Chestnut mushroom See mushrooms

chevda (chewda) A dry and highly spiced mixture of deep fried rice, dhal, chickpeas and small pieces of chickpea batter, with peanuts and raisins, seasoned with sugar and salt, a common N. Indian snack food, also known as Bombay mix. chewing gum Based on chicle and other plant resins, with sugar or other sweetener, balsam of Tolu and various flavours. chichi South American; effervescent sour alcoholic beverage made from maize, other starch crops or beans; both a lactic acid bacterial and a yeast fermentation. chicken Domestic fowl, Gallus domesticus. There are differences between the white (breast) and dark (leg) meat, the former being lower in fat but also lower in iron and vitamin B2. Poussin or spring chicken is a young bird, 4-6 weeks old, weighing 250-300g.

Dark meat composition /100g: (edible portion 44%) water 76g, 523kJ (125kcal), protein 20.1 g, fat 4.3g (of which 31% saturated, 37% mono-unsaturated, 31% polyunsaturated), cholesterol 80mg, carbohydrate 0g, ash 0.9g, Ca 12mg, Fe 1 mg, Mg 23 mg, P 162 mg, K 222 mg, Na 85 mg, Zn 2mg, Cu 0.1 mg, Se 13.5|g, I 6|g, vitamin A 22|g retinol, E 0.2mg, K 2.4mg, B1 0.08mg, B2 0.18mg, niacin 6.2mg, B6 0.33mg, folate 10|g, B12 0.4 |g, pantothenate 1.2mg, C 3 mg. A 100 g serving is a source of

Se, Zn, vitamin B2, B6, a good source of P, pantothenate, a rich source of niacin, vitamin B12.

Light meat composition /100g: (edible portion 55%) water 74.9g,477kJ (114kcal),protein 23.2g,fat 1.6g (of which 33% saturated, 33% mono-unsaturated, 33% polyunsaturated), cholesterol 58 mg, carbohydrate 0g, ash 1g, Ca 12 mg, Fe 0.7 mg, Mg 27mg, P 187mg, K 239mg, Na 68mg, Zn 1mg, Se 17.8|g, I 6|g, vitamin A 8 |g retinol, E 0.2mg, K 2.4mg, B1 0.07mg, B2 0.09mg, niacin 10.6 mg, B6 0.54 mg, folate 4 |g, B12 0.4 |g, pantothenate 0.8mg.A 100 g serving is a source of pantothenate, a good source of P, Se, vitamin B6, a rich source of niacin, vitamin B12. chicken, broiler Fast-growing chicken developed by the USDA at

Beltsville, Maryland, and first produced commercially in 1930. chicken, mountain See crapaud. chickling pea or vetch Lathyrus sativus, see lathyrism. chickoo See sapodilla.

chickpea Also known as garbanzo; seeds of Cicer arietinum, widely used in Mediterranean and Middle Eastern stews and casseroles. Pureed chickpea is the basis of hummus and deep fried balls of chickpea batter are felafel.

Composition /100g: water 11.5g, 1524kJ (364kcal), protein 19.3g, fat 6g (of which 13% saturated, 30% mono-unsaturated, 57% polyunsaturated), carbohydrate 60.7g (10.7g sugars), fibre 17.4g, ash 2.5g, Ca 105mg, Fe 6.2mg, Mg 115mg, P 366mg, K 875mg, Na 24mg, Zn 3.4mg, Cu 0.8mg, Mn 2.2mg, Se 8.2|g, vitamin A 3 |g RE (40 |g carotenoids), E 0.8 mg, K 9mg, B1 0.48 mg, B2 0.21mg, niacin 1.5mg, B6 0.54mg, folate 557 |g, pantothenate 1.6mg, C 4mg. An 85g serving is a source of Ca, Zn, vitamin B2, a good source of vitamin B1, B6, pantothenate, a rich source of Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, P, folate. chickweed Common garden weed (Stellaria media); can be eaten in salads or cooked; a modest source of vitamin C. chicle The partially evaporated milky latex of the evergreen sapodilla tree (Achra sapota); it contains gutta (which has elastic properties) and resin, together with carbohydrates, waxes and tannins. Used in the manufacture of chewing gum. The same tree also produces the sapodilla plum. chicory Witloof or Belgian chicory (Belgian endive in USA), Cichorium intybus; the root is harvested and grown in the dark to produce bullet-shaped heads of young white leaves (chicons). Also called succory; red variety is radicchio. The leaves are eaten as a salad or braised as a vegetable and the bitter root, dried and partly caramelised, is often added to coffee as a diluent to cheapen the product.

Composition /100g: (edible portion 89%) water 94.5g, 71 kJ (17kcal), protein 0.9g, fat 0.1g, carbohydrate 4g, fibre 3.1g, ash 0.5 g, Ca 19mg, Fe 0.2mg, Mg 10mg, P 26mg, K 211 mg, Na 2mg, Zn 0.2mg, Cu 0.1mg, Mn 0.1mg, Se 0.2 |g, vitamin A 1 |g RE, B1 0.06mg, B2 0.03 mg, niacin 0.2mg, B6 0.04mg, folate 37 |g, pantothenate 0.1mg, C 3mg.

chief cells Cells in the stomach that secrete pepsinogen, the precursor of the enzyme pepsin.

chikuwa Japanese; grilled foods prepared from surimi. See also kamaboko.

chilled foods Foods stored at -1 to +1 °C (fresh fish and meats); at 0-5°C (baked goods, milk, salads); 0-8°C (cooked meats, butter, margarine, soft fruits). Often combined with controlled gas storage (see packaging, modified atmosphere).

chill haze See haze.

chilli (chili) See pepper, chilli.

chilling Reduction of temperature to between -1 and 8°C.

chilling, cryogenic Use of solid carbon dioxide or liquid nitrogen directly in contact with the food to reduce its temperature; the latent heat of sublimation or vaporization comes from the food being treated.

chilling injury The physiological damage to many plants and plant products as a result of exposure to low temperatures (but not freezing), including surface pitting, poor colour, failure to ripen and loss of structure and texture.

chillproofing A treatment to prevent the development of haziness or cloudiness due to precipitation of proteins when beer is chilled. Treatments include the addition of tannins to precipitate proteins, materials such as bentonite (fuller's earth) to adsorb them and proteolytic enzymes to hydrolyse them.

chimche Korean; fermented cabbage with garlic, red peppers and pimientos.

chine A joint of meat containing the whole or part of the backbone of the animal. See also chining.

Chinese cabbage (Chinese leaves) See cabbage, Chinese.

Chinese cherry See lychee.

Chinese gooseberry See kiwi.

Chinese lantern See cape gooseberry.

Chinese restaurant syndrome Flushing, palpitations and numbness associated at one time with the consumption of monosodium glutamate, and then with histamine, but the cause of these symptoms after eating various foods is not known.

chining To sever the rib bones from the backbone by sawing through the ribs close to the spine.

See also chine.

chips Chipped potatoes; pieces of potato deep fried in fat or oil. Known in French as pommes frites or just frites; in USA 'chips' are potato crisps and chips are called French fries or fries. Fat content depends on size of chip and the process, commonly about 25% but can be 40% in fine-cut chips and as little as 4-8% in frozen oven-baked chips. chitin Poly-N-acetylglucosamine, the organic matrix of the exoskeleton of insects and crustaceans, and present in small amounts in mushrooms. An insoluble non-starch polysaccharide. Partial deacetylation results in the formation of chitosans, which are used as protein-flocculating agents. Chitosan also has antibacterial properties, disrupting bacterial cell walls, and is used in active packaging of foods, and as an edible protective coating, e.g. on fish. Also marketed, with no evidence of efficacy, as a slimming aid. chitosan See chitin.

chitterlings The (usually fried) small intestine of ox, calf or pig. chives Small member of the onion family (Allium schoenopra-sum); the leaves are used as a garnish or dried as a herb; mild onion flavour.

chlonorchiasis Infestation with the liver fluke Chlonorchis sinensis in the bile ducts. Acquired by eating undercooked fresh-water fish harbouring the larval stage. chlorella See algae.

chlorine An element found in biological tissues as the chloride ion; the body contains about 100g (3mol) of chloride and the average diet contains 6-7g (0.17-0.2mol), mainly as sodium chloride. Free chlorine is used as a sterilising agent, e.g. for drinking water.

chlorine dioxide A bread improver. See ageing. chlorophyll The green pigment of leaves, etc; a substituted porphyrin ring chelating a Mg2+ ion. The essential pigment in photosynthesis, responsible for the trapping of light energy for the formation of carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water. Both a- and P-chlorophylls occur in leaves, together with the carotenoids xanthophyll and carotene.

Chlorophyll has no nutritional value, although it does contain magnesium as part of its molecule. It is used in breath fresheners and toothpaste but there is no evidence that it has any useful action.

chlorophyllide The dull green pigment found in the water after cooking some vegetables; it is a water-soluble derivative of chlorophyll, the product of hydrolysis of the phytol side chain, by either enzymic action (chlorophyllase, EC 3.1.1.14) in the vegetables or alkaline hydrolysis. Also formed enzymically by degradation of chlorophyll as fruit and vegetables ripen or age.

See also pheophorbide; pheophytin. chlorothiazide diuretic drug used to treat oedema and hypertension.

chlorpropamide An oral hypoglycaemic agent used in the treatment of diabetes; it stimulates secretion of insulin. chlortetracycline An antibiotic.

chlorthalidone diuretic drug used to treat oedema and hypertension.

chocolate Made from cocoa nibs (husked, fermented and roasted cocoa beans) by refining and the addition of sugar, cocoa butter, flavouring, lecithin and, for milk chocolate, milk solids. It may also contain vegetable oils other than cocoa butter. White chocolate contains cocoa butter, but no cocoa powder.

Cocoa beans grow in pods contained in a soft, starchy pulp. This is allowed to ferment to a liquid that drains away, leaving the beans. They are roasted, broken into small pieces and dehusked, leaving 'nibs'; this is finely ground to 'cocoa mass' and some of the fat removed, leaving cocoa powder. The powder is mixed with sugar, cocoa butter (and milk powder for milk chocolate) in a melangeur, then subjected to severe mechanical treatment (coNCHiNG).The fats can solidify in six polymorphs melting at different temperatures and require cooling and reheating (tempering) before being moulded into a bar.

See also cocoa; cocoa butter equivalents; cocoa butter substitutes.

chocolate, drinking Partially solubilised cocoa powder for preparation of a chocolate-flavoured milk drink, containing about 75% sucrose.

choke cherry Sour wild N. American cherry, fruit of Prunus virginiana and P. edmissa. cholagogue A substance that stimulates the secretion of bile from the gall bladder. cholangitis Inflammation of the bile ducts. cholecalciferol See vitamin d.

cholecystectomy Surgical removal of the gall bladder. cholecystitis Inflammation of the gall bladder. cholecystography X-ray examination of the gall bladder after administration of a radio-opaque compound that is excreted in the bile. Cholangiography is similar examination of the bile ducts.

cholecystokinin (CCK) Peptide hormone secreted by the I-cells of the duodenum in response to partially digested food entering from the stomach. Stimulates contraction of the gall bladder, secretion of bile, secretion of pancreatic enzymes. Also stimulates contraction of the pyloric sphincter, and so controls the rate of gastric emptying. Also known as pancreozymin. cholelithiasis See gallstones.

choleretic An agent that stimulates the secretion of bile. cholestasis Failure of normal amounts of bile to reach the intestine, resulting in obstructive jaundice. May be caused by bile stones or liver disease.

See also bilirubin, biliverdin. cholesterol The principal sterol in animal tissues, an essential component of cell membranes and the precursor for the formation of the steroid hormones. Not a dietary essential, since it is synthesised in the body.

Transported in the plasma lipoproteins. An elevated plasma concentration of cholesterol in low-density lipoprotein is a risk factor for atherosclerosis. The synthesis of cholesterol in the body is increased by a high intake of saturated fats, but apart from people with a rare genetic defect in the regulation of cholesterol synthesis, a high dietary intake of cholesterol does not affect the plasma concentration, since there is normally strict control over the rate of synthesis.

See also hmg coa reductase; hypercholesterolaemia; hyper-lipidaemia; lipoproteins, plasma.

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