FAD See flavin adenine dinucleotide. faeces Composed of undigested food residues, remains of digestive secretions that have not been reabsorbed, bacteria from the intestinal tract, cells, cell debris and mucus from the intestinal lining, substances excreted into the intestinal tract (mainly in the bile). The average amount is about 100g/day, but varies widely depending on the intake of dietary fibre. faecolith Small hard mass of faeces, found especially in the vermiform appendix. faggot (1) Traditional British meatball made from pig offal and meat.

(2) Bundle of herbs, see bouquet garni. fair maids Cornish name for pilchards (thought to be a corruption of the Spanish fumade = smoked). fairy potato See earth nut. famotidine See histamine receptor antagonists. FANSA The Food and Nutrition Science Alliance, a partnership of the American Dietetic Association, the American Society for Clinical Nutrition, the American Society for Nutritional Sciences and the Institute of Food Technologists. FAO Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, founded in 1943; headquarters in Rome. Its goal is to achieve freedom from hunger worldwide. According to its constitution the specific objectives are 'raising the levels of nutrition and standards of living ... and securing improvements in the efficiency of production and distribution of all food and agricultural products.' Web site http://www.fao.org/. FarexTM A cereal food for infants. farfals See pasta.

farina General term for starch. In UK specifically potato starch; in the USA starch obtained from wheat other than durum wheat; starch from the latter is semolina. Farina dolce is Italian flour made from dried chestnuts. farinaceous Starchy.

farinograph An instrument for measuring the physical properties of a dough. farl Scottish; triangular oatmeal cake.

fascioliasis Infestation of the bile ducts and liver with the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica, commonly acquired by eating wild watercress on which the larval stage of the parasite is present.

fasciolopsiasis Infestation of the intestinal tract with the fluke Fasciolopsis buski, commonly acquired by eating uncooked water chestnuts contaminated with the larval stage of the parasite.

fast foods (fast service foods) General term used for a limited menu of foods that lend themselves to production line techniques; suppliers tend to specialise in products such as hamburgers, pizzas, chicken or sandwiches. fasting Going without food. The metabolic fasting state begins some 4h after a meal, when the digestion and absorption of food are complete and body reserves of fat and glycogen begin to be mobilised. In more prolonged fasting the blood concentration of ketone bodies rises, as they are exported from the liver for use by muscle and other tissues as a metabolic fuel. fasting-induced adipocyte factor Circulating protein that inhibits adipose tissue lipoprotein lipase, and so inhibits deposition of lipid in adipose tissue. fat (1) Chemically, fats (or lipids) are substances that are insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents such as ether, chloroform and benzene, and are actual or potential esters of fatty AciDS.The term includes triacylglycerols (triglycerides), phospholipids, waxes and steroids.

(2) In more general use the term 'fats' refers to the neutral fats, which are esters of fatty acids with glycerol (triacylglycerols or triglycerides). fat, blood See lipids, plasma; lipoproteins, plasma. fat, brown See adipose tissue, brown. fat-extenders See fat, superglycinerated. fat free EU regulations restrict use of the term 'fat free' to foods that contain less than 0.15g of fat/100 g; in the USA low-fat foods must state the percentage of fat; thus a product described as 95% fat free contains only 5g of fat/100g. fat, high-ratio See fat, superglycinerated. fat mouse Genetically obese mouse that secretes pro-insulin because of a defect in the gene for the pro-insulin converting enzyme, carboxypeptidase e. The same enzyme is also involved in the post-synthetic modification of other peptide hormone precursors, including pro-opiomelanocortin. fat, neutral fats that are chemically triacylglycerols

(triglycerides). fat, non-saponifiable, saponifiable See saponification. fat, polymorphic One that can crystallise in more than one form.

fat replacers Substances that provide a creamy, fat-like texture used to replace or partly replace the fat in a recipe food. Made from a variety of substances, e.g. Slendid is the trade name for a product derived from pectin, Olestra is sucrose polyester which is not absorbed by the body, Simplesse is a protein product, N-oil is made from tapioca. fat, saturated fats containing only or mainly saturated fatty acids.

fat-soluble vitamins vitamins a, d, e and k; they occur in food dissolved in the fats and are stored in the body to a greater extent than the water-soluble vitamins. fat, superglycerinated Neutral fats are triacylglycerols, i.e. with three molecules of fatty acid to each molecule of glycerol. Mono-and diacylglycerols (sometimes called mono- and diglycerides) are known as superglycerinated high-ratio fats or fat extenders (E-471).

Glyceryl monostearate (GMS) is solid at room temperature, flexible and non-greasy; used as a protective coating for foods, as a plasticiser for softening the crumb of bread, to reduce spattering in frying fats, as emulsifier and stabiliser. Glyceryl mono-oleate (GmO) is semiliquid at room temperature. fatty acids Organic acids consisting of carbon chains with a terminal carboxyl group. The nutritionally important fatty acids have an even number of carbon atoms, commonly between 12 and 22. Saturated fatty acids are those in which there are only single bonds between adjacent carbon atoms. It is recommended that intake should not exceed about 10% of food energy intake, since they increase levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (a major risk factor in heart disease).

Unsaturated fatty acids have one or more carbon-carbon double bonds in the molecule. These double bonds can be reduced (saturated) with hydrogen, the process of hydrogenation, forming saturated fatty acids. Fatty acids with only one double bond are termed mono-unsaturated; oleic acid is the main one found in fats and oils. Fatty acids with two or more double bonds are termed polyunsaturated fatty acids, often abbreviated to PUFA.

Unsaturated fatty acids reduce the concentration of LDL cholesterol in the blood. In general, fats from animal sources are high in saturated and relatively low in unsaturated fatty acids; vegetable and fish oils are generally higher in unsaturated and lower in saturated fatty acids.

In addition to their systematic and trivial names, fatty acids can be named by a shorthand giving the number of carbon atoms in the molecule (e.g. C18), then a colon and the number of double bonds (e.g. C18:2), followed by the position of the first double bond from the methyl end of the molecule as n- or o (e.g. C18:2 n-6, or C18:2 06). See Table 8 of the Appendix. fatty acids, essential (EFA) fatty acids that cannot be made in the body and are therefore dietary essentials - two polyunsaturated fatty acids: linoleic (C18:2 06) and a-linolenic (C18:3 a>3).

Several other fatty acids have some EFA activity in that they cure some, but not all, of the signs of (experimental) EFA deficiency. Arachidonic (C20:4 06), eicosapentaenoic (EPA C20:5 0)3) and docosahexaenoic (DHA C22:6 o3) acids are physiologically important, although they are not dietary essentials since they can be formed from linoleic and a-linolenic acids.

Estimated average requirement for 06 PUFA is 1% of total energy intake (260mg/MJ) and for o3 PUFA is 0.2% (50mg/MJ), with a recommendation that total PUFA intakes should not be more than 10-15% of total energy; a desirable intake, and the basis of reference intakes, is 8-10% of energy intake, about 2-2.6 g/MJ.

fatty acids, free (FFA) or non-esterified (NEFA) Fatty acids may be liberated from triacylglycerols (triglycerides) either by enzymic hydrolysis (when they are generally known as non-esterified fatty acids, NEFA, or unesterified fatty acids, UFA) or as a result of hydrolytic rancidity of the fat. Determination of NEFA is therefore an index of the quality of fats.

Free fatty acids circulate in the bloodstream, bound to albumin. They are released from adipose tissue in the fasting state, as a fuel for muscle and other tissues. The normal concentration in plasma is between 0.5 and 2 |jmol/L, increasing with fasting and exercise. fatty acids, polyunsaturated Long-chain fatty acids containing two or more double bonds, separated by methylene bridges: — CH2—CH =CH — CH2—CH =CH — CH2—. fatty acids, unesterified, non-esterified (NEFA) See fatty acids, free.

fatty acids, volatile Short-chain fatty acids, acetic, propionic and butyric, which, apart from their presence in some foods, are produced by bacteria in the human intestine and rumen of cattle from undigested starch and dietary fibre. To some extent they can be absorbed and used as a source of energy. Butyric acid formed in the colon may have some anticarcino-genic action, and is a significant metabolic fuel for colonic enterocytes.

fat, unsaturated fats containing a high proportion of unsaturated fatty acids. fat, yellow See spread, fat.

favism Acute haemolytic anaemia induced in genetically sensitive people by eating broad beans, Vicia faba, or in response to various drugs, including especially antimalarials. The disease is due to a deficiency of the enzyme glucose6-phosphate dehydrogenase (EC in red blood cells, which are then vulnerable to the toxins, vicine and convicine, in the beans. The condition affects some 100 million people worldwide, and is commonest in people of Mediterranean and Afro-Caribbean descent. FDA US Food and Drug Administration, government regulatory agency; web site http://www.fda.gov/; web site for FDA consumer magazine http://www.fda.gov/fdac/. FD&C USA; abbreviation for synthetic colours permitted for use in food, drugs and cosmetics. FDF Food and Drink Federation, organisation speaking for the UK food and drink manufacturing industry; web site http://www.fdf.org.uk/. FDNB See fluorodinitrobenzene.

fecula (fécule) Foods that are almost solely starch, prepared from roots and stems by grating, e.g. tapioca, sago and arrowroot. Starchy powder from rice, potatoes, etc. feedback control Control of a process using information from sensors to adjust the conditions. Fehling's reagent Alkaline cupric tartrate solution used for detection and semi-quantitative determination of glucose and other reducing sugars.

See also benedict's reagent, somogyi-nelson reagent. feijoa Fruit of S American tree Acca sellowiana (formerly Feijoa sellowiana), also known as pineapple guava, guaveasteen; mainly grown in New Zealand.

Composition/100g: (edible portion 75%) water 87g, 205kJ (49kcal), protein 1.2g, fat 0.8g, carbohydrate 10.6g, ash 0.7g, Ca 17 mg, Fe 0.1 mg, Mg 9 mg, P 20 mg, K 155 mg, Na 3 mg, Cu 0.1 mg, Mn 0.1 mg, vitamin B1 0.01mg, B2 0.03 mg, niacin 0.3 mg, B6 0.05 mg, folate 38 pg, pantothenate 0.2mg, C 20mg.A 50g serving (1 fruit without refuse) is a source of vitamin C. feijoa beans See bean, adzuki.

Feingold diet Exclusion of foods containing synthetic colours, flavours and preservatives and limitation of intake of fruits and vegetables such as oranges, apricots, peaches, tomatoes and cucumbers; intended to treat hyperactive children. There is little evidence either that these foods are a cause of hyperactivity or that the exclusion diet is beneficial. felafel Middle Eastern; deep fried balls of chickpea batter. FEMA US Flavor and Extract Manufacturers' Association, web site http://www.femaflavor.org/.

fenelar Norwegian; leg of mutton dry-brined with salt, saltpetre and sugar, then in a sweet pickle, smoked and air dried.

fenfluramine An anorectic (appetite suppressant, see appetite control) drug with amphetamine-like actions formerly used in the treatment of obesity; withdrawn in 1995 in response to reports of heart valve damage (in the combined preparation with phentermine, fen-phen). Only the D-isomer is active (dexfenflu-ramine).

fennel (1) Aromatic seeds and feathery green leaves of the perennial plant Foeniculum vulgare, used to flavour a variety of dishes.

(2) Foeniculum dulce (or F. vulgare var. azoricum). Annual plant, also called Florence fennel or finnochio; the swollen bases of the leaves are eaten as a vegetable, raw or cooked. The seeds are also used as flavouring.

Composition/100g: (edible portion 72%) water 90.2g, 130kJ (31 kcal), protein 1.2 g, fat 0.2g, carbohydrate 7.3 g, fibre 3.1 g, ash 1g, Ca 49mg, Fe 0.7mg, Mg 17mg, P 50mg, K 414mg, Na 52mg, Zn 0.2mg, Cu 0.1 mg, Mn 0.2mg, Se 0.7 |g, vitamin A 7 |g RE B1 0.01 mg, B2 0.03 mg, niacin 0.6 mg, B6 0.05 mg, folate 27 |g, pantothenate 0.2mg, C 12mg. A 110g serving (half bulb) is a source of folate, a good source of vitamin C. fen-phen The combination of fenfluramine and phentermine, formerly used as an appetite suppressant (appetite control) drug in the treatment of obesity; withdrawn in 1995 in response to reports of heart valve damage. fenugreek Trigonella feonumgraecum, a leguminous plant eaten as a vegetable; the seeds are used for flavouring. Traditionally eaten by women in Asia to help gain weight. fermentation Anaerobic metabolism. Used generally of alcoholic fermentation of sugars, also production of acetic, lactic, and citric acids by micro-organisms in pickling and manufacture of vinegar.

fermentation, secondary In wine making; may be addition of further sugar and yeast to produce carbon dioxide for sparkling wines, or a malo-lactic fermentation using Lactobacillus spp. to convert sharp-tasting malic acid to the milder lactic acid; again this produces carbon dioxide, characteristic of pétillant (lightly sparkling) wines.

See also vinegar. fermented milk See milk, fermented.

fermentograph An instrument for measuring the gas-producing power of a dough. The fermenting dough is contained in a balloon immersed in water and as gas is produced the balloon expands and rises in the water, the rise being measured continuously.

ferric ammonium citrate The form in which iron is sometimes added to foods. Occurs as brown-red scales (16.5-18.5% iron) and as green scales (14.5-16% iron). ferritin The main iron storage protein in tissues; also found in serum, where the concentration reflects the total amount of storage iron in the body, and therefore permits assessment of iron status over the range from deficiency, through normal to overload. Although it provides the most sensitive index of iron depletion, its synthesis is also significantly reduced in response to trauma and infection.

See also acute phase proteins; transferrin receptor. ferrous gluconate iron salt of gluconic acid, used in iron supplements and as a colouring agent in olives. ferrum redactum See iron, reduced. FFA Free fatty acids, see fatty acids, free. FIAF See fasting-induced adipocyte factor. fibre, crude The term given to indigestible part of foods, defined in the UK Fertiliser and Feedingstuffs Act of 1932 as the residue left after successive extraction under closely specified conditions with petroleum ether, 1.25% sulphuric acid and 1.25% sodium hydroxide, minus ash. No relationship to dietary fibre (see fibre, dietary).

fibre, dietary Material mostly derived from plant cell walls which is not digested by human digestive enzymes but is partially broken down by intestinal bacteria to volatile fatty acids that can be used as a source of energy. A large proportion consists of non-starch polysaccharides; these include soluble fibre that reduces levels of blood cholesterol and increases the viscosity of the intestinal contents and insoluble fibre (cellulose and cell walls) that acts as a laxative. Earlier known as roughage or bulk. fibre, insoluble The part of dietary fibre (or non-starch polysaccharide) that is not soluble in water - cellulose, hemicel-luloses and lignin. These increase the bulk of the intestinal contents.

fibre, soluble The plant gums and small oligosaccharides in dietary fibre (or non-starch polysaccharide) that are soluble in water, forming viscous gels. fibric acids A variety of analogues of clofibric acid (chlorophenoxy-isobutyrate), including bezafibrate, clofibrate (the ethyl ester), fenofibrate and gemfibrozil (which is not halogenated), used in treatment of HYPERLiPiDAEMiA.They lower vldl and ldl, and raise hdl, by stimulation of lipoprotein lipase (EC fibrin See fibrinogen.

fibrinogen One of the proteins of the blood plasma responsible for coAGULATioN.When prothrombin is activated to thrombin in response to injury, it hydrolyses fibrinogen to fibrin, which is deposited as strands that trap red cells and platelets, forming the clot.

fibronectin A plasma protein that has a very rapid rate of turnover, and can be used as an index of undernutrition. fibrous proteins See albuminoids.

ficin (ficain) Proteolytic enzyme (EC from the fig. fiddleheads See bracken. field egg See aubergine.

field mushroom Agaricus campestris, A. vaporarius, see mushrooms.

fig The fruit of Ficus carica; eaten fresh or dried. Figs have mild laxative properties, e.g. syrup of figs is a medicinal preparation.

Composition/100g: (edible portion 99%) water 79.1 g, 310kJ (74kcal), protein 0.8g, fat 0.3g, carbohydrate 19.2g (16.3g sugars), fibre 2.9g, ash 0.7g, Ca 35mg, Fe 0.4mg, Mg 17mg, P 14 mg, K 232 mg, Na 1mg, Zn 0.2mg, Cu 0.1mg, Mn 0.1mg, Se 0.2 |g, vitamin A 7 |g RE (94 |g carotenoids), E 0.1 mg, K 4.7 mg, B1 0.06mg, B2 0.05mg, niacin 0.4mg, B6 0.11 mg, folate 6|g, pantothenate 0.3mg, C 2mg. fig, Adam's See plantain. fig, berberry or Indian See prickly pear.

FIGLU test For folic acid status. Measurement of urinary excretion of formiminoglutamate (FIGLU) after a test dose of 2-5 g of histidine. FIGLU formiminotransferase (EC is a folate-dependent enzyme.

See also anaemia, megaloblastic. filbert See hazel nut.

filé powder Dried powdered young leaves of the sassafras tree

(Sassafras albidum); very aromatic, an ingredient of gumbo. filo pastry See phyllo pastry.

filter cake Solid matter retained after filtration of a liquid. filter mat drying Partially spray-dried material (about 20% moisture) is allowed to fall onto a perforated belt through which air is passed to complete the drying process. Filtermat™ process For agglomeration of dried foods; the product is partially dried by spray drying, then deposited onto a perforated belt and dried further. There is sufficient moisture in the intermediate product for agglomerates to form on the belt.

filter medium See filtration.

filth test Name given to a test that originated in the USA for determining the contamination of a food with rodent hairs and insect fragments as an index of hygienic handling.

filtrate The liquid that passes through a filter; see filtration. filtrate factor Obsolete name for pantothenic acid. filtration The separation of solids from liquids by passing the mixture through a bed of porous material (the filter medium), either under gravity and hydrostatic pressure alone or using pressure above, or vacuum below, to force the liquid through the filter bed.

See also filter cake; filtrate. fines herbes Mixture of chopped parsley, tarragon, chives, chervil, marjoram and sometimes watercress. fingerware Edible seaweed, Laminaria digitata. fining agents Substances used to clarify liquids by precipitation, e.g. egg albumin, casein, bentonite, isinglass, gelatine. finnan haddock Smoke-cured haddock (named after Findon in Scotland).

See also arbroath smokie. finocchio Variety of fennel with swollen leaf base; Foeniculum vulgare var. azoricum. fire point The temperature at which a frying oil will sustain combustion; between 340 and 360 °C for most fats.

See also flash point; smoke point. fireless cooker See haybox cooking.

firkin A quarter of a barrel of beer, 9 Imperial gallons (40 L); also

56lb (25.5 kg) of butter. firming agents Fresh fruits contain insoluble pectin as a gel around the fibrous tissues which keeps the fruit firm. Breakdown of cell structure allows conversion of pectin to pectic acid, with loss of firmness. The addition of calcium salts (chloride or carbonate) forms a calcium pectate gel which protects the fruit against softening; these are known as firming agents. Alum (aluminium potassium sulphate) is sometimes used to firm pickles. FISH Fluorescent in situ hybridisation, a technique for locating specific regions of DNA in a chromosome using a fluorescently labelled DNA probe. fish days Historical; days on which fish, but not meat, could be eaten. Originally decreed by the Church (Fridays, fast days and throughout Lent); more were decreed in England during the 16th century, both to encourage ship building and the training of mariners, and also, because of the shortage of meat, to permit an increase in the numbers of cattle. The Vatican rescinded the rule forbidding Catholics to eat meat on Fridays in 1966. fish, demersal Fish species living on or near the sea bed - the white (non-oily) fish such as cod, haddock, halibut, plaice, sole and whiting. Caught by trawls which are dragged along the bottom of the sea, or seine nets. Known in USA as ground fish. See also fish, white.

fish, fatty See fish, oily.

fish flour See fish protein concentrate.

fish ham Japanese product made from a red fish such as tuna or marlin, pickled with salt and nitrite, mixed with whale meat and pork fat and stuffed into a large sausage-type casing. fish meal Surplus fish, waste from filleting (fish-house waste) and fish unsuitable for human consumption are dried and powdered. The resultant meal is a valuable source of protein for animal feedingstuff, or, after deodorisation, as human food since it contains about 70% protein. Meal made from white fish is termed white fish meal, distinct from the oily type which is sometimes of very poor quality and is used mainly as fertiliser.

fish odour syndrome See trimethylamine. fish oils These contain long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids which offer some protection against heart disease. The two main ones are eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA C20:5 m3) and docosohexaenoic acid (DHA C22:6 m3). Fish oil concentrates containing these fatty acids are sold as pharmaceutical preparations.

See also cod liver oil; halibut; menhaden. fish, oily anchovy, herring, mackerel, pilchard, salmon, sardine, trout, tuna, whitebait, containing about 15% fat (varying from 5 to 20% through the year) and containing 1040 |g vitamin D per 100 g, as distinct from white fish, which contain 1-2% fat and only a trace of vitamin D.

See also fish, pelagic. fish paste A spread made from ground fish and cereal. In UK, legally contains not less than 70% fish. fish, pelagic Literally 'of or pertaining to the ocean' - fish normally caught at or near the surface of the sea. Mainly the migratory, shoaling, seasonal fish; oily fish (see fish, oily) such as herring, mackerel, pilchard and tuna. fish protein concentrate Deodorised, decolorised, defatted fish meal, also known as fish flour. fish solubles See stickwater.

fish tester Instrument for assessing the freshness of fish by measuring dielectric properties of skin and muscle, developed as the GR Torrymeter by the (now disestablished) Torry Research Station in Scotland. fish, white Non-oily fish, e.g. cod, dogfish, haddock, halibut, plaice, saithe, skate, sole, whiting. See fish, demersal. fistula An abnormal connection between two hollow organs, or between a hollow organ and the external environment; may occur as a result of infection, injury or surgery.

five-spice powder Chinese; a mixture of star anise, anise pepper, fennel, cloves and cinnamon, and sometimes powdered dried orange peel.

flabelliferins saponins of P-sitosterol from the fruit pulp of the palmyrah palm, Borassus flabillefer, that have hypocholestero-laemic action.

Flash 18 A method of canning foods (Swift & Co, USA) under pressure (126kPa = 18psi above atmospheric). The food is sterilised at 121 °C and then canned at that temperature, not requiring further heat. The process is claimed to give improved taste and texture compared with conventional canning, and the possibility of using large containers without overheating the food. flash evaporation See evaporation, flash. flash pasteurisation See pasteurisation.

flash point With reference to frying oils, the temperature at which the decomposition products can be ignited, but will not support combustion; ranges between 290 and 330 °C.

See also fire point; smoke point. flatfish Fish with a flattened shape, including dab, flounder, halibut, plaice, sole and turbot.

Composition/100g: water 79g, 381kJ (91kcal), protein 18.8g, fat 1.2g (of which 38% saturated, 25% mono-unsaturated, 38% polyunsaturated), cholesterol 48mg, carbohydrate 0g, ash 1.2g, Ca 18mg, Fe 0.4mg, Mg 31 mg, P 184mg, K 361 mg, Na 81 mg, Zn 0.4 mg, Se 32.7 pg, I 25 pg, vitamin A 10 pg retinol, E 0.5 mg, K 0.1 mg, B1 0.09 mg, B2 0.08 mg, niacin 2.9 mg, B6 0.21mg, folate 8 pg, B121.5 pg, pantothenate 0.5mg, C 2mg. A 100 g serving is a source of I, niacin, a good source of P, a rich source of Se, vitamin B12.

flatogens Substances that cause gas production, flatulence, in the intestine, by providing fermentable substrate for intestinal bacteria.

flat sours Bacteria such as Bacillus stearothermophilus render canned food sour by fermenting carbohydrates to lactic, formic and acetic acids, without gas production. This means that the ends of the can are not swelled out but remain flat. Economically they are the most important of the thermophilic spoilage agents (thermophiles); some species can grow slowly at 25°C and thus spoil products after long storage periods. flatulence (flatus) Production of gas in the intestine - hydrogen, carbon dioxide and methane. May be caused by a variety of foods that contain flatogens. flavanols, flavanones Alternative name for flavonoids. flavedo The coloured outer peel layer of citrus fruits, also called the epicarp or zest. It contains the oil sacs, and hence the aromatic oils, and numerous plastids which are green and contain chlorophyll in the unripe fruit, turning yellow or orange in the ripe fruit, when they contain carotene and xanthophyll.

flavin The group of compounds containing the iso-alloxazine ring structure, as in riboflavin (vitamin b2); a general term for riboflavin derivatives.

flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) A coenzyme in oxidation reactions, derived from vitamin b2, phosphate, ribose and adenine.

flavin mononucleotide (FMN) A coenzyme in oxidation reactions, chemically the phosphate of vitamin b2 (riboflavin).

flavone See flavonoids.

flavonoids (bioflavonoids) Polyphenolic compounds widely distributed in plants where they are responsible for colour, taste and smell as well as attracting or repelling insects and microorganisms. Some 4000 have been identified, with a wide range of chemical properties. They occur as glycosides in which the sugar moiety is usually glucose or rhamnose.

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