Carotenes

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carotenoids A general term for the wide variety of red and yellow compounds chemically related to carotene that are found in plant foods, some of which are precursors of vitamin a, and hence known as provitamin A carotenoids.

carotenols Hydroxylated carotenoids, including xanthophyll. carotinaemia (carotenaemia) Presence of excessive amounts of carotene in blood plasma. Also known as xanthaemia. carp Freshwater fish, Cyprinus carpio.

Composition/100 g: water 76.3 g, 532 kJ (127 kcal), protein 17.8 g, fat 5.6g (of which 23% saturated, 48% mono-unsaturated, 29% polyunsaturated), cholesterol 66mg, carbohydrate 0g, ash 1.5g, Ca 41 mg, Fe 1.2 mg, Mg 29mg, P 415mg, K 333 mg, Na 49 mg, Zn 1.5mg, Cu 0.1 mg, Se 12.6|g, vitamin A 9|g retinol, E 0.6mg, K 0.1mg, B1 0.12mg, B2 0.05mg, niacin 1.6mg, B6 0.19mg, folate 15 |g,B121.5 |g, pantothenate 0.8mg, C 2mg. A 100g serving is a source of Se, pantothenate, a rich source of P, vitamin B12. carrageen Edible seaweeds, Chondrus crispus, also known as Iberian moss or Irish sea moss, and Gigartina stellata; stewed in milk to make a jelly or blancmange. A source of carrageenan. carrageenan A polysaccharide extracted from red algae, especially Chondrus crispus (Irish moss) and Gigartina stellata. One of the plant gums, it binds water to form a gel, increases viscosity, and reacts with proteins to form emulsions. It is used as an emulsifier and stabiliser in milk drinks, processed cheese, low-energy foods, etc. (E-407). carrot The root of Daucus carota, commonly used as a vegetable.

Composition/100g: water 88.3 g, 172kJ (41kcal), protein 0.9g, fat 0.2g, carbohydrate 9.6g (4.5g sugars), fibre 2.8g, ash 1g, Ca 33 mg, Fe 0.3 mg, Mg 12 mg, P 35 mg, K 320 mg, Na 69 mg, Zn 0.2 mg, Mn 0.1 mg, Se 0.1 |g, vitamin A 600 |g RE (8878 |g carotenoids), E 0.7mg, K 13.2mg, B1 0.07mg, B2 0.06mg, niacin 1mg, B6 0.14mg, folate 19 |g, pantothenate 0.3 mg, C 6mg. A 60g serving is a rich source of vitamin A. Carr-Price reaction Colorimetric assay for vitamin a, based on the development of a blue colour after reaction with antimony trichloride in chloroform. The Neeld-Pearson method uses tri-fluoroacetic acid in place of antimony trichloride. carthamin A yellow to red colourant from safflower flowers,

Carthemus tinctorius, chemically a chalcone. cartilage The hard connective tissue of the body, composed mainly of collagen, together with chondromucoid (a protein combined with chondroitin sulphate) and chondroalbuminoid (a protein similar to elastin). New bone growth consists of cartilage on which calcium salts are deposited as it develops. Cartose™ A steam hydrolysate of maize starch, used as a carbohydrate modifier in milk preparations for infant feeding. It consists of a mixture of dextrin, maltose and glucose. carubin See locust bean. carubinose See mannose.

CAS Controlled atmosphere storage.

casaba American name for winter melon.

cascara See laxatives.

case hardening Formation of a hard impermeable skin on some foods during drying; produces a food with a dry surface and a moist interior.

casein About 75% of the proteins of milk are classified as caseins; a group of 12-15 small hydrophobic proteins, in four main classes (a-, P-, y- and K-caseins). They occur in milk as coarse colloidal particles (micelles) some 100 mm in diameter. Often used as a protein supplement, since the casein fraction from milk is more than 90% protein.

Hammarsten's casein is prepared by diluting fat-free milk with water and precipitating the protein with acetic acid. The precipitate is washed three times with water, dissolved in ammonium hydroxide and reprecipitated; this is repeated twice. The final precipitate is washed with alcohol and ether and finally extracted with ether.

caseinogen An obsolete name for the form in which casein is present in solution in milk; when it was precipitated it was then called casein.

cashew nut Fruit of the tropical tree Anacardium occidentale, generally eaten roasted and salted. The nut hangs from the true fruit, a large fleshy but sour apple-like fruit, which is very rich in vitamin C.

Composition/100g: water 1.7g, 2403kJ (574kcal), protein 15.3 g, fat 46.3 g (of which 21% saturated, 62% mono-unsatu-rated, 18% polyunsaturated), carbohydrate 32.7g (5g sugars), fibre 3g, ash 4g, Ca 45 mg, Fe 6mg, Mg 260 mg, P 490 mg, K 565mg, Na 16mg, Zn 5.6mg, Cu 2.2mg, Mn 0.8mg, Se 11.7|g, 23 |g carotenoids, E 0.9 mg, K 34.7 mg, B10.2 mg, B2 0.2 mg, niacin 1.4 mg, B6 0.26 mg, folate 69 |g, pantothenate 1.2mg. A 25 g serving is a source of P, a good source of Mg, vitamin a rich source of Cu.

Casilan™ A casein preparation used as a protein concentrate and nutritional supplement.

cassareep Caribbean; boiled-down juice from grated cassava root, flavoured with cinnamon, cloves and brown sugar; used as a base for sauces. It can also be fermented with molasses.

cassava (manioc) The tuber of the tropical plant Manihot utilis-sima. It is the dietary staple in many tropical countries, although it is an extremely poor source of protein; the plant grows well even in poor soil, and is extremely hardy, withstanding considerable drought. It is one of the most prolific crops, yielding up to 13 million kcal/acre, compared with yam 9 million, and sorghum or maize 1 million. Introduced into Africa by slave ships returning from Brazil in mid-16th century. Fermented cassava meal is gari.

Cassava root contains cyanide, and before it can be eaten it must be grated and left in the open to allow the cyanide to evaporate. The leaves can be eaten as a vegetable, and the tuber is the source of tapioca.

Composition/100g: water 59.7 g, 670 kJ (160kcal), protein 1.4 g, fat 0.3 g, carbohydrate 38.1 g (1.7g sugars), fibre 1.8 g, ash 0.6 g, Ca 16 mg, Fe 0.3 mg, Mg 21 mg, P 27 mg, K 271 mg, Na 14mg,Zn 0.3 mg, Cu 0.1 mg, Mn 0.4mg, Se 0.7|g, vitamin A 1 |g RE (8|g carotenoids), E 0.2 mg, K 1.9 mg, B1 0.09mg, B2 0.05mg, niacin 0.9mg,B6 0.09mg, folate 27 |g, pantothenate 0.1 mg, C 21 mg. cassia The inner bark of a tree grown in the Far East (Cin-

namomium cassia), used as a flavouring, similar to cinnamon. cassina A tea-like beverage made from cured leaves of a holly bush, Ilex cassine, containing 1-1.6% caffeine and 8% tannin. Casson fluid See plastic fluids.

Casson value A measure of the rheological properties (shear stress and viscosity) of chocolate. castor oil Oil from the seeds of the castor oil plant, Ricinus spp. The oil itself is not irritating, but in the small intestine it is hydrol-ysed by lipase to release ricinoleic acid, which is an irritant to the intestinal mucosa and therefore acts as a purgative. The seeds also contain the toxic lectin ricin. catabolism Those pathways of metabolism concerned with the breakdown and oxidation of fuels and hence provision of metabolic energy. People who are undernourished or suffering from cachexia are sometimes said to be in a catabolic state, in that they are catabolising their body tissues, without replacing them. catadromous fish Fish that live in fresh water and go to sea to spawn, such as eels. cataiase HAEM-containing enzyme (EC 1.11.1.6) that catalyses the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen. Its main function in vivo is removal of hydrogen peroxide formed by a variety of oxygenases. Used in food processing to remove hydrogen peroxide used as a sterilant, and together with glucose oxidase (EC 1.1.3.4) to remove traces of oxygen. catchup See ketchup.

catecholamines General term for dihydroxyphenylamines, including dopamine, adrenaline and noradrenaline. catechol oxidase See phenol oxidases.

catfish Several types of (mainly North American) freshwater fish that have barbells resembling a cat's whiskers, including bullhead and channel catfish.

catharsis Purging or cleansing out of the bowels by giving a laxative (cathartic) to stimulate intestinal activity. cathepsins (Also kathepsins); a group of intracellular enzymes in animal tissues that hydrolyse proteins. They are involved in the normal turnover of tissue protein, and the softening of meat when game is hung. CAT scanning Computerised axial tomography, an X-ray technique that permits a three-dimensional X-ray image to be generated. Used nutritionally to determine adipose tissue distribution and bone mass. catsup See ketchup.

caudle Hot spiced wine thickened with eggs. See also mulled wine.

caul Membrane enclosing the fetus; that from sheep or pig used to cover meat while roasting. cauliflower The edible flower of Brassica oleracea botrytis, normally creamy-white in colour, although some cultivars have green or purple flowers. Horticulturally, varieties that mature in summer and autumn are called cauliflower, and those that mature in winter broccoli, but commonly both are called cauliflower.

Composition/100g: (edible portion 39%) water 92g, 105kJ (25kcal), protein 2g, fat 0.1 g, carbohydrate 5.3g (2.4g sugars), fibre 2.5 g, ash 0.7g, Ca 22mg, Fe 0.4mg, Mg 15mg, P 44mg, K 303 mg, Na 30mg, Zn 0.3 mg, Mn 0.2mg, Se 0.6 |g, vitamin A 1 |g RE (41 |g carotenoids),E 0.1 mg, K 16mg, B1 0.06mg, B2 0.06 mg, niacin 0.5 mg, B6 0.22 mg, folate 57 |g, pantothenate 0.7 mg, C 46mg. A 90 g serving is a good source of folate, a rich source of vitamin C.

caviar(e) The salted hard roe of the sturgeon, Acipenser spp.; three main types, sevruga, asetra (ocietre) and beluga, the prime variety. Mock caviare (also known as German, Danish or Norwegian caviare) is the salted hard roe of the lumpfish (Cyclopterus lumpus).

Composition/100g: water 47.5g, 1055kJ (252kcal), protein 24.6g,fat 17.9g (of which 25% saturated,29% mono-unsaturated, 46% polyunsaturated), cholesterol 588mg, carbohydrate 4g, ash 6.5g, Ca 275mg, Fe 11.9mg, Mg 300mg, P 356mg, K 181 mg, Na 1500mg, Zn 0.9mg, Cu 0.1 mg, Mn 0.1 mg, Se 65.5 |g, vitamin A 561 |g retinol, E 7mg, K 0.7 mg, B1 0.19 mg, B2 0.62mg, niacin 0.1 mg, B6 0.32mg, folate 50|g, B12 20|g, pantothenate 3.5mg. A 16g serving (1 tbsp) is a source of Fe, Mg, Se, vitamin A, E, a rich source of vitamin B12. cavitation Production of bubbles in foods by ultrasound and their rapid expansion/contraction.

cayenne pepper See pepper, chilli. CBe See cocoa butter equivalents. CCK See cholecystokinin. CCP See critical control point.

cDNA Copy or complementary DNA; a single-stranded DNA copy of mRNA, synthesised using reverse transcriptase, which can then be inserted into a plasmid or other vector, for the introduction of new DNA into a bacterial or other cell. cDNA libraries represent the information encoded in the mRNA of a particular tissue or organism. Celacol™ Methyl, hydroxyethyl and other cellulose derivatives. celeriac A variety of celery with a thick root which is eaten grated in salads or cooked as a vegetable, Apium graveolens var. rapaceum, also known as turnip-rooted or knob celery.

Composition/100g: (edible portion 86%) water 88g, 176kJ (42 kcal), protein 1.5g, fat 0.3g, carbohydrate 9.2g (1.6g sugars), fibre 1.8g, ash 1g, Ca 43mg, Fe 0.7mg, Mg 20mg, P 115mg, K 300 mg, Na 100mg, Zn 0.3mg, Cu 0.1mg, Mn 0.2mg, Se 0.7 pg, 1 pg carotenoids, E 0.4mg, K 41 mg, B1 0.05mg, B2 0.06mg, niacin 0.7mg, B6 0.17mg, folate 8 pg, pantothenate 0.4mg, C 8mg. celery Edible stems of Apium graveolens var. dulce.

Composition/100g: (edible portion 89%) water 95g, 59kJ (14kcal), protein 0.7g, fat 0.2g, carbohydrate 3g (1.8g sugars), fibre 1.6 g, ash 0.8g, Ca 40mg, Fe 0.2mg, Mg 11mg, P 24mg, K 260mg, Na 80mg, Zn 0.1 mg, Mn 0.1 mg, Se 0.4pg, vitamin A 22pg RE (553 pg carotenoids), E 0.3mg, K 29.3mg, B1 0.02mg, B2 0.06mg, niacin 0.3 mg, B6 0.07mg, folate 36 pg, pantothenate 0.2mg, C 3mg. celiac disease See coeliac disease.

cellobiose A disaccharide of glucose linked P-1,4; formed by hydrolysis of cellulose by cellulase, and not hydrolysed by mammalian digestive enzymes. CellofasTM Derivatives of cellulose: Cellofas A is methylethyl-

cellulose, Cellofas B is sodium carboxymethylcellulose. Cellophane™ The first transparent, non-porous film, made from wood pulp (cellulose), patented in 1908 by Swiss-French chemist Jacques-Edwin Brandenburger; waterproof cellophane for food wrapping developed by Du Pont in 1926. Still widely used for wrapping foods and other commodities. celluflour Powdered cellulose, used in experimental diets to provide indigestible bulk. cellulase Enzymes that hydrolyse cellulose. Present in the digestive juices of some wood-boring insects and various microorganisms, but not mammals.

1:4-P-Glucan cellobiohydrolase (EC 3.2.9.1) is an endohydro-lase, yielding soluble cellulose fragments. 1:4-P-Glucan glucano-hydrolase (EC 3.2.1.4) is an exohydrolase, yielding cellobiose. P-Glucosidase (EC 3.7.1.21) catalyses the hydrolysis of cel-lobiose to glucose.

Cell-free preparations of cellulase from Trichoderma spp. (especially the mesophilic fungus T. resie) are used to liquefy fruit pulps, and to prepare glucose syrups from waste cellulose from pulp mills, etc. cellulose A polysaccharide of glucose units linked P-1,4 which is not hydrolysed by mammalian digestive enzymes. The main component of plant cell walls, but does not occur in animal tissues. It is digested by bacterial cellulase, and hence only ruminants and animals that have a large caecum have an adequate population of intestinal bacteria to permit them to digest cellulose to any significant extent. There is little digestion of cellulose in the human large intestine; nevertheless, it serves a valuable purpose in providing bulk to the intestinal contents, and is one of the major components of dietary fibre (see fibre, dietary) or non-starch polysaccharides.

See also cellulose, microcrystalline. cellulose derivatives A number of chemically modified forms of cellulose are used in food processing for their special properties, including:

(1) Carboxymethylcellulose (E-466),which is prepared from the pure cellulose of cotton or wood. It absorbs up to 50 times its own weight of water to form a stable colloidal mass. It is used, together with stabilisers, as a whipping agent, in ice cream, confectionery, jellies, etc., and as an inert filler in 'slimming aids'.

(2) Methylcellulose (E-461), which differs from carboxymethylcellulose (and other gums) since its viscosity increases with increasing temperature rather than decreasing. Hence it is soluble in cold water and forms a gel on heating. Used as a thickener and emulsifier, and in foods formulated to be low in gluten.

(3) Other cellulose derivatives used as emulsifiers and stabilisers are hydroxypropylcellulose (E-463), hydroxypro-pylmethylcellulose (E-464) and ethylmethylcellulose (E-465).

cellulose, microcrystalline Partially hydrolysed cellulose used as a filler in slimming and other foods (E-460).

celtuce Stem lettuce, Lactuca sativa; enlarged stem eaten raw or cooked, with a flavour between celery and lettuce; leaves are not palatable.

Composition/100g: (edible portion 75%) water 95g, 75kJ (18 kcal), protein 0.9 g, fat 0.3 g, carbohydrate 3.7 g, fibre 1.7g, ash 0.7 g, Ca 39 mg, Fe 0.6 mg, Mg 28 mg, P 39 mg, K 330 mg, Na 11mg, Zn 0.3 mg, Mn 0.7mg, Se 0.9 |g, vitamin A 175 |g RE, B1 0.05 mg, B2 0.07 mg, niacin 0.6 mg, B6 0.05 mg, folate 46 |g, pantothenate 0.2mg, C 20mg. centrifuge A machine that exerts a force many thousand times that of gravity, by spinning. Commonly used to clarify liquids by settling the heavier solids or to separate liquids of different density, e.g. cream from milk. High-speed centrifuges run up to 60000g; preparative and analytical ultracentrifuges at 500000-600000g. cereal Any grain or edible seed of the grass family that may be used as food; e.g. wheat, rice, oats, barley, rye, maize and millet. Cereals are collectively known as corn in the UK; in the USA corn is specifically maize. Cereals provide the largest single foodstuff in most diets; in some less developed countries up to 90% of the total diet may be cereal; in the UK bread and flour provide 25-30% of the total energy and protein of the average diet.

cereals, puffed Whole grains, grain parts, or a shaped dough, expanded by subjecting to heat and pressure to produce a very light and airy product.

See also extrusion; puffing gun. cerebrose Obsolete name for galactose.

cerebrosides Glycolipids containing no phosphate, but with a polar head region consisting of neutral oligosaccharides of galactose. Especially important in nerve membranes and the myelin sheath of nerves. The fatty acids may be esterified to either glycerol or sphingosine (sphingolipids).

See also gangliosides. cerelose A commercial preparation of glucose containing about 9% water.

ceroid pigment Age spots or liver spots. Patches of brown pigment under the skin, increasing with age, believed to be due to accumulation of the products of oxidation of fatty acids and protein.

ceruloplasmin A copper-containing protein in blood plasma, the main circulating form of copper in the body. Has ferrioxidase (EC 1.16.3.1) activity and is important in iron metabolism. Not useful for assessment of copper status since levels are elevated in pregnancy, lactation, inflammatory diseases and in response to oral contraceptive agents.

cervelat Sausage, originally made with brain, but now minced beef and pork, seasoned and smoked. cestode See tapeworm. CF See citrovorum factor. CFC Chlorofluorocarbon, see refrigerants. CFSAN Centre for Food Safety and Nutrition of the US Food and Drug Administration; web site http://vm.cfsan.fda.gov/. cfu Colony forming units, a measure of the bacterial content of foods, etc.

chalasia Abnormal relaxation of the cardiac sphincter muscle of the stomach so that gastric contents reflux into the oesophagus, leading to regurgitation. chamomile Either of two herbs, Anthemis nobilis or Matricaria recutica.The essential oil is used to flavour liqueurs;chamomile tea is a tisane prepared by infusion of the dried flower heads and the whole herb can be used to make a herb beer. champagne Sparkling wine from the Champagne region of northeastern France, made by a second fermentation in the bottle; pioneered by Benedictine cellar master Dom Pierre Pérignon at the Abbey d'Hautvilliers, late 17th century. Sparkling wine from other regions, even when made in the same way, cannot legally be called champagne, but is known as méthode champenoise. chanterelle Edible wild fungus, Cantharellus cibarius, see mushrooms.

chapatti (chappati, chuppati) Indian; unleavened whole-grain wheat or millet bread, baked on an ungreased griddle. Phulka are small chapattis; roti are chapattis prepared with maize flour. chaptalisation Addition of sugar to grape must during fermentation to increase the alcohol content of the wine. charcoal Finely divided carbon, obtained by heating bones (bone charcoal) or wood in a closed retort to carbonise the organic matter. Used to purify solutions because it will absorb colouring matter and other impurities. charlotte Dessert made from stewed fruit encased in, or layered alternately with, bread or cake crumbs, e.g. apple charlotte. In charlotte russe there is a centre of a cream mixture surrounded by cake.

charqui (charki) S. American; dried meat, normally prepared from beef, but may also be made from sheep, llama and alpaca. Strips of meat are cut lengthways and pressed after salting, then air-dried.The final form is flat, thin, flaky sheets, so differing from the long strips of biltong. Also called jerky or jerked beef. Chartreuse (1) A liqueur invented in 1605 and still made by the Carthusian monks, named for the great charterhouse (la grande chartreuse), the mother house of the order, near Grenoble in southern France. It is reputed to contain more than 200 ingredients. There are three varieties: green Chartreuse is 55%, yellow 43% and white 30% alcohol.

(2) A dish turned out of a mould; more usually, fruit enclosed in jelly.

Chastek paralysis Acute deficiency of vitamin B1 in foxes and mink fed on diets high in raw fish, which contains thiaminase. chateaubriand Thick steak cut from beef fillet. Originally named in 1822 in honour of the Comte de Chateaubriand. chaudron (chawdron) Medieval English; sauce served with roast swan, made from the giblets boiled in broth with its blood, vinegar and spices. chaya Large tropical herb (up to 2m tall), Cnidoscolus chaya-

mansa; the young leaves are eaten like spinach. CHD Coronary heart disease, see ischaemic heart disease. cheddar Hard cheese dating from 16th century prepared by a particular method (cheddaring); originally from the Cheddar area of Somerset, England; matured for several months or even years. Red Cheddar is coloured with annatto.

Composition/100 g: water 36.8 g, 1687 kJ (403kcal), protein 24.9g, fat 33.1 g (of which 67% saturated, 30% mono-unsatu-rated, 3% polyunsaturated), cholesterol 105mg, carbohydrate 1.3g (0.5g sugars), ash 3.9g, Ca 721mg, Fe 0.7mg, Mg 28mg, P 512mg, K 98 mg, Na 621 mg, Zn 3.1 mg, Se 13.9 |g, I 30 |g, vitamin A 265 |g RE (258 |g retinol, 85 |g carotenoids), E 0.3 mg, K 2.8mg, B1 0.03 mg, B2 0.38 mg, niacin 0.1 mg, B6 0.07mg, folate 18 |g, B12 0.8 |g, pantothenate 0.4mg. A 40g serving is a source of vitamin A, a good source of P, a rich source of Ca, vitamin B12. cheddaring In the manufacture of cheese, after coagulation of the milk, heating of the curd and draining, the curds are piled along the floor of the vat, when they consolidate to a rubbery sheet of curd. This is the cheddaring process; for cheeses with a more crumbly texture the curd is not allowed to settle so densely. cheese Prepared from the curd precipitated from milk by rennet, purified chymosin or lactic acid. Cheeses other than cottage and cream cheeses are cured by being left to mature with salt, under various conditions that produce the characteristic flavour of that type of cheese.

Although most cheeses are made from cow's milk, goat's milk and sometimes ewe's milk can be used to make specialty cheeses. These are generally soft cheeses. There is a very wide variety of different types of cheese. There are numerous variants (over 800) including more than 100 from England and Wales alone (eight major regional cheeses: Caerphilly, Derby, Double Gloucester, cheddar, Lancashire, Red Leicester, stilton and Wensleydale).

Some varieties are regional specialties, and legally may only be made in a defined geographical area; others are defined by the process rather than the region of production. The strength of flavour of cheese increases as it ages; mild or mellow cheeses are younger, and less strongly flavoured, than mature or extra mature cheeses. The flavour that develops on ripening is due to the activity of proteinases and lipases, with further metabolism of free fatty acids to a variety of products.

Cheeses differ in their water and fat content and hence their nutrient and energy content, ranging from 50 to 80% water in soft cheeses (mozzarella, Quark, Boursin, cottage) to less than 20% in hard cheese (parmesan, Emmental, Gruyère, cheddar) with semi-hard cheeses around 40% water (Caerphilly, Gouda, Edam, Stilton). They contain much of the calcium of the milk and many contain a relatively large amount of sodium from the added salt.

Edam, Gouda composition/100 g: water 41.5 g, 1490 kJ (356kcal), protein 24.9g,fat 27.4g (of which 68% saturated,30% mono-unsaturated, 3% polyunsaturated), cholesterol 114mg, carbohydrate 2.2g (2.2g sugars) ash 3.9g, Ca 700mg, Fe 0.2mg, Mg 29mg, P 546mg, K 121mg, Na 819mg, Zn 3.9mg, Se 14.5|g, vitamin A 165 |g RE (164 |g retinol, 10 |g carotenoids), E 0.2 mg, K 2.3 mg, B1 0.03 mg, B2 0.33 mg, niacin 0.1 mg, B6 0.08 mg, folate 21 |g, B12 1.5 |g, pantothenate 0.3 mg. A 40 g serving is a good source of P, a rich source of Ca, vitamin B12.

Mozarella composition/100g: water 50g, 1256kJ (300kcal), protein 22.2g, fat 22.4g (of which 64% saturated, 32% mono-unsaturated, 4% polyunsaturated), cholesterol 79mg, carbohydrate 2.2g (1 g sugars), ash 3.3g, Ca 505mg, Fe 0.4mg, Mg 20mg, P 354 mg, K 76 mg, Na 627 mg, Zn 2.9 mg, Se 17 |g, vitamin A 179 |g RE (174 |g retinol, 57 |g carotenoids), E 0.2 mg, K 2.3 mg, B1 0.03 mg, B2 0.28mg, niacin 0.1mg, B6 0.04mg, folate 7 |g, Bn 2.3 |g, pantothenate 0.1 mg. A 40g serving is a source of P, a good source of Ca, a rich source of vitamin B12.

Blue-veined cheeses (Gorgonzola, Stilton, Roquefort, etc.) derive the colour (and flavour) from the growth of the mould Pénicillium roquefortii, during ripening.

Traditionally, hard cheeses must contain not less than 40% fat on a dry weight basis, and that fat must be milk fat. However, a number of low-fat variants of traditional hard cheeses, and vegetarian cheeses, are now made.

Cottage cheese is soft uncured white cheese made from pasteurised skim milk (or milk powder) by lactic acid starter (with or without added rennet), heated, washed and drained (salt may be added). Contains more than 80% water. Also known as pot cheese, Schmierkäse and, in USA, as Dutch cheese. Baker's or hoop cheese is made in the same way as cottage cheese, but the curd is not washed, and it is drained in bags, giving it a finer grain. It contains more water and acid than cottage cheese.

Composition/100g: water 79g,431kJ (103kcal), protein 12.5 g, fat 4.5g (of which 67% saturated, 30% mono-unsaturated, 2% polyunsaturated), cholesterol 15mg, carbohydrate 2.7g (0.3 g sugars) ash 1.4g, Ca 60mg, Fe 0.1 mg, Mg 5mg, P 132mg, K 84 mg, Na 405 mg, Zn 0.4 mg, Se 9 pg, I 24 pg, vitamin A 44 pg RE (43 pg retinol, 12pg carotenoids), K 0.4mg, B1 0.02mg, B2 0.16mg, niacin 0.1mg, B6 0.07mg, folate 12pg, B12 0.6pg, pantothenate 0.2 mg. A 110g serving (small pot) is a source of I, P, Se, vitamin B2, a rich source of vitamin B12.

Cream cheese is unripened soft cheese made from cream with varying fat content (20-25% fat or 50-55% fat).

Composition/100g: water 53.8g, 1461 kJ (349kcal), protein 7.6g,fat 34.9g (of which 66% saturated, 30% mono-unsaturated, 4% polyunsaturated), cholesterol 110mg, carbohydrate 2.7g (0.2g sugars), ash 1.2g, Ca 80mg, Fe 1.2mg, Mg 6mg, P 104mg, K 119 mg, Na 296mg, Zn 0.5mg, Se 2.4 pg, vitamin A 366pg RE (359 pg retinol, 89 pg carotenoids), E 0.3 mg, K 2.9 mg, B1 0.02 mg, B2 0.2mg, niacin 0.1 mg, B6 0.05mg, folate 13 pg, B12 0.4 pg, pantothenate 0.3mg. A 30g serving is a source of vitamin A, B12.

Processed cheese is made by milling various hard cheeses with emulsifying salts (phosphates and citrates), whey and water, then pasteurising to extend the shelf-life. Typically 40% water, a 30g portion contains 5g protein, 8g fat; provides 100kcal (410kJ). Soft version with 50% water is used as a spread.

Feta is Balkan (especially Greek), white, soft, crumbly, salted cheese made from goat's or ewe's milk.

Composition/100g: water 55.2g, 1105kJ (264kcal), protein 14.2g,fat 21.3g (of which 74% saturated,23% mono-unsaturated, 3% polyunsaturated), cholesterol 89mg, carbohydrate 4.1g (4.1g sugars), ash 5.2g, Ca 493mg, Fe 0.6mg, Mg 19mg, P 337mg, K 62mg, Na 1116mg, Zn 2.9mg, Se 15pg, vitamin A 125pg RE (125 pg retinol,3 pg carotenoids),E 0.2mg,K 1.8mg,B10.15mg,B2 0.84 mg, niacin 1 mg, B6 0.42mg, folate 32 pg, B121.7 pg, pantothenate 1 mg.A 40 g serving is a source of P, a good source of Ca,vitamin B2,a rich source of vitamin B12.

Swiss cheese is an American name for any hard cheese that contains relatively large bubbles of air, like the Swiss Emmental and Gruyère. The holes arise during ripening from gases produced by bacteria.

Composition/100g: water 33.2g, 1729kJ (413kcal), protein 29.8g,fat 32.3g (of which 62% saturated,33% mono-unsaturated,

6% polyunsaturated), cholesterol 110mg, carbohydrate 0.4g (0.4 g sugars), ash 4.3 g, Ca 1011mg,Fe 0.2mg,Mg 36 mg, P 605 mg, K 81 mg, Na 336mg, Zn 3.9mg, Se 14.5 |g, vitamin A 271 |g RE (268 |g retinol, 33 |g carotenoids), E 0.3 mg, K 2.7 mg, B1 0.06 mg, B2 0.28mg, niacin 0.1 mg, B6 0.08mg, folate 10|g, B121.6|g, pantothenate 0.6mg. A 40 g serving is a source of vitamin A, a rich source of Ca, P, vitamin B12.

Soft goat cheese composition/100 g: water 60.8 g, 1122 kJ (268kcal), protein 18.5g,fat 21.1g (of which 73% saturated,24% mono-unsaturated, 3% polyunsaturated), cholesterol 46mg, carbohydrate 0.9g (0.9g sugars), ash 1.6 g, Ca 140mg, Fe 1.9mg, Mg 16mg, P 256mg, K 26mg, Na 368mg, Zn 0.9mg, Cu 0.7mg, Mn 0.1mg,Se 2.8 |g,I 51 |g, vitamin A 288 |g RE (283 |g retinol, 54 |g carotenoids), E 0.2mg, K 1.8mg, B1 0.07mg, B2 0.38mg, niacin 0.4 mg, B6 0.25mg, folate 12 |g,B12 0.2 |g, pantothenate 0.7mg.A 40 g serving is a source of I, P, vitamin A, a good source of Cu. cheese analogues Cheese-like products made from casein or soya and vegetable fat. cheese, filled Cheese made from skimmed milk with the addition of vegetable oil to replace the butterfat of whole milk. cheese, vegetarian Cheese in which animal rennet has not been used to precipitate the curd. Precipitation is achieved using lactic acid alone, or a plant enzyme or biosynthetic chymosin. Truly vegetarian cheese is made from vegetable protein rather than milk.

cheese, whey Made from whey by heat coagulation of the proteins (lactalbumin and lactoglobulin). cheilosis Cracking of the edges of the lips, one of the clinical signs of vitamin b2 (riboflavin) deficiency. chelating agents Chemicals that combine with metal ions and remove them from their sphere of action, also called sequestrants. Used in food manufacture to remove traces of metal ions that might otherwise cause foods to deteriorate and clinically to alter absorption of a mineral, or to increase its excretion in cases of metal poisoning, e.g. edta, citrates, desferrioxamine, tartrates, penicillamine, phosphates.

See also haemochromatosis; iron. chemical caponisation See capon.

chemical ice Ice containing a preservative, e.g. a solution of antibiotic or other chemicals; used to preserve fish. chemical score A measure of protein quality based on chemical analysis. See amino acids. chenodeoxycholic acid One of the primary bile salts synthesised in the liver and secreted in the bile as a glycine or taurine conjugate.

chenopods Seeds of Chenopodium spp. eaten in the Peruvian Andes: C. quinoa (quinoa) and C. pallidicaule (canihua). Other Chenopodium spp. have been considered for poultry feed, including Russian thistle, summer cypress and garden orache. cherimoya See custard apple. cherry Fruits of Prunus spp.

Composition/100g: (edible portion 90%) water 82.3 g, 264kJ (63 kcal), protein 1.1g,fat 0.2g, carbohydrate 16g (12.8g sugars), fibre 2.1 g, ash 0.5g, Ca 13mg, Fe 0.4mg, Mg 11mg, P 21mg, K 222 mg, Zn 0.1 mg, Cu 0.1 mg, Mn 0.1 mg, vitamin A3 |g RE (123 |g carotenoids), E 0.1mg, K 2.1mg, B1 0.03mg, B2 0.03mg, niacin 0.2 mg, B6 0.05 mg, folate 4 |g, pantothenate 0.2 mg, C 7 mg.

Peruvian cherry is cape gooseberry, Surinam cherry is pitanga.

cherry, ground Fruit of Physalis pruinosa, similar to cape gooseberry; grows wild, eaten raw but more usually boiled or as preserve; also called strawberry tomato, and dwarf Cape gooseberry. cherry, West Indian The fruit of a small bush, native to the tropical and subtropical regions of America, Malpighia punicifolia. One of the richest known sources of vitamin C. Also known as acerola, Barbados or Antilles cherry.

Composition/100g: (edible portion 80%) water 91 g, 134kJ (32 kcal), protein 0.4g, fat 0.3 g, carbohydrate 7.7 g, fibre 1.1 g, ash 0.2g, Ca 12mg, Fe 0.2mg, Mg 18mg, P 11 mg, K 146mg, Na 7mg, Zn 0.1 mg, Cu 0.1 mg, Se 0.6|g, vitamin A 38 |g RE, B1 0.02mg, B2 0.06mg, niacin 0.4mg, B6 0.01mg, folate 14|g, pantothenate 0.3mg, C 1678mg. A 100g serving (20 cherries) is an exceptionally rich source of vitamin C. chervil (1) A herb, Anthriscus cerefolium, with parsley-like leaves, used in the fresh green state as a garnish, and fresh or dried to flavour salads and soups.

(2) The turnip-rooted chervil, Chaerophyllum bulbosum, a hardy biennial vegetable cultivated for its roots.

(3) Sweet chervil, a wild plant (Myrrhis odorata) with a smell of aniseed. The leaves are used to flavour fruit cups, fruit salads and cooked fruit; the main root can be boiled, sliced and used in salads. Also known as sweet cecily.

Cheshire English hard cheese with a crumbly texture. Cheshire cat An old English cheese measure. chestnut (1) Spanish or sweet chestnut from trees of Castanea spp. Unlike other common nuts it contains very little fat, being largely starch and water.

Composition /100g: water 52g, 820kJ (196kcal), protein 1.6g, fat 1.3g (of which 18% saturated, 36% mono-unsaturated, 45% polyunsaturated), carbohydrate 44.2g, ash 1g, Ca 19mg, Fe

0.9 mg, Mg 30mg, P 38 mg, K 484mg, Na 2mg, Zn 0.5 mg, Cu 0.4 mg, Mn 0.3 mg, vitamin A 1 |g RE, B1 0.14mg, B2 0.02 mg, niacin 1.1 mg, B6 0.35 mg, folate 58 |g, pantothenate 0.5 mg, C 40 mg. A 50 g serving (5 nuts) is a source of Cu, folate, a rich source of vitamin C.

(2) Water chestnut, seeds of Trapa natans, also called caltrops or sinharanut; eaten raw or roasted.

Composition /100g: (edible portion 77%) water 74 g, 406 kJ (97kcal), protein 1.4g,fat 0.1g, carbohydrate 23.9 g (4.8g sugars), fibre 3 g, ash 1.1 g, Ca 11 mg, Fe 0.1 mg, Mg 22mg, P 63 mg, K 584 mg, Na 14mg, Zn 0.5mg, Cu 0.3mg, Mn 0.3mg, Se 0.7 |g, vitamin E 1.2mg, K 0.3 mg, B1 0.14mg, B2 0.2mg, niacin 1mg, B6 0.33 mg, folate 16 |g, pantothenate 0.5mg, C 4mg.

(3) Chinese water chestnut, also called matai or waternut; tuber of the sedge, Eleocharis tuberosa or E. dulcis; white flesh on a black horned shell. Composition /100g: (edible portion 84%) water 44g,938kJ (224kcal),protein 4.2g,fat 1.1 g (of which 18% saturated, 55% mono-unsaturated, 27% polyunsaturated), carbohydrate 49.1 g, ash 1.7g, Ca 18mg, Fe 1.4mg, Mg 84mg, P 96 mg, K 447 mg, Na 3mg, Zn 0.9 mg, Cu 0.4 mg, Mn 1.6 mg, vitamin A 10|g RE, B1 0.16mg, B2 0.18mg, niacin 0.8mg, B6 0.41 mg, folate 68 |g, pantothenate 0.6 mg, C 36 mg.

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