baba A French cake supposedly invented by King Stanislas I of Poland and named after Ali Baba. 'Rum baba' is flavoured with rum; a French modification using a 'secret' syrup was called brillat-savarin or savarin.

babaco The seedless fruit of the tree Carica pentagona, related to the pawpaw, discovered in Ecuador in the 1920s, introduced into New Zealand in 1973, and more recently into the Channel Islands.

babassu oil Edible oil from the wild Brazilian palm nut (Orbignya matiana or O. oleiferae), similar in fatty acid composition to coconut oil, and used for food and in soaps and cosmetics. 86% saturated, 12% mono-unsaturated, 2% polyunsaturated, vitamin E 19mg/100g.

Babcock test For fat in milk; the sample is mixed with sulphuric acid in a long-necked Babcock bottle, centrifuged, diluted and recentrifuged. The amount of fat is read off the neck of the bottle.

bacalao See klipfish.

Bacillus cereus spoRE-forming bacterium in cereals (especially rice), cause of food poisoning by production of enterotoxins in the food (emetic type TX or in the gut (diarrhoeal type TX Infective dose 105-107 organisms, emetic type onset 1-6 h, duration 6-24h; diarrhoeal type onset 6-12h, duration 12-24h.

bacon Cured (and sometimes smoked) meat from the back, sides and belly of a pig; variety of cuts with differing fat contents. Gammon is bacon made from the top of the hind legs; green bacon has been cured but not smoked.

Composition/100g: water 40g, 1917kJ (458kcal), protein 11.6 g, fat 45g (of which 38% saturated, 50% mono-unsaturated, 12% polyunsaturated), carbohydrate 0.7g, ash 2.5g, Ca 6mg, Fe 0.5 mg, Mg 12mg, P 188mg, K 208mg, Na 833mg, Zn 1.2mg, Cu 0.1mg, Se 20.2|g, vitamin A 11 |g RE (11 |g retinol), E 0.3 mg, B1 0.28mg, B2 0.11 mg, niacin 3.8mg, B6 0.21 mg, folate 2|g, B12 0.7 |g, pantothenate 0.5mg. An 80 g serving (2 rashers) is a source of P, vitamin B1, niacin, a good source of Se, a rich source of vitamin B12.

bacteria Unicellular micro-organisms, ranging between 0.5 and 5 | m in size. They may be classified on the basis of their shape: spherical (coccus); rodlike (bacilli); spiral (spirillum); comma-shaped (vibrio); corkscrew-shaped (spirochaetes) or filamentous.

Other classifications are based on whether or not they are stained by Gram stain, aerobic or anaerobic, and autotrophic (see autotrophes) or heterotrophic.

Some bacteria form spores, which are relatively resistant to heat and sterilising agents. Bacteria are responsible for much food spoilage, and for disease (pathogenic bacteria that produce toxins), but they are also made use of, for example in the pickling process and fermentation of milk, as well as in the manufacture of vitamins and amino acids and a variety of enzymes and hormones.

Between 45 and 85% of the dry matter of bacteria is protein, and some can be grown on petroleum residues, methane or methanol, for use in animal feed. bacterial count See plate count.

bacterial filter A filter 0.5-5 |im in diameter (fine enough to prevent the passage of bacteria); permits removal of bacteria and hence sterilisation of solutions. Viruses are considerably smaller, and will pass through a bacterial filter. bactericidal Conditions or compounds that are capable of killing bacteria.

See also bacteriostatic. bacteriocins Antibiotic peptides produced by lactic acid bacteria and some other micro-organisms to inhibit the growth of others.

See also probiotics. bacteriophage Viruses that attack bacteria, commonly known as phages. They pass through bacterial filters, and can be a cause of considerable trouble in bacterial cultures (e.g. milk starter cultures). Each phage acts specifically against a particular species of bacterium; this can be exploited in phage typing as a means of identifying bacteria. bacteriostatic Conditions or compounds that are capable of inhibiting growth of bacteria, but are not bactericidal. Bacterium aceti See acetobacter. Bactofoss™ See bioluminescence.

bactofugation Belgian process for removing bacteria from milk using a high-speed centrifuge. bactometer A device for the rapid estimation of bacterial contamination (within a few hours) based on measuring the early stages of breakdown of nutrients by the bacteria through changes in the electrical impedance of the medium. Bactoscan™ See deft.

badderlocks Edible seaweed (Alaria esculenta) found on northern British coasts and around Faroe Islands. Known as honey-ware in Scotland. bagasse The residue from sugar-cane milling, consisting of the crushed stalks from which the juice has been expressed; it consists of 50% cellulose, 25% hemicelluloses and 25% lignin. It is used as a fuel, for cattle feed and in the manufacture of paper and fibre board. The name is sometimes also applied to the residues of other plants, such as sugar beet, which is sometimes incorporated into foods as a source of dietary fibre.

bagel A circular bread roll with a hole in the middle, made from fermented wheat flour dough with egg, which is boiled before being baked. Traditionally a Jewish specialty. bagoong Philippines; salted paste made from shrimps and small fish.

baguette A French bread, a long thin loaf about 60 cm long, weighing 250 g, with a crisp crust. bain marie A double saucepan named after the medieval alchemist Maria de Cleofa. bajoa See millet. baked apple berry See cloudberry. baker's cheese See cottage cheese.

baker's yeast glycan Dried cell walls of yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, used as an emulsifier and thickener. baking additives Materials added to flour products for a variety of purposes, including bleaching the flour, ageing, slowing the rate of staling and improving the texture of the finished product. baking blind A pastry case for a tart or flan, baked empty and then filled.

baking powder A mixture that liberates carbon dioxide when moistened and heated. The source of carbon dioxide is sodium bicarbonate, and an acid is required. This may be cream of tartar (in fast-acting baking powders which liberate carbon dioxide in the dough before heating) or calcium acid phosphate, sodium pyrophosphate or sodium aluminium sulphate (in slow-acting powders, which liberate most of the carbon dioxide during heating).

Legally, baking powder must contain not less than 8% available, and not more than 1.5% residual, carbon dioxide.

Golden raising powder is similar, but is coloured yellow (formerly known as egg substitute), and must contain not less than 6% available, and not more than 1.5% residual, carbon dioxide. baking soda See sodium bicarbonate.

BaladeTM Low-cholesterol butter, prepared by mixing cyclodextrin with the melted butter. balance (1) With reference to diet, positive balance is a net gain to the body and negative balance a net loss from the body. When intake equals excretion the body is in equilibrium or balance with respect to the nutrient in question. Used in reference to nitrogen (protein), mineral salts and energy.

(2) A balanced diet is one containing all nutrients in appropriate amounts.

(3) A weighing device.

balanced coil system For detection of metal in foods. The food is passed between coils that produce a balanced electrical field. When metal is introduced, the balanced state is disturbed, generating a voltage in the coils. Detects magnetic and non-magnetic metals, but not in aluminium cans. See also magnetic held system. balantidiasis Infestation of the large intestine with the parasitic protozoan Balantidum coli. A rare cause of dysentery. Balling A table of specific gravity of sugar solutions published by von Balling in 1843, giving the weight of cane sugar in 100g of a solution for the specific gravity determined at 17.5°C. It is used to calculate the percentage extract in beer wort. The original table was corrected for slight inaccuracies by Plato in 1900, and extracts are referred to as per cent Plato. ball mill Machine for comminution of dry foods; a rotating cylinder containing steel balls. With small balls or slow rotation shearing forces predominate; at higher speeds or with larger balls impact forces predominate.

See also rod mill. balm A herb (Melissa officinalis) with hairy leaves and a lemon scent, therefore often known as lemon balm. Used for its flavour in fruit salads, sweet or savoury sauces, etc., as well as for preparation of herb teas. Claimed to have calming medicinal properties, and promoted at one time as an elixir of life and a cure for impotence; it is rich in tannins. balsalazide See aminosalicylates.

balsam peru oil A flavouring agent with a sweet balsamic odour, extracted from Peruvian balsam (Myroxylon pereirae). bambarra groundnut Also known as the Madagascar peanut or earth pea, Voandseia subterranea. It resembles the true groundnut, but the seeds are low in oil. They are hard and require soaking or pounding before cooking. bamboo shoots Thick pointed young shoots of Bambusa vulgaris and Phyllostachys pubescens eaten as a vegetable.

Composition/100g: (edible portion 29%) water 91 g, 113 kJ (27kcal), protein 2.6g, fat 0.3g, carbohydrate 5.2g (3g sugars), fibre 2.2g, ash 0.9 g, Ca 13 mg, Fe 0.5 mg, Mg 3 mg, P 59 mg, K 533 mg,Na 4mg,Zn 1.1 mg,Cu 0.2mg,Mn 0.3 mg,Se 0.8 |g,vitamin A 1 |g RE (12|g carotenoids), E 1mg, B1 0.15mg, B2 0.07mg, niacin 0.6 mg, B6 0.24 mg, folate 7 |g, pantothenate 0.2 mg, C 4 mg. bamboo tea Chinese; bitter black tea, so-called because it is encased in bamboo leaves. bamies, bamya See okra.

banana Fruit of the genus Musa; cultivated kinds are sterile hybrids, and so cannot be given species names. Dessert bananas have a high sugar content (17-19%) and are eaten raw; plantains (sometimes known as green bananas) have a higher starch and lower sugar content and are picked when too hard to be eaten raw.

Composition/100g: (edible portion 64%) water 74.9g, 373kJ (89kcal), protein 1.1 g, fat 0.3g, carbohydrate 22.8g (12.2g sugars), fibre 2.6g, ash 0.8g, Ca 5mg, Fe 0.3 mg, Mg 27mg, P 22 mg, K 358 mg, Na 1mg, Zn 0.2 mg, Cu 0.1mg, Mn 0.3 mg, Se 1 |g, I 8|g, vitamin A 3 |g RE (73 |g carotenoids), E 0.1mg, K 0.5 mg, B1 0.03 mg, B2 0.07 mg, niacin 0.7 mg, B6 0.37 mg, folate 20 |g, pantothenate 0.3 mg, C 9 mg. A 100 g serving (one banana) is a source of Mn, vitamin B6, C. banana, baking American name for plantain. banana, false The fruit of Ensete ventricosum, related to the banana. The fruits are small and, unlike bananas, contain seeds. The rhizome and inner tissue of the stem are eaten after cooking; a major part of the diet in southern Ethiopia. banana figs Bananas that have been split longitudinally and sundried without treating with sulphur DioxiDE.The product is dark in colour and sticky. banian days Days on which no meat was served; named after Banian (Hindu) merchants who abstained from eating meat. An obsolete term for 'days of short commons'. banku See akpiti.

bannock A flat round cake made from oat, rye or barley meal and baked on a hearth or griddle. Pitcaithly bannock is a type of almond shortbread containing caraway seeds and chopped peel. Bantu beer See beer.

bap Traditionally a soft, white, flat, flour-coated Scottish breakfast roll. Now also used for any relatively large soft-crusted roll, made from white, brown or wholemeal flour. BAPEN British Association for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition; web site http://www.bapen.org.uk/. bara brith See barm brack. bara lawr See laver.

Barbados cherry See cherry, west indian. Barbados sugar See sugar.

barbecue Originally native American name for a wooden frame used to smoke and dry meat over a slow smoky fire; the whole animal was placed on a spit over burning coals. Now outdoor cooking of meat, sausages, etc., on a charcoal or gas fire; also the fire on which they are cooked. barberry Fruits of Berberis spp. barberry fig See prickly pear.

Barcelona nut Spanish variety of hazel nut (Corylus avellana). barium A metal of no known metabolic function, so not a dietary essential. Barium sulphate is opaque to X-rays and a suspension is used (a barium meal) to allow examination of the shape and movements of the stomach for diagnostic purposes, and as a barium enema for X-ray investigation of the lower intestinal tract. barley Grain of Hordeum vulgare, one of the hardiest of the cereals; mainly used as animal feed and for malting and brewing. The whole grain with only the outer husk removed (pot, Scotch or hulled barley) requires several hours cooking; the commercial product is usually pearl barley, where most of the husk and germ is removed. Barley flour is ground pearl barley; barley flakes are the flattened grain.

Composition/100g: water 9.4g, 1482kJ (354kcal), protein 12.5 g, fat 2.3 g (of which 26% saturated, 16% mono-unsaturated, 58% polyunsaturated), carbohydrate 73.5g (0.8g sugars), fibre 17.3 g, ash 2.3 g, Ca 33 mg, Fe 3.6mg, Mg 133 mg, P 264mg, K 452mg, Na 12mg, Zn 2.8mg, Cu 0.5mg, Mn 1.9mg, Se 37.7 |g, vitamin A 1 |g RE (173 |g carotenoids), E 0.6 mg, K 2.2 mg, B1 0.65 mg, B2 0.28 mg, niacin 4.6 mg, B6 0.32 mg, folate 19 |g, pantothenate 0.3 mg. A 100 g serving is a source of Zn, vitamin B2, B6, a good source of Fe, niacin, a rich source of Cu, Mg, Mn, P, Se, vitamin B1. barleycorn An obsolete measure of length; the size of a single grain of barley, 0.85 cm. barley, malted See malt.

barley sugar sugar confectionery made by melting and cooling sugar, originally made by boiling with a decoction of barley. barley water A drink made by boiling pearl barley with water, commonly flavoured with orange or lemon. barley wine Fermented malted barley, stronger than beer (8-10%

alcohol by volume), bottled under pressure, so sparkling. Barlow's disease Infantile scurvy, also known as Moeller's disease or Cheadle's disease. barm An alternative name for yeast or leaven, or the froth on fermenting malt liquor. Spon (short for spontaneous) or virgin barm is made by allowing wild yeast to fall into sugar medium and multiply.

barm brack Irish; yeast cake made with butter, egg, buttermilk and dried fruit, flavoured with caraway seed. Similar Welsh cake is bara brith.

Barmene™ yeast extract, prepared from autolysed brewer's yeast, plus vegetable juices, used for flavouring. baron of beef The pair of sirloins of beef, left uncut at the bone. baroresistance Resistance to high pressure. barosensitivity Sensitivity to high pressure. barquette Small boat-shaped pastry cases, used for savoury or sweet mixtures.

barrel A standard barrel contains 36 gallons. (36 Imperial gallons

(UK) = 163.6L; 36 US gallons = 136.3 L.) basal metabolic rate (BMR) The energy cost of maintaining the metabolic integrity of the body, nerve and muscle tone, respiration and circulation. For children the BMR also includes the energy cost of growth.

It depends on the amount of metabolically active body tissue, and hence can be calculated from body weight, height and age:

MJ/day = 0.0418 x weight (kg) + 0.026 x height (cm) - 0.0209 x age (y) - 0.674 (for males) or - 0.0291 (for females)

kcal/day = 9.99 x weight (kg) + 6.25 x height (cm) - 5 x age (y) -161 (males) or - 5 (females)

Experimentally, BMR is measured as the heat output from the body, or the rate of oxygen consumption, under strictly standardised conditions, 12-14 h after the last meal, completely at rest (but not asleep) and at an environmental temperature of 26-30 °C, to ensure thermal neutrality. Measurement of metabolic rate under less rigorously controlled conditions gives the resting metabolic rate (RMR).

For people with a sedentary lifestyle and relatively low physical activity, BMR accounts for about 70% of total energy expenditure. The energy costs of different activities are generally expressed as the physical activity ratio, the ratio of energy expenditure in the activity to BMR. Basedow's disease See thyrotoxicosis.

basella Leaves of Basella rubra, also known as Ceylon, Indian, Malabar, or red vine, or vine spinach.

Composition/100g: water 93g, 80kJ (19kcal), protein 1.8g, fat 0.3 g, carbohydrate 3.4 g, ash 1.4g, Ca 109mg, Fe 1.2 mg, Mg 65 mg, P 52mg, K 510 mg, Na 24mg, Zn 0.4mg, Cu 0.1 mg, Mn 0.7 mg, Se 0.8 |g, vitamin A 400 |g RE,B1 0.05mg,B2 0.16mg, niacin 0.5 mg, B6 0.24mg, folate 140 |g, pantothenate 0.1 mg, C 102mg.

basic foods See acid foods.

basic foods plan A grouping of foods used for public health education with a recommendation to eat some food from each group every day; foods may be divided into four, five or seven groups. For the seven group plan, the groups are: (1) green and yellow vegetables; (2) oranges, grapefruit, tomatoes and raw salads; (3) potatoes and other vegetables and fruits; (4) milk and cheese; (5) meat, poultry, fish and eggs; (6) bread, pasta, flour and other cereal products; (7) butter, margarine, oils and fats.

See also food pyramid. basil An aromatic herb Ocimum basilicum and O. minimum;

other members of the genus Ocimum are also used as seasoning. basmati Long-grain Indian variety of rice, much prized for its delicate flavour (the name means 'fragrant' in Hindi). bass A white fish, Dicentrarchus labrax. Composition/100g: water 76g, 477kJ (l14kcal), protein 18.9g, fat 3.7g (of which 24% saturated, 42% mono-unsaturated, 33% polyunsaturated), cholesterol 68 mg, carbohydrate 0 g, ash 1.5g, Ca 80mg, Fe 1.5 mg, Mg 30mg, P 200mg, K 356mg, Na 70mg, Zn 0.6mg, Cu 0.1mg, Mn 0.9 mg, Se 12.6|g, vitamin A 30|g retinol, B1 0.08mg, B2 0.07 mg, niacin 1.3 mg, B6 0.12 mg, folate 15 |g, B12 2 |g, pantothenate 0.8mg, C 2mg.An 80g serving is a source of Se, a good source of P, a rich source of Mn, vitamin B12. baste To ladle hot fat (or other liquid) over meat, poultry, etc., at intervals while it is baking or roasting, in order to improve the texture, flavour and appearance. batata See potato, sweet.

Bath bun A small English cake made from milk-based yeast dough, with dried fruit and a topping of sugar crystals, attributed to Dr W. Oliver of Bath (18th century). Bath chap The cheek and jawbones of the pig, salted and smoked.

Originated in Bath. Bath cheese A small English cheese, made from cow's milk with the subsequent addition of cream. Bath Oliver A biscuit made with yeast, attributed to Dr W. Oliver of Bath (18th century). Baudouin test A colour test for the presence of sesame oil. In some countries sesame oil is added to all food oils except olive oil, hence permitting detection of the adulteration of olive oil with cheaper vegetable oils. bauernspeck Austrian; pork cured in brine with juniper berries and smoked.

Baume A scale used to measure the density of liquids. For all liquids heavier than water, the density at 15.5°C corresponds to degrees Baume.

bavarois(e) (1) A hot drink made from eggs, milk and tea, sweetened and flavoured with a liqueur; 17th-century Bavarian.

(2) French; (creme bavarois) a cold dessert made from egg custard with gelatine and cream.

(3) Hollandaise sauce with crayfish garnish.

bay (bay leaf) A herb, the leaf of the Mediterranean sweet bay tree (Lauris nobilis) with a strong characteristic flavour. Rarely used alone, but an important component of bouquet garni, and used with other herbs in marinades, pickles, stews and stuffing. bayberry Root bark of the tree Myricia cerifera, containing Flavonoids, tannins and terpenes, stated to possess antipyretic, circulatory stimulant, emetic, and mild diaphoretic properties. Baycovin™ See diethyl pyrocarbonate.

bay lobster Or Moreton Bay bug; a variety of sand lobster found in Australia.

BDA British Dietetic Association; web site http://www.

bda.uk.com/. bdelygmia An extreme loathing for food. bean, adzuki Also known as aduki or feijoa bean, the seed of the Asian adzuki plant Phaseolus (Vigna) angularis. Sweet tasting, the basis of Cantonese red bean paste used to fill dim-sum. Also ground to a flour and used in bread, pastry and sweets or eaten after sprouting as bean sprouts.

Composition/100g: water 13.4g, 1377kJ (329kcal), protein 19.9g, fat 0.5g, carbohydrate 62.9g, fibre 12.7g, ash 3.3 g, Ca 66mg, Fe 5 mg, Mg 127 mg, P 381mg, K 1254mg, Na 5 mg, Zn 5mg, Cu 1.1mg, Mn 1.7mg, Se 3.1 |g, vitamin A 1 |g RE, B1 0.46 mg, B2 0.22 mg, niacin 2.6 mg, B6 0.35 mg, folate 622 |g, pantothenate 1.5 mg. An 85 g serving is a source of vitamin B2, niacin, B6, a good source of Zn, vitamin B1, pantothenate, a rich source of Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, P, folate. bean, black eyed Also known as black eyed pea or cow pea, Vigna sinensis; creamy white bean with a black mark on one edge.

Composition/100g: water 11 g, 1427 kJ (341 kcal), protein 21.6 g, fat 1.4g (of which 36% saturated, 9% mono-unsaturated, 55% polyunsaturated), carbohydrate 62.4g (2.3 g sugars), fibre 15.2g, ash 3.6g, Ca 123mg, Fe 5mg, Mg 171mg, P 352mg, K 1483mg, Na 5mg, Zn 3.7mg, Cu 0.8mg, Mn 1.1mg, Se 3.2|g, vitamin E 0.2 mg, K 6 mg, B1 0.9 mg, B2 0.19 mg, niacin 2 mg, B6 0.29 mg, folate 444 |g, pantothenate 0.9 mg. An 85 g serving is a source of Ca, vitamin B6, pantothenate, a good source of Zn, a rich source of Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, P, vitamin B1, folate. bean, borlotti Italian variety of Phaseolus vulgaris. See bean, haricot.

bean, broad Also known as fava or horse bean, Vicia faba.

Composition/100 g: water 11g, 1427 kJ (341 kcal), protein 26.1 g, fat 1.5g (of which 25% saturated, 25% mono-unsaturated, 50% polyunsaturated), carbohydrate 58.3g (5.7g sugars), fibre 25 g, ash 3.1g, Ca 103 mg, Fe 6.7mg, Mg 192mg, P 421mg, K 1062mg, Na 13mg, Zn 3.1mg, Cu 0.8mg, Mn 1.6 mg, Se 8.2 |g, vitamin A 3 |g RE (32|g carotenoids),E 0.1mg, K 9mg, B1 0.56mg, B2 0.33 mg, niacin 2.8 mg, B6 0.37 mg, folate 423 |g, pantothenate 1 mg, C 1 mg. An 85 g serving is a source of Zn, vitamin B2, niacin, B6, pantothenate, a rich source of Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, P, vitamin B1, folate. bean, butter Several large varieties of Phaseolus vulgaris, also known as Lima, curry, Madagascar and sugar bean.

Composition/100g: water 10.2g, 1415kJ (338kcal), protein 21.5g, fat 0.7g, carbohydrate 63.4g (8.5g sugars), fibre 19g, ash 4.3 g, Ca 81 mg, Fe 7.5 mg, Mg 224mg, P 385 mg, K 1724mg, Na 18mg, Zn 2.8mg, Cu 0.7mg, Mn 1.7mg, Se 7.2|g, vitamin E 0.7 mg, K 6mg, B1 0.51mg, B2 0.2mg, niacin 1.5 mg, B6 0.51 mg, folate 395 |g, pantothenate 1.4 mg. An 85g serving is a source of Zn, pantothenate, a good source of vitamin B6, a rich source of Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, P, vitamin B1, folate. bean curd See tofu.

bean, French Unripe seeds and pods of Phaseolus vulgaris; ripe seeds are haricot beans.

Composition/100g: (edible portion 88%) water 90.3g, 130kJ (31 kcal), protein 1.8g, fat 0.1 g, carbohydrate 7.1 g (1.4g sugars), fibre 3.4g, ash 0.7g, Ca 37mg, Fe 1mg, Mg 25mg, P 38mg, K 209 mg, Na 6mg, Zn 0.2 mg, Cu 0.1 mg, Mn 0.2 mg, Se 0.6 |g, vitamin A 35|g RE (1088|g carotenoids), E 0.4mg, K 14.4mg, B1 0.08mg, B2 0.1 mg, niacin 0.8 mg, B6 0.07mg, folate 37 |g, pantothenate 0.1 mg, C 16mg. A 60g serving is a source of folate, vitamin C.

bean, haricot Ripe seed of small variety of Phaseolus vulgaris (the unripe seed is the french bean). Also known as navy, string, pinto or snap bean.

Composition/100g: water 12.1 g, 1411 kJ (337kcal), protein 22.3 g, fat 1.5g (of which 8% saturated, 17% mono-unsaturated, 75% polyunsaturated), carbohydrate 60.8g (3.9g sugars), fibre 24.4g, ash 3.3g, Ca 147mg, Fe 5.5mg, Mg 175mg, P 407mg, K 1185mg, Na 5mg, Zn 3.7mg, Cu 0.8mg, Mn 1.4mg, Se 11 |g, K 2.5mg, B1 0.77mg, B2 0.16 mg, niacin 2.2 mg, B6 0.43mg, folate 364 |g, pantothenate 0.7 mg. An 85 g serving is a source of Ca, Se, vitamin B6, a good source of Zn, a rich source of Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, P, vitamin B1, folate. bean, Lima See bean, butter.

bean, mung Whole or split seed of Vigna radiata (Phaseolus aureus, P. radiatus), green gram.

Composition/100g: water 9.1g, 1453kJ (347kcal), protein 23.9 g, fat 1.1g (of which 33% saturated, 22% mono-unsaturated, 44% polyunsaturated), carbohydrate 62.6g (6.6g sugars), fibre 16.3g, ash 3.3g, Ca 132mg, Fe 6.7mg, Mg 189mg, P 367mg, K 1246mg, Na 15 mg, Zn 2.7 mg, Cu 0.9 mg, Mn 1mg, Se 8.2|g, vitamin A 6 |g RE (68 |g carotenoids), E 0.5 mg, K 9mg, B1 0.62 mg, B2 0.23mg, niacin 2.3 mg, B6 0.38mg, folate 625 |g, pantothenate 1.9mg, C 5mg. An 85g serving is a source of Ca, Zn, vitamin B2, B6, a good source of pantothenate, a rich source of Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, P, vitamin B1, folate. bean, red kidney Ripe seed of large variety of Phaseolus vulgaris.

Composition/100g: water 11.8g, 1394kJ (333kcal), protein 23.6g, fat 0.8g, carbohydrate 60g (2.2g sugars), fibre 24.9g, ash 3.8g, Ca 143mg, Fe 8.2mg, Mg 140mg, P 407mg, K 1406mg, Na 24mg, Zn 2.8mg, Cu 1 mg, Mn 1 mg, Se 3.2|g, vitamin E 0.2mg, K 19 mg, B1 0.53 mg, B2 0.22mg, niacin 2.1mg, B6 0.4mg, folate 394 |g, pantothenate 0.8mg, C 5mg. An 85g serving is a source of Ca, Zn, vitamin B2, B6, pantothenate, a rich source of Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, P, vitamin B1, folate. bean, runner Phaseolus multiflorus.

Composition/100g: (edible portion 88%) water 90.3g, 130kJ (31 kcal), protein 1.8g, fat 0.1 g, carbohydrate 7.1 g (1.4g sugars), fibre 3.4g, ash 0.7g, Ca 37mg, Fe 1mg, Mg 25mg, P 38mg, K 209 mg, Na 6mg, Zn 0.2 mg, Cu 0.1 mg, Mn 0.2 mg, Se 0.6 |g, vitamin A 35|g RE (1088|g carotenoids), E 0.4mg, K 14.4mg, B1 0.08 mg, B2 0.1 mg, niacin 0.8mg, B6 0.07mg, folate 37 |g, pantothenate 0.1 mg, C 16mg. A 60g serving is a source of folate, vitamin C.

beans, baked Usually mature haricot beans, cooked in sauce; often canned with tomato sauce and starch with added sugar (or sweetener) and salt. bean, soya See soya.

bean sprouts A number of peas, beans and seeds can be germinated and the sprouts eaten raw or cooked. The sprouting causes the synthesis of vitamin C. One of the commonest sprouts is that of the mung bean, but alfalfa and adzuki beans are also used. bean, string Either runner beans or french beans which have a climbing habit rather than growing as small bushes. The name derives from the method of growing them up strings. béarnaise sauce A thick French sauce made with egg yolk, butter, wine vinegar or white wine and chopped shallots, named after Béarn in SW France.

béchamel sauce Also known as white sauce. One of the basic French sauces, made with milk, butter and flour. Louis de Béchamel, of the court of Louis XIV of France, invested heavily in Newfoundland fisheries, and invented the sauce in 1654 to mask the flavour of dried cod he shipped across the Atlantic. bêche-de-mer The sea slug, Stichopus japonicus, an occasional food in many parts of the world; also called trepang. beechwood sugar See xylose.

beef Flesh of the ox (Bos taurus); flesh from young calves is veal.

Composition/100 g (varying with joint of meat): water 57.3 g, 1218kJ (291 kcal), protein 17.3g, fat 24g (of which 46% saturated, 50% mono-unsaturated, 4% polyunsaturated), cholesterol 74mg, carbohydrate 0g, ash 0.8g, Ca 8mg, Fe 1.8 mg, Mg 17 mg, P 154mg, K 267 mg, Na 59mg, Zn 3.6mg, Cu 0.1 mg, Se 18.1 |g, I 10|g, vitamin B1 0.08mg, B2 0.16mg, niacin 3.5 mg, B6 0.33 mg, folate 7 |g, B12 2.7 |g, pantothenate 0.3 mg. A 100 g serving is a source of Fe, P, niacin, vitamin B6, a good source of Se, Zn, a rich source of vitamin B12. beefalo A cross between the domestic cow (Bos taurus) and the buffalo (Bubalus spp.) which can be fattened on range grass, rather than requiring cereal and protein supplements.

Composition/100 g: water 70.9g, 599kJ (143kcal), protein 23.3 g,fat 4.8g (of which 48% saturated, 48% mono-unsaturated, 5% polyunsaturated), cholesterol 44mg, carbohydrate 0g, ash 0.9g, Ca 18mg, Fe 2.3mg, P 224mg, K 436mg, Na 78mg, Zn 4.9 mg, Se 9.8 |g, vitamin B1 0.04mg, B2 0.09mg, niacin 4.6mg, folate 15 |g, B12 2.4 |g, pantothenate 0.6mg. A 100g serving is a source of Fe, Se, a good source of P, niacin, a rich source of Zn, vitamin B12. beefburger See hamburger. beef, corned See corned beef.

beef, pressed (Salt beef); boned brisket beef that has been salted, cooked and pressed. Known as corned beef in USA. beefsteak fungus Large edible fungus (Fistulina hepatica) with a stringy, meat-like texture and deep red juice. See mushrooms. beer alcoholic beverage made by the fermentation of cereals; traditionally barley, but also maize, rice or sorghum. The first step is the malting of barley; it is allowed to sprout, when the enzyme amylase hydrolyses some of the starch to dextrins and maltose. The sprouted (malted) barley is dried, then extracted with hot water (the process of mashing) to produce wort. After the addition of hops for flavour, the wort is allowed to ferment. Two types of yeast are used in brewing: top fermenting yeasts which float on the surface of the wort and bottom or deep fermenters.

Most traditional British beers (ale, bitter, stout and porter) are brewed with top fermenting yeasts. UK beers, brown ale and stout, around 3-4% alcohol by volume;strong ale is 6.6% alcohol.Ale is a light-coloured beer, relatively high in alcohol content, and relatively heavily hopped. Bitter beers are darker and contain even more hops. Lager is the traditional mainland European type of beer, sometimes called Pilsner lager or Pils, since the original lager was brewed in Pilsen in Bohemia. It is brewed by deep fermentation.

Porter (first brewed in London in 1722, as a low cost beer for market porters) and stout are almost black in colour; they are made from wort containing some partly charred malt; milk stout is made from wort containing added lactose.

Lite beer is beer that has been allowed to ferment until virtually all of the carbohydrate has been converted to alcohol and so is lower in carbohydrate and higher in alcohol.

Low-alcohol beer may be made either by fermentation of a low carbohydrate wort, or by removal of much of the alcohol after fermentation (de-alcoholised beer).

Sorghum beer (African, made also from millet, maize or plantain) is a thick sour beverage consumed while still fermenting. Also known by numerous local names, kaffir beer, bouza, pombe, Bantu beer. 3-8% alcohol, 3-10% carbohydrate. bees' royal jelly See royal jelly.

beestings The first milk given by the cow after calving, the colostrum, rich in immunoglobulins. beeswax Wax from the honeycomb of the bee, used to glaze confectionery, in chewing gum, and as a flavouring agent. beet, leaf, or silver spinach See swiss chard. beetroot The root of Beta vulgaris, eaten cooked or pickled. Known simply as beet in N America. The violet-red pigment, betanin, is used as a food colour (E-162).

Composition/100g: (edible portion 67%) water 88g, 180kJ (43kcal), protein 1.6g, fat 0.2g, carbohydrate 9.6g (6.8g sugars), fibre 2.8g, ash 1.1g, Ca 16mg, Fe 0.8mg, Mg 23mg, P 40mg, K 325 mg, Na 78 mg, Zn 0.3 mg, Cu 0.1 mg, Mn 0.3 mg, Se 0.7 |g, vitamin A 2 |g RE (20 |g carotenoids), K 0.2mg, B1 0.03 mg, B2 0.04 mg, niacin 0.3 mg, B6 0.07 mg, folate 109 |g, pantothenate 0.2 mg, C 5mg. An 80g serving is a rich source of folate.

Composition/100g beet greens: (edible portion 56%) water 91 g, 92kJ (22kcal), protein 2.2g, fat 0.1 g, carbohydrate 4.3 g (0.5g sugars), fibre 3.7g, ash 2.3g, Ca 117mg, Fe 2.6mg, Mg 70mg, P 41mg, K 762mg, Na 226mg, Zn 0.4mg, Cu 0.2mg, Mn 0.4mg, Se 0.9|g, vitamin A 316|g RE (5300|g carotenoids), E 1.5 mg, K 400mg, B1 0.1 mg, B2 0.22mg, niacin 0.4mg, B6 0.11 mg, folate 15 |g, pantothenate 0.3mg, C 30 mg. A 32g serving (1 leaf) is a source of vitamin A, C.

beet sugar See sugar; sugar beet.

beeturia Excretion of red-coloured urine after eating beetroot, due to excretion of the pigment betanin. It occurs, not consistently, in about one person in eight. bee wine Wine produced by fermentation of sugar, using a clump of yeast and lactic bacteria which rises and falls with the bubbles of carbon dioxide formed during fermentation, hence the name 'bee'. behenic acid Long-chain saturated fatty acid (C22:0). beikost Any additional food used in infant feeding other than human milk and infant milk formula; weaning foods. belching See eructation. bell pepper See pepper, sweet.

beluga Russian name for the white sturgeon (Acipenser huro), whose roe forms the most prized caviar. Benecol™ Spreads and yogurt containing stanols that inhibit the absorption of cholesterol from the intestinal tract. Bénédictine French liqueur invented about 1510 by the monks of the Benedictine Abbey of Fécamp in France. The Abbey was closed, and the recipe lost after the French revolution, then rediscovered about 1863. It is based on double-distilled brandy, flavoured with some 75 herbs and spices; 40% alcohol by volume and 30% sugar; 1.3MJ (300kcal)/100mL. Benedict-Roth spirometer See spirometer. Benedict's reagent Alkaline copper reagent (sodium citrate, sodium carbonate and copper sulphate) used for detection and semi-quantitative determination of glucose and other reducing sugars. Benedict's quantitative reagent also includes potassium thiocyanate and potassium ferrocyanide. The colour of the precipitate on boiling gives an indication of the concentration of glucose between 0.05 and 2%.

See also fehling's reagent; somogyi-nelson reagent. benniseed See sesame.

Benn's index Ratio of weight divided by heightp, where p is derived from weight/height ratio and the regression coefficient of log(weight) on log(height) for the population group. Values of p range between 1.60 and 1.83. bentonite See fuller's earth.

bentoo no tomo Japanese seasoning consisting of dried fish, salt, soy sauce and monosodium glutamate. benzedrine See amphetamine.

benzidine test Very sensitive test for blood; a green colour is developed when the sample is treated with a saturated solution of benzidine in glacial acetic acid, followed by hydrogen peroxide. benzoic acid A preservative normally used as the sodium, potassium or calcium salts and their derivatives (E-210-219), especially in acid foods such as pickles and sauces.

Occurs naturally in a number of fruits, including cranberries, prunes, greengages, cloudberries and cinnamon. Cloudberries contain so much benzoic acid that they can be stored for long periods of time without any precautions being taken against bacterial or fungal spoilage.

Benzoic acid and its derivatives are excreted conjugated with the amino acids glycine (forming hippuric acid) and alanine. Because of this, benzoic acid is sometimes used in the treatment of argininaemia, argininosuccinic aciduria and citrulli-naemia, permitting excretion of nitrogenous waste as these conjugates.

benzoyl peroxide Used as a bleaching agent for flour, see ageing. bergamot (1) A pear-shaped orange, Citrus bergamia, grown mainly in Calabria, Italy, for its peel oil.

(2) An ornamental herb, Monarda didyma, the dried leaves of which were used to make Oswego tea.

(3) A type of pear, Pyrus persica.

beriberi The result of severe and prolonged deficiency of vitamin b1, still a problem in parts of SE Asia where the diet is high in carbohydrate (polished rice) and poor in vitamin B1. In developed countries vitamin B1 deficiency is associated with alcohol abuse; while it may result in beriberi, more commonly the result is central nervous system damage, the wernicke-korsakoff syndrome.

In beriberi there is degeneration of peripheral nerves, starting in the hands and feet and ascending the arms and legs, with a loss of sensation and deep muscle pain. There is also enlargement of the heart, which may lead to oedema (wet beriberi), and death results from heart failure. Fatal heart failure may develop without the nerve damage being apparent (Shoshin or sudden beriberi).

The name is derived from the Bahasa-Malay word for sheep, to describe the curious sheep-like gait adopted by sufferers. berry Botanical term for fleshy juicy fruits with one or more seeds not having a stone, e.g. grape, gooseberry, tomato, banana, blackcurrant, cranberry. best before See date marking. beta-carotene (b-carotene) See carotene. betacyanins See betalains.

betaine N-Trimethyl glycine, a source of methyl groups in various reactions, especially the methylation of homocysteine to methionine in tissues other than the brain; an intermediate in the metabolism of choline. Occurs in beetroot and cottonseed. (Obsolete names lycine, oxyneurine.) betalains Red and yellow N-containing pigments (chromoalka-loids) in plants. Betacyanins (e.g. betanin and isobetanin in beetroot) are red, betaxanthins yellow. Unlike anthocyanins the colour is little affected by pH. betanin Red-purple betacyanin pigment in beetroot; permitted food colour E-162. Betatene™ Mixed carotenoids from the alga Dunaliella salina. betaxanthins See betalains.

betel Leaves of the creeper Piper betel, chewed in some parts of the world for their stimulating effect, due to the presence of the alkaloids arecoline and guvacoline. The leaves are chewed with the nuts of the areca palm, Arecha catechu, which is therefore often called the betel palm, and the nut is called betel nut.

The Indian delicacy pan is based on betel leaf and areca nut, together with aromatic spices and herbs. beurre manié Butter with an equal amount of flour blended in, used for thickening sauces. bezafibrate See fibric acid.

bezoar A hard ball of undigested food, sometimes together with hair, which forms in the stomach or intestine and can cause obstruction. Foods with a high content of pectin can form bezoars if swallowed without chewing. The name is derived from the Arabic meaning protection against poison, since bezoars were formerly believed to have protective properties.

See also gastrolith; trichobezoar. BHA See butylated hydroxyanisole.

bhaji (1) Chinese spinach (Amaranthus gangeticus) also known as callaloo.

(2) Also bhajia, Indian vegetable fritters, normally made with gram (lentil) flour. bhatura Indian; deep fried flat bread; the dough is leavened with yogurt (dahi puri) or curds (khamiri puri) and fermented overnight before cooking. bhindi See okra.

BHT See butylated hydroxytoluene. BIE See bioelectrical impedance.

biffins Apples that have been peeled, partly baked, then pressed and dried. bifidobacteria See probiotics.

bifidogenic Promoting the growth of (beneficial) bifidobacteria in the intestinal tract; see bifidus factor; prebiotics; probiotics. bifidus factor A carbohydrate in human milk that contains nitrogen and stimulates the growth of Lactobacillus bifidus in the intestine. In turn, this organism lowers the pH of the intestinal contents and suppresses the growth of E. COLI and other pathogenic bacteria.

See also lactulose; prebiotics.

bigarade (bigaradier) See orange, bitter. biguanides See hypoglycaemic agents.

bijon South-east Asian; noodles made from fermented maize kernels and cornflour. bilberry The berry of wild shrubs of the genus Vaccinium, not generally cultivated.Variously known as whortleberry, blaeberry, whinberry, huckleberry. bile Fluid produced by the liver and stored in the gall bladder before secretion into the small intestine (duodenum) via the bile duct. It contains the bile salts, bile pigments (bilirubin and biliverdin) and cholesterol. It is alkaline, and neutralises the acid from the stomach as the food reaches the small intestine.

Relatively large amounts of vitamin b12 and folic acid are secreted in the bile and then reabsorbed from the small intestine (enterohepatic circulation). Most of the cholesterol and bile salts are also reabsorbed from the small intestine.

See also gastrointestinal tract. bile salts (bile acids) Salts of cholic and chenodeoxycholic acids, secreted in the bile as glycine and taurine conjugates; act as emulsifying agents in the absorption of fats. Also important as the cofactor of carotene dioxygenase (EC

Bacterial metabolism in the colon leads to hydrolysis of the conjugates and formation of the secondary bile salts, lithocholic and deoxycholic acids, which are absorbed and then resecreted in the bile, again as glycine and taurine conjugates. Total secretion of bile salts is about 30g/day; faecal output l-2g/day.

lithocholic acid deoxycholic acid

Gaining Weight 101

Gaining Weight 101

Find out why long exhausting workouts may do more harm than good. Most of the body-building workout and diet regimens out there are designed for the guys that gain muscle and fat easily. They focus on eating less and working out more in order to cut the excess fat from their bodies while adding needed muscle tone.

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