G

gaffelbitar Semi-preserved herring in which microbial growth is checked by the addition of 10-12% salt and sometimes benzoic acid.

galactans polysaccharides composed of galactose derivatives; a major constituent of carageenan.

galacticol See dulcitol.

Galactomin™ A preparation free from lactose and galactose, for people suffering from lactose intolerance. galacto-oligosaccharides Small oligosaccharides consisting of glucosyl-(galactose)2-5, formed from lactose by galactosyl transfer catalysed by lactase (EC 3.2.1.23). Considered to be a prebiotic.

galactorrhoea Abnormal secretion of milk, due to excessive secretion of prolactin. galactosaemia Congenital lack of UDP-glucose galactosyltrans-ferase (EC 2.7.7.12), or more rarely galactokinase (EC 2.7.1.6) leading to elevated blood concentration of galactose, and hence non-enzymic glycation of proteins, and the development of cataract and neurological damage; subjects suffer mental retardation, growth failure, vomiting and jaundice, with enlargement of liver and spleen. Treatment is by severe restriction of lactose intake, since this is the only significant source of galactose. galactose A six-carbon monosaccharide (hexose), differing from glucose in orientation of the hydroxyl group on carbon-4. About one-third as sweet as sucrose. The main dietary source is the disaccharide lactose in milk, important in formation of the galactolipids (cerebrosides) of nerve tissue.

See also carbohydrates; galactosaemia. b-galactosidase Enzyme (EC 3.2.1.23) that hydrolyses P-galactans in non-starch polysaccharides; responsible for loss of firmness during ripening and storage of fruits. galangal Root spices (Alpinia galanga, A. officinarum) related to ginger, but with a faint flavour of camphor. Galanol™ borage seed oil, a rich source of y-linolenic acid, as a dietary supplement. galenicals Crude drugs; infusions, decoctions and tinctures prepared from medicinal plants. gallates Salts and esters of gallic acid, found in many plants. Used in making dyes and inks, and medicinally as an astringent. Propyl, octyl and dodecyl gallates are legally permitted antioxidants in foods (E-310-312). gall bladder The gland in the liver that stores the bile before secretion into the small intestine.

See also gallstones; gastrointestinal tract. gallon A unit of volume. The Imperial gallon is 4.546 litres, and the US (or Queen Anne) gallon is 3.7853 litres; therefore 1 Imperial gallon = 1.2 US gallons. gallstones (cholelithiasis) Crystals of cholesterol, bile salts and calcium salts, formed in the bile duct of the gall bladder when the bile becomes supersaturated.

game Non-domesticated (i.e. wild) animals and birds shot for sport and eaten. rabbit and pigeon may be shot at any time, but other game species, such as grouse, hare, partridge, pheasant, quail, deer (venison) and wild duck, may not be shot during the closed season, to protect breeding stocks. Game birds are generally raised on farms to provide sport, rather than being hunted in the wild, and increasingly game species are farmed and killed in conventional ways to provide food. Traditionally, game is hung for several days to soften the meat, when it develops a strong flavour.

gammelost Norwegian dark brown cheese with mould growth on the rind that is pressed into the paste while it is ripening.

gammon See bacon.

gangliosides Glycolipids, structurally similar to cerebrosides, but with a charged polar oligosaccharide head region. garam masala A mixture of aromatic spices widely used in Indian cooking; contains powdered black pepper, cumin, cinnamon, cloves, mace, cardamom seeds and sometimes also coriander and/or bay leaf. garbanzo See chickpea.

garbellers 15th century; people appointed by the Grocers' Company of London to inspect spices and other groceries, and destroy adulterated products. gari Fermented cassava meal. Cassava is grated, soaked in water and left to undergo bacterial fermentation for 2-5 days in permeable sacks so that liquid drains out; the resulting solid mass is sieved and lightly toasted or fried (garified). garlic The bulb of Allium sativum with a pungent odour when crushed, widely used to flavour foods. There is some evidence that garlic has a beneficial effect in lowering blood cholesterol.

Composition/100g: (edible portion 87%) water 58.6g, 624kJ (149 kcal), protein 6.4 g, fat 0.5 g, carbohydrate 33.1g (1 g sugars), fibre 2.1 g, ash 1.5g, Ca 181 mg, Fe 1.7mg, Mg 25mg, P 153mg, K 401 mg, Na 17mg, Zn 1.2mg, Cu 0.3mg, Mn 1.7mg, Se 14.2 |g, 26 |g carotenoids, vitamin K 1.4mg, B1 0.2mg, B2 0.11 mg, niacin 0.7 mg, B61.24mg, folate 3 |g, pantothenate 0.6 mg, C 31 mg. garlic mustard A common wild plant of hedgerows and woodland (Alliaria petiolata); the leaves have a garlic-like flavour and can be used in salads or cooked as a vegetable. gas storage, controlled (modified) See packaging, modified atmosphere.

gastrectomy Surgical removal of part or all of the stomach. gastric inhibitory peptide Peptide hormone secreted by the mucosa of the duodenum and jejunum in response to absorbed fat and carbohydrate; stimulates the pancreas to secrete insulin.AIso known as glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide.

gastric secretion Gastric juice contains the enzymes chymosin (EC 3.4.23.4), lipase (EC 3.1.1.3), pepsinogen (the inactive precursor of pepsin, EC 3.4.23.1), intrinsic factor, mucin and hydrochloric acid.

The acid is secreted by the parietal (oxyntic) cells at a strength of 0.16mol/L (0.5-0.6% acid); the same cells also secrete intrinsic factor, and failure of acid secretion (achlorhydria) is associated with pernicious anaemia due to failure of vitamin b12 absorption.

Pepsinogen is secreted by the chief cells of the gastric mucosa, and is activated to pepsin by either gastric acid or the action of existing pepsin; it is a proteolytic enzyme (see proteolysis).

See also anaemia, pernicious; proton pump. gastric ulcer See ulcer.

gastrin Peptide hormone secreted by G-cells of the antrum of the stomach; stimulates parietal cells to secrete acid. gastroenteritis Inflammation of the mucosal lining of the stomach (gastritis) and/or small or large intestine, normally resulting from infection, or, in the case of gastritis, from excessive alcohol consumption.

gastroenterology The study and treatment of diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. gastrointestinal tract (see p. 209) A term for the whole of the digestive tract, from the mouth to the anus. Average length 4.5 m (15 feet).

gastrolith Stone in the stomach, usually builds up around a bezoar.

gastroplasty Surgical alteration of the shape of the stomach without removing any part. Has been used to reduce the physical capacity of the stomach as a treatment for severe obesity. gastrostomy feeding Feeding a liquid diet directly into the stomach through a tube that has been surgically introduced through the abdominal wall.

See also enteral nutrition; nasogastric tube. Gatorade™ A sports drink containing mineral salts in approximately the proportions they are lost in sweat. gavage The process of feeding liquids by stomach tube. Also feeding an excessive amount (hyperalimentation). GC-MS Gas chromatography linked to a mass spectrometer as the detection system. gean Scottish name for the fruit of Prunus avium; also known as wild cherry, sweet cherry and mazzard. gefillte fish (gefilte, gefultte) German for stuffed fish; of Russian or Polish origin, where it is commonly referred to as Jewish fish.

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