Glucuronate Aspergers

P. 4000 A class of synthetic sweeteners, chemically nitro-amino alkoxybenzenes (propoxyamino nitrobenzene is 4100 times as sweet as saccharin). They are not considered harmless and are not permitted in foods. PA 3679 Designation of a putrefactive anaerobic bacterium widely used in investigations of heat sterilisation. paak South-east Asian; salty fish paste made by fermenting fish or shrimps with rice. PABA See ¿maa-amino benzoic acid.

pacificarins Compounds present in foods that resist microorganisms; they may be of microbial origin or synthesised by the plant itself. Also known as phytoncides. packaging, active Packaging that changes the condition of the packed food to extend its shelf life or improve safety or sensory properties, while maintaining quality. May include oxygen scavengers, desiccants, antimicrobial compounds, etc.

See also bioactive polymers; packaging, modified atmosphere. packaging, green Use of biodegradable materials to replace conventional plastics in food packaging.

See also starch, thermoplastic. packaging, intelligent Packaging system that monitors the condition of packaged foods to give information about its quality during transport and storage. May include a variety of chemical, enzymic or immunological sensors to detect temperature, oxygen, products of spoilage and specific micro-organisms.

See also time-temperature indicator. packaging, modified atmosphere Storage of fruits, vegetables and prepacked meat in a controlled atmosphere in which a proportion of the oxygen is replaced by carbon dioxide, sometimes with the addition of other gases such as argon and nitrous oxide. For some products a high oxygen atmosphere is used, to reduce enzymic browning and anaerobic spoilage. In the passive process, the product is sealed in a selectively permeable polymer and allowed to undergo metabolism until the desired gas composition has been achieved; in the active process the package is evacuated, then flushed with the desired gas mixture before sealing.

packed cell volume (PCV) See haematocrit.

paddy rice in the husk after threshing; also known as rough rice.

pak choy Chinese cabbage or Chinese leaves, Brassica chinensis.

PAL See physical activity level.

Palatinat™ See isomalt.

palatinose Isomaltulose, a disaccharide, a-1,6-glucosyl-fructose.

palatone See maltol. Palestine bee See bee wine.

Palestine soup English, 19th century, made from Jerusalem artichokes and named in the mistaken belief that the artichokes came from Jerusalem. palmitic acid A saturated fatty acid with 16 carbon atoms

(C16:0), widespread in fats and oils. palmitoleic acid A mono-unsaturated fatty acid with 16 carbon atoms (C16:1 œ7), widespread in fats and oils. palm kernel oil One of the major oils of commerce, widely used in cooking fats and margarines; oil extracted from the kernel of the nut of the oil palm, Elaeis guineensis. Pale in colour in contrast to red palm oil from the outer part of the nut; 86% saturated, 12% mono-unsaturated, 2% polyunsaturated, contains 3.8mg vitamin E, 25 mg vitamin K/100g. palm oil From outer fibrous pulp of the fruit of the oil palm, Elaeis guineensis. Coloured red because of very high content of a- and P-carotene (30mg of each /100g); 52% saturated, 39% mono-unsaturated, 10% polyunsaturated, contains 16mg vitamin E, 8mg vitamin K /100g. palm, wild date Phoenix sylvestris, a relative of the true date palm, P. dactylifera, grown in India as a source of sugar, obtained from the sap.

palm wine Fermented sap from various palm trees, especially date and coconut palms. palynology The study of pollens and spores.

See also melissopalynology. PAM Passive atmosphere modification. See packaging, modified atmosphere. pan See betel.

panada Mixture of fat, flour and liquid (stock or milk) mixed to a thick paste; used to bind mixtures such as chopped meat, and also as the basis of soufflés and choux pastry. panary fermentation Yeast fermentation of dough in breadmaking.

pancreas Abdominal gland with two functions: the endocrine pancreas (the islets of Langerhans) secretes the hormones insulin, glucagon and gastrin; the exocrine pancreas (acinar cells) secretes the pancreatic juice. Known by the butcher as sweetbread or gut sweetbread, as distinct from chest sweetbread which is thymus.

pancreatic juice The alkaline digestive juice produced by the exocrine pancreas and secreted into the duodenum. It contains the inactive precursors of a number of protein digestive enzymes.

Trypsinogen is activated to trypsin (EC 3.4.21.4) by enteropep-tidase (EC 3.4.21.9) in the intestinal lumen; in turn, trypsin activates the other enzyme precursors: chymotrypsinogen to chy-motrypsin (EC 3.4.21.1), pro-elastase to elastase (EC 3.4.21.36), procarboxypeptidases to carboxypeptidases (EC 3.4.17.1 and 2). Also contains lipase (EC 3.1.1.3), amylase (EC 3.2.1.1) and nucleases.

Secretion of alkaline pancreatic juice is stimulated by secretin; secretion of pancreatic juice rich in enzymes is stimulated by cholecystokinin. pancreatin Preparation made from the pancreas of animals containing the enzymes of pancreatic juice. Used to replace pancreatic enzymes in pancreatic insufficiency and cystic fibrosis as an aid to digestion. pancreozymin Obsolete name for cholecystokinin. pandemain (paynemaine) Medieval English; fine white bread made from sifted flour. pandemic An epidemic that affects large numbers of people in many different countries, or world-wide. pan dowdy American; baked apple sponge pudding, served with the apple side up. pangamic acid N-Di-isopropyl glucuronate, claimed to be an antioxidant, and to speed recovery from fatigue. Sometimes called vitamin B15, but no evidence that it is a dietary essential, nor that it has any metabolic function. PaniplusTM A mixture of calcium peroxide and other salts added to dough to permit use in high-speed manufacturing processes, introduced in 1920. panir Indian, Middle Eastern; soft mild-flavoured cheese. Milk is left to ferment for 6-12h, then heated to separate the curd. panning In sugar confectionery (and pharmaceutical) manufacture, the application of many layers of coating to centres tumbling in a revolving pan. Coatings may be sugar syrup (hard panning, each layer is dried with hot air) or glucose syrup (soft panning, each layer is dried by the application of fine sugar. panocha Candy made from brown sugar, milk, butter and nuts. panthenol The alcohol of pantothenic acid; biologically active.

pantoprazole See proton pump.

pantothenic acid A vitamin with no numerical designation. Chemically, the P-alanine derivative of pantoic acid. Required for the synthesis of coenzyme a (and hence essential for the metabolism of fats, carbohydrates and amino acids) and of acyl carrier protein (and hence essential for the synthesis of fatty acids).

Dietary deficiency is unknown; it is widely distributed in all living cells. Human requirements are not known with any certainty; the adequate intake for adults is 5mg /day. Experimental deficiency signs in rats include greying of the hair (hence at one time known as the anti-grey hair factor; there is no evidence that it affects greying of human hair with age). Experimental deficiency in human beings leads to fatigue, headache, muscle weakness and gastrointestinal disturbances.

See also burning foot syndrome.

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