Prickly Pear Tooth Decay Caries

CA Controlled atmosphere. See packaging, modified atmosphere. cabbage Leaves of Brassica oleracea capitata.

Composition/100g: (edible portion 80%) water 92.5 g, 100kJ (24 kcal), protein 1.2g, fat 0.2g, carbohydrate 5.4 g, fibre 2.3 g, ash 0.7 g, Ca 47 mg, Fe 0.6 mg, Mg 15 mg, P 23 mg, K 246 mg, Na 18 mg, Zn 0.2 mg, Mn 0.2 mg, Se 0.9 |jg, vitamin A 6 |jg RE, B1 0.05 mg, B2 0.03 mg, niacin 0.3 mg, B6 0.09 mg, folate 57 |j.g, pantothenate 0.1 mg, C 51 mg. An 85 g serving is a good source of folate, a rich source of vitamin C. cabbage, Chinese Name given to two oriental vegetables: Brassica pekinensis (pe-tsai, Pekin cabbage, snow cabbage); pale green compact head resembling lettuce, and B. chinensis (pak choi, Chinese greens, Chinese chard); loose bunch of dark green leaves and thick stalks.

Pe tsai, composition/100g: (edible portion 93%) water 94.4g, 67kJ (16kcal), protein 1.2g, fat 0.2g, carbohydrate 3.2g (1.4g sugars), fibre 1.2g, ash 1g, Ca 77mg, Fe 0.3mg, Mg 13mg, P 29 mg, K 238 mg, Na 9 mg, Zn 0.2 mg, Mn 0.2 mg, Se 0.6 |g, vitamin A 16 |g RE (239 |g carotenoids), E 0.1 mg, K 42.9mg,B1 0.04 mg, B2 0.05 mg, niacin 0.4mg, B6 0.23 mg, folate 79 |g, pantothenate 0.1mg, C 27 mg. A 40 g serving is a source of folate, vitamin C.

Pak choi, composition/100g: (edible portion 88%) water 95.3g, 54kJ (13kcal), protein 1.5g, fat 0.2g, carbohydrate 2.2g (1.2g sugars), fibre 1g, ash 0.8g, Ca 105mg, Fe 0.8mg, Mg 19mg, P 37 mg, K 252 mg, Na 65 mg, Zn 0.2 mg, Mn 0.2 mg, Se 0.5 |g, vitamin A 223 |g RE (2722 |g carotenoids), E 0.1 mg, K 35.8 mg, B10.04 mg, B2 0.07 mg, niacin 0.5 mg, B6 0.19 mg, folate 66 |g, pantothenate 0.1mg, C 45 mg. A 40 g serving is a source of vitamin A, folate, a rich source of vitamin C. cabbage palm Several types of palm tree that have edible inner leaves, terminal buds or inner part of the stem (heart of palm). cabbie-claw Scottish (Shetland); fresh codling, salted and hung in open air for 1-2 days, then simmered with horseradish. The name derives from the Shetland dialect name for cod, kabbilow. caboc Scottish; double cream cheese (60% fat), rolled in oatmeal. cabrales Spanish goat or sheep milk hard cheese. cacao butter See cocoa butter.

cacen-gri Welsh; soda scones made with currants and buttermilk. cachectin (cachexin) See cachexia; tumour necrosis factor. cachexia The condition of extreme emaciation and wasting seen in patients with advanced diseases such as cancer and AIDS, owing to both an inadequate intake of food and the effects of the disease in increasing metabolic rate (hypermetabolism) and the breakdown of tissue protein.

See also nitrogen balance; protein-energy malnutrition; tumour necrosis factor. cachou Small scented tablets for sweetening the breath. cactus pear See prickly pear.

cadmium A mineral of no known function in the body and therefore not a dietary essential. It accumulates in the body throughout life, reaching a total body content of 20-30 mg (200-300 |imol). It is toxic and cadmium poisoning is a recognised industrial disease.

In Japan, cadmium poisoning has been implicated in itai-itai disease, a severe and sometimes fatal loss of calcium from the bones; the disease occurred in an area where rice was grown on land irrigated with contaminated waste water.

Accidental contamination of drinking water with cadmium salts also leads to kidney damage, and enough cadmium can leach out from cooking vessels with cadmium glaze to pose a hazard.

caecum The first part of the large intestine, separated from the small intestine by the ileocolic sphincter. It is small in carnivorous animals and very large in herbivores, since it is involved in the digestion of cellulose. In omnivorous animals, including humans, it is of intermediate size.

See also gastrointestinal tract. Caerphilly Welsh hard cheese with sour flavour and crumbly texture.

cafestol Diterpene in coffee oil, associated with reversible hyper-cholesterolaemia and hypertriglyceridaemia and also possibly an anticarcinogenic effect by enhancement of phase ii metabolism of foreign compounds. Only released into the beverage when coffee is boiled for a prolonged period of time.

See also kahweol. caffeine A purine, trimethylxanthine, an alkaloid found in coffee and tea, also known as theine. It raises blood pressure, acts as a diuretic and temporarily averts fatigue, so has a stimulant action.

It acts to potentiate the action of hormones and neurotrans-mitters that act via cAMP, since it inhibits phosphodiesterase (EC 3.1.4.17). It can also be a cause of insomnia in some people, and decaffeinated coffee and tea are commonly available.

coffee beans contain about 1% caffeine, and the beverage contains about 70mg/100mL. Tea contains 1.5-2.5% caffeine, about 50-60 mg/100mL of the beverage. cola drinks contain 12-18mg/100mL.

See also theobromine; xanthine. caffeol A volatile oil in coffee beans, giving the characteristic flavour and aroma. caking Undesirable agglomeration of powders as a result of exposure to humidity. See also anticaking agents. calabasa West Indian or green pumpkin, with yellow flesh. calabash See gourd.

calabrese An annual plant (Brassica oleracea italica), a variety of broccoli that yields a crop in the same year as it is sown. Also called American, Italian or green sprouting broccoli. calamondin A citrus fruit resembling a small tangerine, with a delicate pulp and a lime-like flavour.

calandria A heat exchanger consisting of a closed cylindrical vessel containing a vertical bundle of tubes used for falling film evaporation of milk, which is passed as a thin film down the inside of the tubes, which are surrounded by a steam jacket. calbindin An intracellular calcium binding protein induced by vitamin d; it is involved in calcium transport. calcidiol 25-Hydroxycholecalciferol, 25-hydroxy derivative of vitamin d, the main storage and circulating form of the vitamin in the body.

See also calcitriol. calciferol Used at one time as a name for ercalciol (ergocalciferol or vitamin D2) made by ultraviolet irradiation of ergosterol. Also used as a general term to include both vitamers of vitamin d (vitamins D2 and D3). calcinosis Abnormal deposition of calcium salts in tissues. May be due to excessive intake of vitamin d. calciol Official name for cholecalciferol, the naturally occurring form of vitamin d (vitamin D3). calcipotriol vitamin d analogue used as ointment for treatment of psoriasis.

calcitonin Peptide hormone secreted by the C cells of the thyroid gland; lowers blood calcium by suppressing the activity of osteo-clasts, so inhibiting the release of calcium from bone. calcitonin-gene-related peptide Peptide hormone secreted throughout gut; decreases gastric acid secretion. calcitriol 1,25-Dihydroxycholecalciferol, the active metabolite of vitamin d in the body. calcium The major inorganic component of bones and teeth; the total body content of an adult is about 1-1.5kg (15-38mol). The small amounts in blood plasma (2.1-2.6 mmol/L, 85-105 mg/L) and in tissues play a vital role in the excitability of nerve tissue, the control of muscle contraction and the integration and regulation of metabolic processes. An unacceptably high plasma concentration of calcium is hypercalcaemia.

The absorption of calcium from the intestinal tract requires vitamin d, and together with parathyroid hormone, vitamin D also controls the body's calcium balance, mobilising it from the bones to maintain the plasma concentration within a very narrow range.

Although a net loss of calcium from bones occurs as a normal part of the ageing process, and may lead to osteoporosis, there is little evidence that higher intakes of calcium in later life will affect the process. calcium acid phosphate Also known as monocalcium phosphate and acid calcium phosphate or ACP, Ca(H2PO4)2. Used as the acid ingredient of baking powder and self-raising flour, since it reacts with bicarbonate to liberate carbon dioxide. Calcium phosphates are permitted food additives (E-341). calculi (calculus) Stones formed in tissues such as the gall bladder (biliary calculus or gallstone), kidney (renal calculus) or ureters. Renal calculi may consist of uric acid and its salts (especially in gout) or of oxalic acid salts. Oxalate calculi may be of metabolic or dietary origin and people at metabolic risk of forming oxalate renal calculi are advised to avoid dietary sources of oxalic acid and its precursors. Rarely, renal calculi may consist of the amino acid cystine.

See also tartar.

calf's foot jelly gelatine, stock made by boiling calves' feet in water; it sets to a stiff jelly on cooling. calmodulin Small intracellular calcium-binding protein that acts to regulate adenylate cyclase (EC 4.6.1.1) and protein kinases in response to changes in intracellular calcium concentrations. calorie A unit of energy used to express the energy yield of foods and energy expenditure by the body. One calorie (cal) is the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 g of water through 1°C (from 14.5 to 15.5 °C).

Nutritionally the kilocalorie (1000 calories) is used, the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 kg of water through 1 °C, and is abbreviated as either kcal or Cal.

The calorie is not an SI unit, and correctly the joule is used as the unit of energy, although kcal are widely used. 1 kcal = 4.18 kJ; 1 kJ = 0.24kcal.

See also energy; energy conversion factors. calorimeter (bomb calorimeter) An instrument for measuring the amount of oxidisable energy in a substance, by burning it in oxygen and measuring the heat produced.

The energy yield of a foodstuff in the body is equal to that obtained in a bomb calorimeter only when the metabolic end-products are the same as those obtained by combustion. Thus, proteins liberate 23.64kJ (5.65kcal)/g in a calorimeter, when the nitrogen is oxidised to the dioxide, but only 18.4kJ (4.4kcal)/g in the body, when the nitrogen is excreted as urea (which has a heat of combustion equal to the 'missing' 5.23 kJ (1.25 kcal)).

See also energy conversion factors. calorimetry The measurement of energy expenditure by the body.

Direct calorimetry is the measurement of heat output from the body as an index of energy expenditure, and hence energy requirement. The subject is placed inside a small thermally insulated room, and the heat produced is measured. Few such diffi cult studies have been performed, and only a limited range of activities can be studied under these confined conditions.

Indirect calorimetry is a means of estimating energy expenditure indirectly, rather than by direct measurement of heat production. Two methods are in use:

(1) Measurement of the rate of oxygen consumption, using a spirometer; permits calculation of energy expenditure. Most studies of the energy cost of activities have been performed by this method.

(2) Estimation of the total production of carbon dioxide over a period of 7-10 days, after consumption of dual isotopically labelled water (i.e. water labelled with both 2H and 18O, see double-labelled water).

caltrops See water chestnut.

Camembert French soft cheese made from cows' milk, originating from Auge in Normandy. Covered with a white mould (Penicillium candidum or P. camembertii) which participates in the ripening process.

Composition/100g: water 51.8g, 1256kJ (300kcal), protein 19.8 g,fat 24.3 g (of which 67% saturated,30% mono-unsaturated, 3% polyunsaturated), cholesterol 72mg, carbohydrate 0.5g (0.5g sugars), ash 3.7g, Ca 388mg, Fe 0.3 mg, Mg 20mg, P 347mg, K 187 mg, Na 842 mg, Zn 2.4 mg, Se 14.5 |g, I 16 |g, vitamin A 241 |g RE (240 |g retinol, 12 |g carotenoids), E 0.2 mg,K 2 mg,B10.03 mg, B2 0.49 mg, niacin 0.6mg, B6 0.23 mg, folate 62|g, B12 1.3 |g, pantothenate 1.4 mg. A 40g serving is a source of Ca, P, vitamin A, B2, folate, a rich source of vitamin B12.

camomile Either of two herbs, Anthemis nobilis or Matricaria recutica. The essential oil is used to flavour liqueurs; camomile tea is a tisane prepared by infusion of the dried flower heads and the whole herb can be used to make a herb beer.

Campden process The preservation of food by the addition of sodium bisulphite (E-222), which liberates sulphur dioxide. Also known as cold preservation, since it replaces heat sterilisation.

Campden tablets Tablets of sodium bisulphite (E-222), used for sterilisation of bottles and other containers and in the preservation of foods.

Campylobacter A genus of pathogenic organisms which are the most commonly reported cause of gastroenteritis in UK, although it is not known what proportion of cases are foodborne. Campylobacteriosis has been associated with the consumption of undercooked meats, milk that has been inadequately pasteurised or contaminated by birds, and contaminated water. C. jejuni (C. coli, TX 4.1.2.1) invades intestinal epithelial cells. Infective dose 103 organisms, onset 3-8 days, duration weeks. Helicobacter pylori was formerly classified as a Campylobacter. camu-camu Fruit of the Peruvian bush Myrciaria paraensis; burgundy red in colour, weighing 6-14g and about 3 cm in diameter; contains 3000mg vitamin C/100g. cananga oil A lipid-soluble flavouring agent, obtained by distillation of flowers of Cananga odorato. canavanine Toxic amino acid (an analogue of arginine in which the final methylene group is replaced by oxygen), originally isolated from the jack bean, Canavalia ensiformis, and also found in a variety of other plants, including especially alfalfa bean sprouts. It is incorporated into proteins in place of arginine, and also inhibits nitric oxide synthetase. canbra oil Oil extracted from selected strains of rapeseed containing not more than 2% erucic acid.

See also canola. cancer A wide variety of diseases characterised by uncontrolled growth of tissue. Dietary factors may be involved in the initiation of some forms of cancer, and a high-fat diet has been especially implicated. There is some evidence that antioxidant nutrients such as carotene, vitamins c and e and the mineral selenium may be protective, as may non-starch polysaccharides .

See also carcinogen; cachexia. candelilla wax A hydrocarbon wax from the candelilla plant (Euphorbia cerifera). Used as a lubricant and surface finishing agent in chewing gum and hard candy. Canderel™ The sweetener aspartame, in tablets Candida Genus of yeasts that inhabit the gut. C. albicans can, under some circumstances, cause candidiasis (thrush) in the vagina, mouth and skin folds. candy (1) Crystallised sugar made by repeated boiling and slow evaporation.

(2) USA, general term for sugar confectionery. candy doctor See sugar doctor.

cane sugar sucrose extracted from the sugar cane Saccharum officinarum; identical to sucrose prepared from any other source, such as sugar beet. See sugar. canihua Seeds of Chenopodium pallidicaule, grown in the Peruvian Andes; nutritionally similar to cereals. cannelloni See pasta.

canner's alkali A mixture of sodium hydroxide (and sometimes also sodium carbonate) used to remove the skin from fruit before canning. canners' sugar See sugar.

canning The process of preserving food by sterilisation and cooking in a sealed metal can, which destroys bacteria and protects from recontamination. If foods are sterilised and cooked in glass jars that are then closed with hermetically sealed lids, the process is known as bottling.

Canned foods are sometimes known as tinned foods, because the cans were originally made using tin-plated steel. Usually now they are made of lacquered steel or aluminium.

In aseptic canning, foods are presterilised at a very high temperature (150-175 °C) for a few seconds and then sealed into cans under sterile (aseptic) conditions. The flavour, colour and retention of vitamins are superior with this short-time high-temperature process compared with conventional canning.

canola Oilseeds of the brassica family that contain less than specified amounts of glucosinolates and erucic acid. Canola oil is 7% saturated, 62% mono-unsaturated, 31% polyunsaturated, vitamin E 17.1 mg, K 122mg.

See also mustard oil; rapeseed. cantaloupe See melon.

canthaxanthin A red carotenoid pigment, not a precursor of vitamin a. It is used as a food colour (E-161g), and can be added to the diet of broiler chickens to colour the skin and shanks, and to the diet of farmed trout to produce the same bright colour as is seen in wild fish. CAP Controlled atmosphere packaging.

cape gooseberry Fruit of the Chinese lantern Physalis peruviana, P. pubescens or P. edulis; herbaceous perennial resembling small cherry, surrounded by dry, bladder-like calyx, also known as golden berry, physalis, Chinese lantern, Peruvian cherry and ground tomato.

Composition/100g: (edible portion 94%) water 85.4g, 222kJ (53kcal), protein 1.9 g, fat 0.7 g, carbohydrate 11.2g, ash 0.8 g, Ca 9mg, Fe 1mg, P 40mg, vitamin A 36|jg RE, B1 0.11 mg, B2 0.04 mg, niacin 2.8 mg, C 11mg. caper Unopened flower buds of the subtropical shrub Capparis spinosa or C. inermis with a peppery flavour; commonly used in pickles and sauces. Unripe seeds of the nasturtium (Tropaeolum majus) may be pickled and used as a substitute. capercaillie (capercailzie) A large game bird (Tetrao urogallus), also known as wood grouse or cock of the wood. capillary flow The way in which a liquid will rise inside a capillary tube, above the bulk liquid surface, as a result of surface tension. capillary fragility A measure of the resistance to rupture of the small blood vessels (capillaries), which would lead to leakage of red blood cells into tissue spaces. Deficiency of vitamin c can lead to increased capillary fragility.

See also flavonoids. capon A castrated cockerel (male chicken), which has a faster rate of growth, and more tender flesh, than the cockerel. Surgery has generally been replaced by chemical caponisation, the implantation of pellets of oestrogen. caprenin Poorly absorbed fat, two medium-chain fatty acids (capric and caprylic acid) and one very long-chain fatty acid (behenic acid) esterified to glycerol; used as a fat replacer. Behenic acid is poorly absorbed and caprenin yields only 5 kcal/g, compared with 9 kcal/g for normal fats. capric acid Medium-chain saturated fatty acid, C10:0. caprotil An ace inhibitor.

caprylic acid Medium-chain saturated fatty acid, C8:0. capsicum See pepper, chilli and pepper, sweet. carambola Or star fruit, star apple; 8-12cm long ribbed fruit of Averrhoa carambola and A. bilimbi.

Composition/100g: (edible portion 97%) water 91.4g, 130kJ (31kcal), protein 1g, fat 0.3g, carbohydrate 6.7g (4g sugars), fibre 2.8g, ash 0.5g, Ca 3mg, Fe 0.1mg, Mg 10mg, P 12mg, K 133mg, Na 2mg, Zn 0.1mg, Cu 0.1 mg, Se 0.6|g, vitamin A 3|g RE (115|g carotenoids), E 0.2mg, B1 0.01 mg, B2 0.02mg, niacin 0.4mg, B6 0.02mg, folate 12 |g, pantothenate 0.4 mg, C 34 mg. caramel Brown material formed by heating carbohydrates in the presence of acid or alkali; also known as burnt sugar. It can be manufactured from various sugars, starches and starch hydrolysates and is used as a flavour and colour (E-150) in a wide variety of foods. caramels Sweets similar to toffee but boiled at a lower temperature; may be soft or hard. caraway Dried ripe fruit of Carum carvi, an aromatic spice. carbachol Parasympathomimetic drug used to restore the function of inactive bowels or bladder after surgery. carbenoxolone Synthetic derivative of glycyrrhizinic acid (from liquorice) used in combination with antacids for treatment of gastric ulcers and gastro-oesophageal reflux; stimulates secretion of protective mucus. carbohydrate Sugars and starches, which provide 50-70% of energy intake. Chemically they are composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen in the ratio Cn :H2n :On. The basic carbohydrates are the monosaccharide sugars, of which glucose, fructose and galactose are nutritionally the most important.

Disaccharides are composed of two monosaccharides: nutritionally the important disaccharides are sucrose, lactose, maltose and trehalose. A number of oligosaccharides occur in foods, consisting of 3-5 monosaccharide units; in general these are not digested, and should be considered among the unavailable carbohydrates.

Larger polymers of carbohydrates are known as polysaccha-rides or complex carbohydrates. Nutritionally two classes of polysaccharide can be distinguished: (a) starches, polymers of glucose, either as a straight chain (amylose) or with a branched structure (amylopectin); (b) a variety of other polysaccharides which are collectively known as non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) and are not digested by human digestive enzymes. The carbohydrate reserve in liver and muscles is glycogen, a glucose polymer with the same branched structure as amylopectin.

The metabolic energy yield of carbohydrates is 17kJ (4kcal)/g. More precisely, monosaccharides yield 15.7kJ (3.74kcal), disaccharides 16.6kJ (3.95kcal) and starch 17.6kJ (4.18kcal)/g. glycerol is a three-carbon sugar alcohol, and is classified as a carbohydrate; it yields 18.1 kJ (4.32kcal)/g.

See also starch; sugar; sugar alcohols.

Gout Flour Oxalic Acid
carbohydrates: mono- and disaccharides

carbohydrate by difference It is relatively difficult to determine the various carbohydrates present in foods, and an approximation is often made by subtracting the measured protein, fat, ash and water from the total weight. It is the sum of nutritionally available carbohydrates (dextrins, starches and sugars); nutritionally unavailable carbohydrate (pentosans, pectins, hemicel-luloses and cellulose) and non-carbohydrates such as organic acids and lignins. carbohydrate loading Practice of some endurance athletes (e.g. marathon runners) in training for a major event; it consists of exercising to exhaustion, so depleting muscle glycogen, then eating a large carbohydrate-rich meal so as to replenish glyco-gen reserves with a higher than normal proportion of straight chain glycogen. carbohydrate metabolism See glucose metabolism. carbohydrate, unavailable A general term for those carbohydrates present in foods that are not digested, and are therefore excluded from calculations of energy intake, although they may be fermented by intestinal bacteria and yield some energy. The term includes both indigestible oligosaccharides and the various non-starch polysaccharides.

See also fatty acids, volatile; starch, resistant. carbon dioxide, available See baking powder; flour, self-raising.

carbon dioxide storage See packaging, modified atmosphere. g-carboxyglutamate A derivative of the amino acid glutamate (abbr Gla, Mr 191.1) which is found in prothrombin and other calcium-binding proteins involved in blood clotting. Its formation requires vitamin k. Also occurs in the protein osteocalcin in bone, where it has a function in ensuring the correct crystallisation of bone mineral. carboxymethylcellulose See cellulose derivatives. carboxypeptidase E Enzyme (EC 3.4.17.10) that catalyses cleavage of pro-insulin to insulin, and post-synthetic modification of pro-opiomelanocortin and other peptide hormones.

carboxypeptidases Enzymes (EC 3.4.17.1 and 2) secreted in the pancreatic juice that remove amino acids sequentially from the free carboxyl end of a peptide or protein, i.e. exopeptidases. carcinogen Any compound that is capable of inducing cancer. carcinoid syndrome Condition in which there are metastases to the liver of a carcinoid tumour of the enterochromaffin cells of the small intestine. The tumour produces a variety of physiologically active amines, including histamine (which causes flushing reactions) and 5-hydroxytryptamine. The depletion of trypto-

phan to form 5-hydroxytryptamine can be severe enough to lead to the development of pellagra. cardamom The dried, nearly ripe, fruit and seeds of Elettaria car-damomum, a member of the ginger family. An aromatic spice used as a flavouring in sausages, bakery goods, sugar confectionery and whole in mixed pickling spice. It is widely used in Indian cooking (the Hindi name is elaichi), and as one of the ingredients of curry powder. Arabic coffee (similar to Turkish coffee) is flavoured with ground cardamom seeds. cardiomyopathy Any chronic disorder affecting the muscle of the heart. May be associated with alcoholism and vitamin b1 deficiency. cardiospasm See achalasia.

cardoon Leafy vegetable (Cynara cardunculus); both the fleshy root and the ribs and stems of the inner (blanched) leaves are eaten. Sometimes called chard, although distinct from true chard or spinach beet.

Composition/100g: (edible portion 49%) water 94g, 84kJ (20 kcal), protein 0.7 g, fat 0.1 g, carbohydrate 4.9g, fibre 1.6 g, ash 0.3 g, Ca 70 mg, Fe 0.7 mg, Mg 42 mg, P 23 mg, K 400 mg, Na 170 mg, Zn 0.2mg, Mn 0.1mg, Se 0.9 |g, vitamin A 6 |g RE, B1 0.02 mg, B2 0.03 mg, niacin 0.3 mg, B6 0.04 mg, folate 28 |g, pantothenate 0.1mg, C 2mg. caries Dental decay caused by attack on the tooth enamel by acids produced by bacteria that are normally present in the mouth. Sugars in the mouth promote bacterial growth and acid production; sucrose specifically promotes PLAQUE-forming bacteria, which cause the most damage. A moderately high intake of fluoride increases the resistance of tooth enamel to acid attack.

See also toothfriendly sweets. cariogenic Causing tooth decay (caries) by stimulating the growth of acid-forming bacteria on the teeth; the term is applied to sucrose and other fermentable carbohydrates. carissa Fruit of the evergreen shrub Carissa macrocarpa (C. grandiflora), also known as natal plum.

Composition/100 g: (edible portion 86%) water 84.2 g, 260 kJ (62kcal), protein 0.5g, fat 1.3g, carbohydrate 13.6g, ash 0.4g, Ca 11mg, Fe 1.3mg, Mg 16mg, P 7mg, K 260mg, Na 3mg, Cu 0.2mg, vitamin A 2 |g RE, B1 0.04 mg, B2 0.06 mg, niacin 0.2 mg, C 38 mg. A 20 g serving (1 fruit without skin and seeds) is a source of vitamin C.

carmine Brilliant red colour derived from cochineal (E-120). carminic acid See cochineal.

carmoisine A red colour, also known as azorubine, synthetic azo-dye (E-122).

carnauba wax A hard wax from the leaf buds and leaves of the

Brazilian wax palm Copernicia cerifera, used in candy glaze. carnitine y-Amino-P-hydroxybutyric acid trimethylbetaine, required for the transport of fatty acids into mitochondria for oxidation. There is no evidence that it is a dietary essential for human beings, since it can readily be formed from lysine, although there is some evidence that increased intake may enhance the work capacity of muscles. A dietary essential for some insects, at one time called vitamin BT. carnosine A dipeptide, P-alanylhistidine, found in the muscle of most animals, function not known. carob Seeds and pod of the tree Ceratonia siliqua, also known as locust bean and St John's bread. It contains a sweet pulp which is rich in sugar and gums, as well as containing 21% protein and 1.5% fat. It is used as animal feed, and to make confectionery (as a substitute for chocolate).

Carob gum (locust bean gum) is extracted from the carob and is used as an emulsifier and stabiliser (E-410) as well as in cosmetics and as a size for textiles. caroenum Roman; very sweet cooking wine, reduced to one-third its volume by boiling and mixed with honey. Carophyll™ Apo-8-carotenal, a carotene derivative (see carotenals).

carotenals Also known as apo-carotenals. Aldehydes formed by asymmetric oxidative cleavage of carotene by carotene dioxy-genase (EC 1.13.11.21); retinal is the carotenal formed by 15-15' cleavage of carotene. Depending on where the carotene molecule is split, the products are variously 8'-, 10'- and 12'-apo-carotenal, which may be oxidised to yield retinaic acid, but cannot form retinol.

See also vitamin a. carotene The red and orange pigments of many plants, obvious in carrots, red palm oil and yellow maize, but masked by chlorophyll in leaves. Three main carotenes in foods are important as precursors of vitamin a: a-, P- and y-carotene, which are also used as food colours (E-160a). Plant foods contain a considerable number of other carotenes, most of which are not precursors of vitamin A.

Carotene is converted into vitamin A (retinol) in the intestinal mucosa, or is absorbed unchanged. 6 |g of P-carotene, and 12 |g of other provitamin A carotenoids, are nutritionally equivalent to 1 |g of preformed vitamin A. About 30% of the vitamin A in western diets, and considerably more in diets in less developed countries, comes from carotene.

In addition to their role as precursors of vitamin A, carotenes are important as antioxidant nutrients.

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