, rich in basic amino acids, especially arginine, and not coagulated by heat. So basic that they form salts with mineral acids, e.g. salmine from salmon, sturine from sturgeon, clupeine from herring, scombrine from mackerel. proteans Slightly altered proteins that have become insoluble, probably an early stage of denaturation. proteases Alternative name for proteinases. Protecon™ A bone press for preparation of mechanically recovered meat (see meat, mechanically recovered). protein All living tissues contain proteins; they are polymers of amino acids, joined by peptide bonds (see peptides). 21 amino acids are incorporated into proteins during synthesis, and others are formed by post-synthetic modification. Any one protein may contain several hundred or thousand amino acids. The sequence of the amino acids in a protein determines its overall structure and function: many proteins are enzymes; others are structural (e.g. collagen in connective tissue and keratin in hair and nails); many hormones are polypeptides. Proteins are constituents of all living cells and are dietary essentials. Chemically distinguished from fats and carbohydrates by containing nitrogen. proteinases Enzymes that hydrolyse proteins, also known as peptidases.

See also chillproofing; endopeptidases; exopeptidases; tenderisers.

protein calorie malnutrition See protein-energy malnutrition. protein calories per cent See protein-energy ratio. protein, conjugated Proteins that include a non-protein prosthetic group, e.g. haemoglobin and cytochromes contain haem; many oxidative enzymes contain a prosthetic group derived from vitamin b2; glycoproteins proteins are conjugated with carbohydrates; other proteins are conjugated with fatty acids. protein conversion factor See nitrogen conversion factor. protein, crude Total nitrogen multiplied by 6.25.

See also kjeldahl determination; nitrogen conversion factors.

protein efficiency ratio (PER) A measure of protein quality. protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) A spectrum of disorders, especially in children, due to inadequate feeding. Marasmus is severe wasting and also occurs in adults; the result of a food intake inadequate to meet energy expenditure. Emaciation, similar to that seen in marasmus, occurs in patients with advanced cancer and AIDS; in this case it is known as cachexia.

Kwashiorkor affects only young children and includes severe oedema, fatty infiltration of the liver and a sooty dermatitis; it is likely that deficiency of antioxidant nutrients and the stress of infection may be involved. The name kwashiorkor is derived from the Ga language of Ghana to describe the illness of the first child when it is weaned (on to an inadequate diet) on the arrival of the second child.

See also gomez classification; marasmic kwashiorkor; water-low classification; wellcome classification. protein-energy ratio The protein content of a food or diet expressed as the proportion of the total energy provided by protein (17kJ, 4kcal/g). The average requirement for protein is about 7% of total energy intake; western diets provide about 14%.

protein equivalent A measure of the digestible nitrogen of an animal feedingstuff in terms of protein. It is measured by direct feeding or calculated from the digestible pure protein plus half the digestible non-protein nitrogen. protein, first class An obsolete system of classifying proteins into first and second class, to indicate their relative nutritional value or protein quality. Generally, but not invariably, animal proteins were considered 'first class' and plant proteins 'second class', but this classification has no validity in the diet as a whole. protein hydrolysate Mixture of amino acids and polypeptides prepared by hydrolysis of proteins with acid, alkali or proteases, used in enteral and parenteral nutrition and in supplements. protein intolerance An adverse reaction to one or more specific proteins in foods, commonly the result of an allergy. General protein intolerance may be due to a variety of genetic diseases affecting amino acid metabolism. Treatment is normally by severe restriction of protein intake.

See also adverse reactions to foods; amino acid disorders; hyperammonaemia. protein kinases Enzymes that catalyse phosphorylation of target enzymes in cells in response to the action of hormones and neurotransmitters. Protein kinase A is activated by 5'-AMP, protein kinase B by the activated insulin receptor substrate, protein kinase C by cyclic AMP; map kinases are activated by a variety of mitogenic hormones. protein quality A measure of the usefulness of a protein food for maintenance and repair of tissue, growth and formation of new tissues and, in animals, production of meat, eggs, wool and milk. It is important only if the total intake of protein barely meets the requirement. Furthermore, the quality of individual proteins is relatively unimportant in mixed diets, because of complementation between different proteins. Two types of measurement are used to estimate protein quality: biological assays and chemical analysis.

Biological value (BV) is the proportion of absorbed protein retained in the body (i.e. taking no account of digestibility). A protein that is completely usable (e.g. egg and human milk) has a BV = 0.9-1; meat and fish have BV = 0.75-0.8; wheat protein 0.5; gelatine 0.

Net protein utilisation (NPU) is the proportion of dietary protein that is retained in the body under specified experimental conditions (i.e. it takes account of digestibility; NPU = BV x digestibility). By convention NPU is measured at 10% dietary protein (NPU10) at which level the protein synthetic mechanism of the animal can utilise all of the protein so long as the balance of essential amino acids is correct. When fed at 4% dietary protein, the result is NPU standardised. If the food or diet is fed as it is normally eaten, the result is NPU operative (NPUop).

Protein efficiency ratio (PER) is the gain in weight of growing animals per gram of protein eaten.

Net protein retention (NPR) is the weight gain of animals fed the test protein, minus the weight loss of a group fed a proteinfree diet, divided by the amount of protein consumed.

Protein retention efficiency (PRE) is the NPR converted into a percentage scale by multiplying by 16; it then becomes numerically the same as net protein utilisation.

Relative protein value (RPV) is the ability of a test protein, fed at various levels of intake, to support nitrogen balance, relative to a standard protein.

Chemical score is based on chemical analysis of the protein; it is the amount of the limiting amino acid compared with the amount of the same amino acid in egg protein.

Amino acid score (protein score) is similar to chemical score, but uses an amino acid mixture as the standard.

Protein digestibility corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS) is the amino acid score x digestibility

Essential amino acid index is the sum of all the essential amino acids compared with those in egg protein or the amino acid target mixture.

protein rating Used in Canadian food regulations to assess the overall protein quality of a food. It is protein efficiency ratio x per cent protein content of food x the amount of food that is reasonably consumed. Foods with a rating above 40 may be designated excellent dietary sources; foods with rating below 20 are considered to be insignificant sources; 20-40 may be described as good sources.

protein, reference A theoretical concept of the perfect protein which is used with 100% efficiency at whatever level it is fed in the diet. The nearest approach to this theoretical protein are egg and human milk proteins, which are used with 90-100% efficiency (BV = 0.9-1.0) when fed at low levels in the diet (4%), but not when fed at high levels (10-15%). protein retention efficiency (PRE) A measure of protein quality.

protein score A measure of protein quality based on chemical analysis.

protein, second class See protein, first class. protein turnover See half-life (1). proteoglycans See glycoproteins.

proteolysis The hydrolysis of proteins to their constituent amino acids, catalysed by alkali, acid or enzymes. proteomics Identification of all the proteins present in a cell, tissue or organism. The proteome cannot be predicted from the transcriptome, because of post-translational modifications such as glycosylation, esterification and phosphorylation that are involved in the synthesis of many proteins. proteoses Partial degradation products of proteins; soluble in water. The stages of breakdown are protein ^ proteoses ^ peptones ^ polypeptides ^ oligopeptides ^ amino acids. Proteus Genus of flagellate and highly motile rod-like gramnegative bacteria, common in intestinal flora. Some species are pathogenic.

prothrombin Protein in plasma involved in coagulation of blood. Prothrombin time is an index of the coagulability of blood (and hence of vitamin k nutritional status) based on the time taken for a citrated sample of blood to clot when calcium ions and thromboplastin are added. protoalkaloids Amines synthesised by decarboxylation of amino acids.

See also alkaloids. protogen See lipoic acid.

proton pump Enzyme (H+/K+ ATPase, EC in parietal (oxyntic) cells of gastric mucosa that causes secretion of gastric acid; acts by exchanging H+ and K+ across the cell membrane. Irreversible inhibitors (e.g. lansoprazole, pantoprazole and omeprazole) are used in the treatment of gastric ulcers and hiatus hernia. protopectin See pectin.

protoporphyrin The iron-free precursor of haem. Normally present in red blood cells in low concentrations, an increased concentration is an early index of iron deficiency. Also increased by lead toxicity.

See also porphyrin. proving The stage in breadmaking when the dough is left to rise.

provitamin A substance that is converted into a vitamin, such as 7-dehydrocholesterol, which is converted into vitamin d, or those carotenes that can be converted to vitamin a. provolone Smoked drawn curd cheese, originally made from buffalo milk, now mainly cow milk. proximate analysis Analysis of foods and feedingstuffs for nitrogen (for protein), ether extract (for fat), crude fibre and ash (mineral salts) together with soluble carbohydrate calculated by subtracting these values from the total (see carbohydrate by difference). Also known as Weende analysis, after the Weende Experimental Station in Germany, which in 1865 outlined the methods of analysis to be used. Prozac See fluoxetine. prunin See naringin.

Prunus Genus of plants including plums, peaches, nectarines, cherries and almonds. PruteenTM Microbial protein produced by growing Methylophilus methylotrophus, on methanol; 70% protein in dry weight. pseudoalkaloids Pharmacologically active compounds in plants, unlike alkaloids and protoalkaloids, not derived from amino acids; two major groups: (i) steroid and terpene derivatives and (ii) purines (e.g. caffeine). pseudoglobulin Water-soluble globulin which is not precipitated from salt solutions by dialysis against distilled water. Pseudoglobulins occur in blood plasma, in animal tissues, and in milk.

See also euglobulin. pseudokeratins See keratin.

pseudoplastic Material whose viscosity decreases with increasing shear rate.

See also dilatant; rheopectic; thixotropic. PSL Practical storage life. PSP See paralytic shellfish poisoning. P:S ratio The ratio between polyunsaturated and saturated fatty acids. In western diets the ratio is about 0.6; it is suggested that increasing to near 1.0 will reduce the risk of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. PSW Pulsed shock waves, a technology proposed for preservation of foods by inactivation of enzymes without heating, through generating shock waves by powerful electric discharge in liquids. psychrometer See hygrometer.

psychrometry Study of the interrelationships of temperature and humidity relevant to drying with hot air. psychrophiles (psychrophilic organisms) Bacteria and fungi that tolerate low temperatures. Their preferred temperature range is

15-20 °C, but they will grow in cold stores at or below 0 °C; the temperature must be reduced to about -10 °C before growth stops, but the organisms are not killed and will regrow when the temperature rises.

Bacteria of the genera Achromobacter, Flavobacterium, Pseudomonas and Micrococcus; Torulopsis yeasts; and moulds of the genera Penicillium, Cladosporium, Mucor and Thamnidium are psychrophiles. psyllium Also known as plantago or flea seed, Plantago psyllium. Small, dark reddish-brown seeds which form a mucilaginous mass with water; used as a bulk-forming laxative. pteroylglutamic acid (pteroylglutamate), pteroylpolyglutamic acid

(pteroylpolyglutamate) See folic acid. PTFE Polytetrafluoroethylene, a polymer resistant to heat and many chemicals, and with low coefficient of friction, used to make non-stick coatings for cooking utensils. ptomaines Obsolete name for amines formed by decarboxylation of amino acids during putrefaction of proteins; putrescine from arginine, cadaverine from lysine, muscarine in mushrooms (also neurine formed by dehydration of choline). They have an unpleasant smell and were formerly thought to cause food poisoning, but are in fact harmless, albeit sometimes the products of pathogenic bacteria. ptyalin Obsolete name for salivary amylase. ptyalism Or sialorrhoea, excessive flow of saliva. puberty, delayed The normal onset of puberty in boys is between the ages of 12 and 15; a number of factors may delay this, especially deficiency of zinc. Severely zinc-deficient boys of 20 are still prepubertal. PUFA Polyunsaturated fatty acids.

puffballs Edible wild fungi; mosaic puffball Calvatia (Lycoper-don) caelata, giant puffball C. gigantea (may grow to 30 cm in diameter), normally eaten while still relatively small and fleshy, much prized for their delicate flavour. See mushrooms. puffer fish See tetrodontin poisoning.

puffing gun For manufacture of puffed cereals by explosion puffing.A chamber (the gun) is charged with the grain material, subjected to high-pressure steam, then the pressure is released very rapidly. The shot of grain is propelled into an expansion vessel, when it expands to 3-10 times its original volume. pullulanase See debranching enzymes.

pulque Sourish beer produced in central and south America by the rapid natural fermentation of aquamiel, the sweet mucilaginous sap of the agave (American aloe or century plant, Agave americana). Contains 6% alcohol by volume.

puls (pulmentus) Roman; barley or wheat that has been roasted, pounded and boiled to make a gruel; probably a precursor of polenta.

Pulse™ Capsules of fish oil rich in ®3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

pulsed light Technique for sterilisation of packaging, food surfaces and water by exposure to very short bursts (typically 100-300 |is) of very high-intensity broad spectrum light, about 25% of which is UV. pulses Name given to the dried seeds (matured on the plant) of legumes such as peas, beans and lentils. In the fresh, wet form they contain about 90% water, but the dried form contains about 10% water and can be stored. pumpernickel Dense sour-flavoured black bread made from rye, originally German; in USA name for any rye bread. pumpkin A gourd, fruit of Cucurbita pepo.

Composition/100 g: water 79 g, 377 kJ (90 kcal),protein 16.1 g, fat 1.4g (of which 40% saturated, 30% mono-unsaturated, 30% polyunsaturated),cholesterol 50 mg, carbohydrate 2g,ash 1.3 g,Ca 10mg,Fe 3.5mg,Mg 250mg,P 272mg,K 382mg,Na 70mg,Zn 1mg, Cu 0.4 mg, Se 27.4 |g, vitamin A 30 |g retinol, E 5 mg, K 0.1 mg, B1 0.01 mg, B2 0.12 mg, niacin 1.4 mg, B6 0.13 mg, folate 6 |g, B12 0.5 |g.

Seeds, composition/100g: (edible portion 74%) water 6.9g, 2265kJ (541 kcal), protein 24.5g, fat 45.8g (of which 20% saturated, 33% mono-unsaturated, 48% polyunsaturated), carbohydrate 17.8g (1g sugars), fibre 3.9g, ash 4.9g, Ca 43mg, Fe 15mg, Mg 535mg, P 1174 mg, K 807mg, Na 18mg, Zn 7.5 mg, Cu 1.4 mg, Mn 3mg, Se 5.6|g, vitamin A 19|g RE (228|g carotenoids), K 51.4 mg, B1 0.21mg, B2 0.32mg, niacin 1.7 mg, B6 0.22mg, folate 58 |g, pantothenate 0.3 mg, C 2 mg. A 15g serving is a source of Cu, Fe, Mn, a good source of Mg, P. PureBright™ See pulsed light. purgative See laxatives.

puri (poori) Indian; unleavened wholewheat bread prepared from a butter-rich dough, shaped into small pancakes and deep fried in hot oil.

purines (see p. 398) Nitrogenous bases that occur in nucleic acids (adenine and guanine) and their precursors and metabolites; inosine, caffeine and theobromine are also purines.They are not dietary essentials; both dietary and endogenously formed purines are excreted as uric acid. purl Old English winter drink; warmed ale with bitters and brandy or milk, sugar and spirit. puto South-east Asian; steamed bread made from rice that has been allowed to undergo a lactic acid fermentation.

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