abalone A shellfish (mollusc), Haliotus splendens, H. rufescens, H. cracherodii, also sometimes called ormer, or sea ear. Found especially in waters around Australia, and also California and Japan, the Channel Islands and France.
Composition/100g: water 75g, 440kJ (105kcal), protein 17g, fat 0.8 g, cholesterol 85 mg, carbohydrate 6g, ash 1.6g, Ca 31 mg, Fe 3.2mg, Mg 48mg, P 190mg, K 250mg, Na 301mg, Zn 0.8mg, Cu 0.2 mg, Se 45 |g, vitamin A 2 |g retinol, E 4mg, K 23 mg, B1 0.19mg, B2 0.1 mg, niacin 1.5 mg, B6 0.15 mg, folate 5 |g, B12 0.7 |g, pantothenate 3mg, C 2mg. An 85g serving is a source of Cu, Fe, Mg, vitamin B1, a good source of P, a rich source of Se, vitamin E, B12, pantothenate. abscisic acid Plant hormone with growth inhibitory action; the dormancy-inducing hormone, responsible for shedding of leaves by deciduous trees. In herbaceous plants can lead to dwarf or compact plants with normal or enhanced fruit production. Used horticulturally to inhibit growth, and as a defoliant. absinthe A herb liqueur flavoured with wormwood (Artemisia absinthium); it is toxic and banned in many countries. Originally imported from Switzerland (where it was a patent medicine) to France in 1797 by Henri Louis Pernod; sale outlawed in USA in 1912, and in France and other countries in 1915 because of the toxicity of a-thujone. Now available in the EU with an upper limit of 10ppm thujone. absolute alcohol Pure ethyl alcohol.
absorption spectrometry Analytical technique based on absorbance of light of a specific wavelength by a solute. acarbose The name of a group of complex carbohydrates (oligosaccharides) which inhibit the enzymes of starch and dis-accharide digestion; used experimentally to reduce the digestion of starch and so slow the rate of absorption of carbohydrates. Has been marketed for use in association with weight-reducing diet regimes as a 'starch blocker', but there is no evidence of efficacy. acaricides Pesticides used to kill mites and ticks (Acaridae) which cause animal diseases and the spoilage of flour and other foods in storage.
accelase A mixture of enzymes that hydrolyse proteins, including an exopeptidase from the bacterium Streptococcus lactis, which is one of the starter organisms in dairy processing. The mixed enzymes are used to shorten the maturation time of cheeses and intensify the flavour of processed cheese. accelerated freeze drying See freeze drying. Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) The amount of a food additive that could be taken daily for an entire lifespan without appreciable risk. Determined by measuring the highest dose of the substance that has no effect on experimental animals, then dividing by a safety factor of 100. Substances that are not given an ADI are regarded as having no adverse effect at any level of intake.
See also no effect level. accoub Edible thistle (Goundelia tournefortii) growing in Mediterranean countries and Middle East. The flower buds when cooked have a flavour resembling that of asparagus or globe artichoke; the shoots can be eaten in the same way as asparagus and the roots as salsify. accuracy Of an assay; the closeness of the result to the 'true' result.
See also precision. ACE Angiotensin converting enzyme (EC 126.96.36.199), a peptidase in the blood vessels of the lungs which converts angiotensin I to active angiotensin II. Many of the drugs for treatment of hypertension are ACE inhibitors. acerola See cherry, west indian.
acesulphame (acesulfame) Methyl-oxathiazinone dioxide, a non-nutritive or intense (artificial) sweetener. The potassium salt, acesulphame-K, is some 200 times as sweet as sucrose. It is not metabolised, and is excreted unchanged. acetanisole A synthetic flavouring agent (p-methoxyacetophe-
none) with a hawthorn-like odour. acetic acid (ethanoic acid) One of the simplest organic acids, CH3COOH. It is the acid of vinegar and is formed, together with lactic acid, in pickled (fermented) foods. It is added to foods and sauces as a preservative. Acetobacter Genus of bacteria (family Bacteriaceae) that oxidise ethyl alcohol to acetic acid (secondary fermentation). Acetobacter pasteurianus (also known as Mycoderma aceti, Bacterium aceti or B. pasteuranum) is used in the manufacture of vinegar. acetoglycerides One or two of the long-chain fatty acids esteri-fied to glycerol in a triacylglycerol is replaced by acetic acid. There are three types: diacetomonoglycerides (e.g. diace-tomonostearin); monoacetodiglycerides (e.g. monoacetodis-
tearin); monoacetomonoglycerides (e.g. monoacetomono-stearin) in which one hydroxyl group of the glycerol is free. Also known as partial glyceride esters.
They are non-greasy and have lower melting points than the corresponding triacylglycerol. They are used in shortenings and spreads, as films for coating foods and as plasticisers for hard fats. acetohexamide Oral hypoglycaemic agent used to treat non-
insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. acetoin Acetyl methyl carbinol, a precursor of diacetyl, which is one of the constituents of the flavour of butter. Acetoin and diacetyl are produced by bacteria during the ripening of butter. acetomenaphthone Synthetic compound with vitamin k activity;
vitamin K3, also known as menaquinone-0. acetone One of the ketone bodies formed in the body in fasting. Also used as a solvent, e.g. in varnishes and lacquer. Chemically dimethyl ketone or propan-2-one ((CH3)2C=O). acetylated monoglyceride An emulsifier manufactured by inter-esterification of fats with glyceryl triacetate (triacetin) or acety-lation of monoglycerides with acetic anhydride. Characterised by sharp melting points and stability to oxidative rancidity. acetylcholine The acetyl ester of choline, produced as a neuro-transmitter at cholinergic nerve endings in the brain and at neu-romuscular junctions. achalasia Difficulty in swallowing owing to disturbance of the normal muscle activity of the oesophagus, sometimes causing regurgitation and severe chest pain. Also known as cardiospasm. achene Botanical term for small, dry one-seeded fruit which does not open to liberate the seed, e.g. nuts. ACH index Arm, chest, hip index. A method of assessing a person's nutritional status by measuring the arm circumference, chest diameter and hip width.
See also anthropometry. achlorhydria Failure of secretion of gastric acid and intrinsic factor, which are secreted by the gastric parietal (oxyntic) cells. Commonly associated with atrophy of the gastric mucosa with advancing age.
See also anaemia, pernicious; gastric secretion. acholia Absence or deficiency of bile secretion. achote See annatto.
achrodextrin dextrins formed during enzymic hydrolysis of starch which give no colour (achromos) when tested with iodine.
achromotricia Loss of the pigment of hair. One of the signs of pantothenic acid deficiency in animals, but there is no evidence that pantothenic acid affects loss of hair colour in human beings.
achylia Absence of a secretion; e.g. achylia gastrica is absence of gastric secretion. acid-base balance Body fluids are maintained just on the alkaline side of neutrality, pH 7.35-7.45, by buffers in the blood and tissues. Buffers include proteins, phosphates and carbon dioxide/bicarbonate, and are termed the alkaline reserve.
Acidic products of metabolism are excreted in the urine combined with bases such as sodium and potassium which are thus lost to the body. The acid-base balance is maintained by replacing them from the diet. acid dip Immersion of some fruits in an acid dip (commonly ascorbic and malic acids) prior to drying to improve the colour of the dried product by retarding enzymic browning. acid drops Boiled sweets with sharp flavour from tartaric acid
(originally acidulated drops); known as sourballs in USA. acid foods, basic foods These terms refer to the residue of the metabolism of foods. The minerals sodium, potassium, magnesium and calcium are base-forming, while phosphorus, sulphur and chlorine are acid-forming. Which of these predominates in foods determines whether the residue is acidic or basic (alkaline); meat, cheese, eggs and cereals leave an acidic residue, while milk, vegetables and some fruits leave a basic residue. Fats and sugars have no mineral content and so leave a neutral residue. Although fruits have an acid taste caused by organic acids and their salts, the acids are completely oxidised and the sodium and potassium salts yield an alkaline residue. acidity regulators See buffers.
acid number, acid value Of a fat, a measure of rancidity due to hydrolysis (see hydrolyse), releasing free fatty acids from the triacylglycerol of the fat; serves as an index of the efficiency of refining since the fatty acids are removed during refining and increase with deterioration during storage. Defined as milligrams of potassium hydroxide required to neutralise the free fatty acids in 1g of fat.
acidosis An increase in the acidity of blood plasma to below the normal range of pH 7.35-7.45, resulting from a loss of the buffering capacity of the plasma, alteration in the excretion of carbon dioxide, excessive loss of base from the body or metabolic overproduction of acids.
See also acid-base balance. acids, fruit Organic acids such as citric, malic, and tartaric, which give the sharp or sour flavour to fruits; often added to processed foods for taste.
acidulants Various organic acids used in food manufacture as flavouring agents, preservatives, chelating agents, buffers, gelling and coagulating agents. citric, fumaric, malic and tartaric acids are general purpose acidulants, other acids have more specialist uses.
ackee (akee) Fruit of Caribbean tree Blighia sapida. Toxic when unripe because of the presence of hypoglycin (a-amino-P-meth-ylene-cyclopropanyl-propionic acid), which can reduce blood sugar levels and cause 'vomiting sickness', coma and death.
AclameTM See alitame.
acorn Fruit of oak trees (Quercus spp.) used to make flour, as animal feed and historically a coffee substitute.
Composition/100g: (edible portion 62%) water 28 g, 1620kJ (387 kcal), protein 6.2g, fat 23.9g (of which 14% saturated, 66% mono-unsaturated, 20% polyunsaturated), carbohydrate 41 g, ash 1.4g, Ca 41mg, Fe 0.8mg, Mg 62mg, P 79mg, K 539 mg, Zn 0.5 mg, Cu 0.6 mg, Mn 1.3mg, vitamin A 2 |g RE, B1 0.11mg, B2 0.12 mg, niacin 1.8 mg, B6 0.53 mg, folate 87 |g, pantothenate 0.7 mg.
acorn sugar Quercitol, pentahydroxycyclohexane, extracted from acorns.
ACP Acid calcium phosphate, see phosphate.
acraldehyde See acrolein.
acrodermatitis enteropathica Severe functional zinc deficiency, leading to dermatitis, due to failure to secrete an endogenous zinc binding ligand in pancreatic juice, and hence failure to absorb zinc. The zinc binding ligand has not been unequivocally identified, but may be the tryptophan metabolite picolinic acid.
acrodynia Dermatitis seen in vitamin b6 deficient animals; no evidence for a similar dermatitis in human deficiency.
acrolein (acraldehyde) An aldehyde formed when glycerol is heated to a high temperature. It is responsible for the acrid odour and lachrymatory (tear-causing) vapour produced when fats are overheated. Chemically CH2=CH—CHO.
Acronize™ The antibiotic chlortetracycline; 'acronized' is used to describe products that have been treated with chlorte-tracycline, as, for example, 'acronized ice'.
ACTH See adrenocorticotrophic hormone.
Actilight™ Short-chain fructose oligosaccharide used as a prebi-otic food additive.
Actimel™ yogurt fortified with probiotics to boost immunity.
actin One of the contractile proteins of muscle.
active oxygen method A method of measuring the stability of fats and oils to oxidative damage by bubbling air through the heated material and following the formation of peroxides. Also known as the Swift stability test.
actomyosin See muscle.
acute phase proteins A variety of serum proteins synthesised in increased (or sometimes decreased) amounts in response to trauma and infection, so confounding their use as indices of nutritional status. ADA American Dietetic Association, founded Cleveland, Ohio,
1917; web site http://webdietitians.org/Public/index.cfm/. adai Indian; pancakes made from ground rice and legumes, the dough is left to undergo lactic acid bacterial fermentation before frying.
Adam's fig See plantain.
adaptogens Name coined for the active ingredients of ginseng and other herbs that are reputed to be anti-stress compounds. Addisonian pernicious anaemia See anaemia, pernicious. Addison's disease Degeneration or destruction of the cortex of the adrenal glands, leading to loss of glucocorticoid and min-eralocorticoid adrenal hormones, and resulting in low blood pressure, anaemia, muscular weakness, sodium loss and a low metabolic rate. Treatment is by administration of synthetic adrenocortical hormones. adenine A nucleotide, one of the purine bases of the nucleic acids (DNA and RNA). The compound formed between adenine and ribose is the nucleoside adenosine, which can form four phosphorylated derivatives important in metabolism: adenosine monophosphate (AMP, also known as adenylic acid); adenosine diphosphate (ADP); adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP).
See also atp; energy; metabolism. adenosine See adenine. adermin Obsolete name for vitamin b6. ADH Antidiuretic hormone, see vasopressin. ADI See acceptable daily intake.
adiabatic A process that involves change in temperature without transfer of heat, as for example cooling by expanding the volume of a gas, or heating by compressing it; also known as constant entropy processes. No heat is added or removed from a system.
See also isobaric; isothermal. adipectomy Surgical removal of subcutaneous fat. adipocytes Cells of adipose tissue.
adipocytokines, adipokines cytokines secreted by adipose tissue.
adiponectin hormone secreted by adipocytes that seems to be involved in energy homeostasis; it enhances insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance, as well as oxidation of fatty acids in muscle. Its blood concentration is reduced in obese people and those with type II diabetes mellitus.
adipose tissue Body fat, the cells that synthesise and store fat, releasing it for metabolism in fasting. Also known as white adipose tissue, to distinguish it from the metabolically more active brown adipose tissue. Much of the body's fat reserve is subcutaneous; in addition there is adipose tissue around the organs, which serves to protect them from physical damage.
In lean people, between 20 and 25% of body weight is adipose tissue, increasing with age; the proportion is greater in people who are overweight or obese. Adipose tissue contains 82—88% fat, 2-2.6% protein and 10-14% water. The energy yield of adipose tissue is 34-38MJ (8000-9000kcal)/kg or 15.1-16.8MJ (3600-4000 kcal)/lb. adipose tissue, brown Metabolically highly active adipose tissue, unlike white adipose tissue, which has a storage function; is involved in heat production to maintain body temperature as a result of partial uncoupling of electron transport (see electron transport chain) and oxidative phosphorylation. Colour comes from its high content of mitochondria.
See also uncoupling proteins. adiposis Presence of an abnormally large accumulation of fat in the body, also known as liposis. Adiposis dolorosa is painful fatty swellings associated with nervous system defects.
adirondack bread American baked product made from ground maize, butter, wheat flour, eggs and sugar. adlay The seeds of a wild grass (Job's tears, Coix lachryma-jobi) botanically related to maize, growing wild in parts of Africa and Asia and eaten especially in the SE Pacific region. ADP Adenosine diphosphate, see adenine; atp. adrenal glands Also called the suprarenal glands, small endocrine glands situated just above the kidneys. The inner medulla secretes the hormones adrenaline and noradrenaline, while the outer cortex secretes steroid hormones known as corticosteroids, including Cortisol and aldosterone. adrenaline (epinephrine) A hormone secreted by the medulla of the adrenal gland, especially in times of stress or in response to fright or shock. Its main actions are to increase blood pressure and to mobilise tissue reserves of glucose (leading to an increase in the blood glucose concentration) and fat, in preparation for flight or fighting. adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) A hormone secreted by the anterior part of the pituitary gland which stimulates the adrenal gland to secrete corticosteroids. aduki beans See bean, adzuki.
adulteration The addition of substances to foods, etc., in order to increase the bulk and reduce the cost, with the intent to defraud the purchaser. Common adulterants were starch in spices, water in milk and beer, etc. The British Food and Drugs Act (1860) was the first legislation to prevent such practices.
adverse reactions to foods (1) Food aversion, unpleasant reactions caused by emotional responses to certain foods rather than to the foods themselves, which are unlikely to occur in blind testing when the foods are disguised.
(2) Food allergy, physiological reactions to specific foods or ingredients due to an immunological response. antibodies to the allergen are formed as a result of previous exposure or sensitisation, and cause a variety of symptoms when the food is eaten, including gastrointestinal disturbances, skin rashes, asthma and, in severe cases, anaphylactic shock, which may be fatal.
(3) Food intolerance, physiological reactions to specific foods or ingredients which are not due to immunological responses, but may result from the irritant action of spices, pharmacological actions of naturally occurring compounds or an inability to metabolise a component of the food as a result of an enzyme defect.
See also amino acid disorders; disaccharide intolerance; genetic diseases.
adzuki bean See bean, adzuki.
aerobic (1) Aerobic micro-organisms (aerobes) are those that require oxygen for growth; obligate aerobes cannot survive in the absence of oxygen. The opposite are anaerobic organisms, which do not require oxygen for growth; obligate anaerobes cannot survive in the presence of oxygen.
(2) Aerobic exercise is a sustained level of exercise without excessive breathlessness; the main metabolic pathways are aerobic glycolysis and citric acid cycle, and P-oxidation of fatty acids, as opposed to maximum exertion, when muscle can metabolise anaerobically, producing lactic acid, which is metabolised later, creating a need for increased respiration after the exercise has ceased (so-called oxygen debt).
Aeromonas spp. Food poisoning micro-organisms that produce endotoxins after adhering to epithelial cells in the gut. Infective dose 106-108 organisms, onset 6-48 h, duration 24-48 h; TX 188.8.131.52.
aerophagy Swallowing of air.
aerosol cream Cream sterilised and packaged in aerosol canisters with a propellant gas to expel it from the container, giving con-
veniently available whipped cream. Gelling agents and stabilisers may also be added. aerosporin See polymyxins.
aesculin (esculin) A glucoside of dihydroxycoumarin found in the leaves and bark of the horse chestnut tree (Aesculus hippocas-tanum) which has an effect on capillary fragility. AFD Accelerated freeze drying, see freeze drying. aflata West African; part of a fermented dough that is boiled, then mixed with the remaining dough to make akpiti or kenkey. aflatoxins Group of carcinogenic mycotoxins formed by Aspergillus flavus, A. parasiticus and A. nominus growing on nuts, cereals, dried fruit and cheese, especially when stored under damp warm conditions. Fungal spoilage of foods with A. flavus is a common problem in many tropical areas, and aflatoxin is believed to be a cause of liver cancer in parts of Africa. Afla-toxins can be secreted in milk, so there is strict control of the level in cattle feed. AFM Atomic force microscopy, see microscope, atomic force. agalactia Failure of the mother to secrete enough milk to feed a suckling infant.
agar Dried extracts from various seaweeds, including Gelidium and Gracilaria spp. It is a partially soluble non-starch polysaccharide, composed of galactose units, which swells with water to form a gel, and is used in soups, jellies, ice cream and meat products. Also used as the basis of bacteriological culture media, as an adhesive, for sizing silk and as a stabiliser for emulsions. Also called agar-agar, macassar gum, vegetable gelatine. Blood agar is a microbiological culture medium containing 5-10% horse blood.
agave nectar A bulk sweetener from the blue agave (Agave tequilana). Mainly fructose, 30% sweeter than sucrose. ageing (1) As wines age, they develop bouquet and a smooth mellow flavour, associated with slow oxidation and the formation of esters.
(2) The ageing of meat by hanging in a cool place for several days results in softening of the muscle tissue, which stiffens after death (rigor mortis), due to anaerobic metabolism leading to the formation of lactic acid.
(3) Ageing of wheat flour for bread making is due to oxidation, either by storage for some weeks after milling or by chemical action. Freshly milled flour produces a weaker and less resilient dough, and hence a less 'bold' loaf, than flour that has been aged. Chemicals used to age (improve) flour include ammonium persulphate, ascorbic acid, chlorine, sulphur dioxide, potassium bromate and cysteine. In addition, nitrogen peroxide or benzoyl peroxide may be used to bleach flour, and chlorine dioxide both to bleach and age. agene Nitrogen trichloride, first introduced in 1919 as a bleaching and improving agent for wheat flour in bread making. It reacts with the amino acid methionine in proteins to form the toxic compound methionine sulphoximine, and is no longer used. ageusia Loss or impairment of the sense of taste. agglomeration The process of producing a free-flowing, dust-free powder from substances such as dried milk powder and wheat flour, by moistening the powder with droplets of water and then redrying in a stream of air. The resulting agglomerates can readily be wetted. agglutinins See lectins.
agidi West African; thick gruel prepared by soaking maize, then grinding and leaving to undergo lactic acid bacterial fermentation before the paste (koko) is cooked. aginomoto See monosodium glutamate. agouti mouse A genetically obese mouse; the agouti gene is normally expressed only in hair follicles, and only during hair growth, when it antagonises melanocortin receptors. In the obese yellow mutant the gene is expressed in all tissues, and at all times, when it antagonises the melanocortin receptors in the hypothalamus that normally inhibit feeding. Expression of the agouti gene is variable, depending on maternal nutrition; this is an epigenetic event, linked to failure of methylation of cpg islands in DNA. Agrobacterium tumefaciens A bacterium that transforms plant cells into tumorous crown gall cells by introducing bacterial DNA into the host cell. Widely exploited as a means of creating transgenic plants. AI Adequate Intake, level of intake of a micronutrient that is more than adequate to meet requirements; based on observed levels of intake, used when there is inadequate information to derive reference intakes. air broom A device used for cooling and dislodging powder deposits from the inner wall of a spray-drying chamber. A perforated pipe rotates inside the chamber, close to the inner wall, and directs cool air onto it. This disturbs any powder that has accumulated on the wall and cools it, making it easier to handle and transport.
air classification A way of separating the particles of powdered materials in a current of air, on the basis of their weight and size or density. Particularly applied to the fractionation of the endosperm of milled wheat flour; smaller particles are richer in protein. Various fractions range from 3 to 25% protein.
air cycle See heat pump.
airfuge Air-driven bench-top ultra-CENTRiFUOE using frictionless magnetic suspension of the rotor; can achieve 160000g in 30 s. air/powder separator A device for separating powder from an air or other gas stream, used to recover fine dried powder from the exhaust air leaving a spray-drying chamber. ajinomoto See monosodium glutamate ajowan Thyme-flavoured seed of Carum ajowan, used in Indian and Middle Eastern cuisine. akee See ackee.
akpiti West African; fried doughnuts made from maize (and sometimes plantain flour); the dough is left to undergo a lactic acid bacterial fermentation. Part of the fermented dough is boiled (aflata), mixed with the remainder and fried. Awule bolo is similar, but made with rice flour, banku from sorghum, millet or barley. ala See bulgur.
alactasia Partial or complete deficiency of the enzyme lactase in the small intestine, resulting in an inability to digest the sugar lactose in milk, and hence intolerance of milk and milk products.
See also disaccharide intolerance. alanine A non-essential amino acid; abbr Ala (A), Mr 89.1, pKa
2.35, 9.87, codons GCNu. b-alanine An isomer of alanine in which the amino group is attached to carbon-3 rather than carbon-2 as in alanine; it is important as part of pantothenic acid, carnosine and anserine, Mr 89.1, ptfa 3.55,10.24. alant starch See inulin.
albacore A long-finned species of tunny fish, Thunnus alalunga, usually canned as tuna fish. albedo The white pith (mesocarp) of the inner peel of citrus fruits, accounting for some 20-60% of the whole fruit. It consists of sugars, cellulose and pectins, and is used as a commercial source of pectin. albumin (albumen) A specific class of relatively small proteins that are soluble in water and readily coagulated by heat. Ov-albumin is the main protein of egg white, lactalbumin occurs in milk, and plasma or serum albumin is one of the major blood proteins. Serum albumin concentration is sometimes measured as an index of protein-energy malnutrition. Often used as a non-specific term for proteins (e.g. albuminuria is the excretion of proteins in the urine). albumin index A measure of the quality or freshness of an egg -the ratio of the height: width of the albumin when the egg is broken onto a flat surface.As the egg deteriorates, so the albumin spreads further, i.e. the albumin index decreases. albumin milk See milk, protein.
albuminoids Fibrous proteins that have a structural or protective rather than enzymic role in the body. Also known as scleropro-teins. The main proteins of the connective tissues of the body. There are three main types:
(1) collagen in skin, tendons and bones is resistant to enzymic digestion with trypsin and pepsin, and can be converted to soluble gelatine by boiling with water;
(2) elastin in tendons and arteries, which is not converted to gelatine on boiling;
(3) keratin, the proteins of hair, feathers, scales, horns and hooves, which are insoluble in dilute acid or alkali, and resistant to digestive enzymes.
albumin water Beverage made from lightly whisked egg white and cold water, seasoned with lemon juice and salt. alcaptonuria (alkaptonuria) A genetic disease of phenylalanine and tyrosine metabolism, owing to lack of the enzyme homogentisic acid oxidase (EC 184.108.40.206). As a result, homogen-tisic acid accumulates and is excreted in the urine; it oxidises in air and turns the urine black. The defect does not appear to be harmful.
alcohol Chemically alcohols are compounds with the general formula C„H(2n+1)OH. The alcohol in alcoholic beverages is ethanol (ethyl alcohol, C2H5OH); pure ethyl alcohol is also known as absolute alcohol. The energy yield of alcohol is 29 kJ (7kcal)/g.
The strength of alcoholic beverages is most often shown as the percentage of alcohol by volume (sometimes shown as % v/v or ABV). This is not the same as the percentage of alcohol by weight (% w/v) since alcohol is less dense than water (density 0.79): 5% v/v alcohol = 3.96% by weight (w/v); 10% v/v = 7.93% w/v and 40% v/v = 31.7% w/v.
See also proof spirit. alcohol, denatured Drinkable alcohol is subject to tax in most countries and for industrial use it is denatured to render it unfit for consumption by the addition of 5% methanol CH3OH, which is poisonous. This is industrial rectified spirit. For domestic use a purple dye and pyridine (which has an unpleasant odour) are also added; this is methylated spirit. alcoholic beverages Made by fermenting sugars in fruit juices with yeast to form alcohol. These include beer, cider and perry, 4-6% alcohol by volume; wines, 9-13% alcohol; spirits
(e.g. brandy, gin, rum, vodka, whisky) made by distilling fermented liquor, 37-45% alcohol; liqueurs made from distilled spirits, sweetened and flavoured, 20-40% alcohol; and fortified wines (see madeira; port; sherry; wine, apéritif) made by adding spirit to wine, 18-25% alcohol.
See also alcohol; proof spirit. alcoholism Physiological addiction to alcohol, associated with persistent heavy consumption of alcoholic beverages. In addition to the addiction, there may be damage to the liver (cirrhosis), stomach (gastritis) and pancreas (pancreatitis), as well as behavioural changes and peripheral nerve damage.
See also wernicke-korsakoff syndrome. alcohol units For convenience in calculating intakes of alcohol, a unit of alcohol is defined as 8g (10mL) of absolute alcohol; this is the approximate amount in 1/2 pint (300 mL) beer, a single measure of spirit (25mL) or a single glass of wine (100mL). The upper limit of prudent consumption of alcohol is 21 units (168g alcohol) per week or 4 units per day, for men and 14 units (112g alcohol) per week or 3 units per day, for women. aldehydes Compounds containing a carbonyl (C=O) group, in which one remaining valency of the carbon is occupied by hydrogen and the other by an aliphatic or aromatic group. Formed by oxidation of alcohols; further oxidation yields carboxylic acids.
alderman's walk The name given in London to the longest and finest cut from the haunch of venison or lamb. aldosterone A mineralocorticoid steroid hormone secreted by the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal cortex (see adrenal gland); acts to regulate sodium and potassium transport by stimulating the renal tubule resorption of sodium. Synthesis and secretion stimulated by angiotensin. Aldosteronism is overproduction of aldosterone leading to hypertension. ale See beer.
alecost An aromatic herbaceous plant, Tanacetum (Chrysanthemum) balsamita, related to tansy, used in salads and formerly used to flavour ale. aleurone layer The single layer of large cells under the bran coat and outside the endosperm of cereal grains. It forms about 3% of the weight of the grain, and is rich in protein, as well as containing about 20% of the vitamin b1, 30% of the vitamin b2 and 50% of the niacin of the grain. Botanically the aleurone layer is part of the endosperm, but in milling it remains attached to the inner layer of the bran. alewives River herrings, Pomolobus (Alosa) pseudoharengus, commonly used for canning after salting.
alexanders A herb, black lovage (Smyrnium olisatrum) with a celery-like flavour. alfacalcidiol 1a-Hydroxycholecalciferol; synthetic vitamin d analogue used in treatment of conditions associated with failure of the renal 1-hydroxy lation of calcidiol to active calcitriol. Undergoes 25-hydroxylation to calcitriol in the liver. alfalfa Or lucerne, Medicago sativa, commonly grown for animal feed or silage, and widely consumed as bean sprouts.
Sprouted beans, composition/100g: water 91 g, 121 kJ (29kcal), protein 4 g, fat 0.7 g, carbohydrate 3.8 g (0.2 g sugars), fibre 2.5 g, ash 0.4g, Ca 32mg, Fe 1 mg, Mg 27 mg, P 70 mg, K 79 mg, Na 6 mg, Zn 0.9 mg, Cu 0.2 mg, Mn 0.2mg, Se 0.6 |g, vitamin A 8 |g RE (99 |g carotenoids), K 30.5mg, B1 0.08mg, B2 0.13mg, niacin 0.5mg, B6 0.03 mg, folate 36 |g, pantothenate 0.6 mg, C 8 mg. algae Simple plants that do not show differentiation into roots, stems and leaves. They are mostly aquatic, either seaweeds or pond and river-weeds. Some seaweeds, such as dulse and irish moss, have long been eaten, and a number of unicellular algae, including Chlorella, Scenedesmus and spirulina spp. have been grown experimentally as novel sources of food (50-60% of the dry weight is protein), but are used only as dietary supplements. algin Gum derived from alginic acid (see alginates). alginates Salts of alginic acid found in many seaweeds as calcium salts or the free acid. Chemically, alginic acid is a non-starch polysaccharide of mannuronic acid. Iron, magnesium and ammonium salts of alginic acid form viscous solutions and hold large amounts of water.
Used as thickeners, stabilisers and gelling, binding and emulsifying agents in food manufacture, especially ice cream and synthetic cream. Trade name Manucol.
Used in combination with magnesium and aluminium hydroxides in antacids; alginate-containing antacids form a 'raft' floating on the gastric contents, so reducing oesophageal reflux. alimentary canal See gastrointestinal tract. alimentary pastes See pasta.
aliphatic organic compounds with (branched or straight) open chain structure, as distinct from cyclic compounds which contain rings of carbon atoms. Cyclic organic compounds that are not aromatic are called alicyclic. alitame Synthetic intense sweetener, an amide of aspartyl D-alanine (L-aspartyl-N-(2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-3-thietanyl)-D-alaninamide).
alkaline dip Immersion of some fruits, which are to be dried whole, in an alkaline solution to increase the rate of drying, as a result of forming fine cracks in the skin of the fruit. alkaline phosphatase Enzyme (EC 220.127.116.11) that hydrolyses a variety of phosphate esters; has alkaline pH optimum. Serum enzyme comes from a variety of tissues, but especially bone, and elevated serum levels indicate metabolic bone disease or vitamin d deficiency, hence a sensitive index of preclinical rickets or osteomalacia. The enzyme in raw milk has a similar D-value to heat-resistant pathogens, and measurement is used to test the effectiveness of pasteurisation. alkaline tide Small increase in pH of blood after a meal as a result of the secretion of gastric acid. alkali reserve See buffers.
alkaloids Term proposed by Meissner (1819) for naturally occurring nitrogen-containing organic bases that have pharmacological actions in humans and other animals, usually basic, normally contain nitrogen in a heterocyclic ring; most are derivatives of amino acids. Many are found in plant foods, including potatoes and tomatoes (the Solanum alkaloids), or as the products of fungal action (e.g. ergot), although they also occur in animal foods (e.g. tetrodotoxin in puffer fish, tetramine in shellfish). Alkylamines, choline, purines and pyrimidines are not usually considered as alkaloids.
See also protoalkaloids; pseudoalkaloids. alkalosis Increase in blood pH above pH 7.45; may be caused by excessive loss of carbon dioxide (e.g. in hyperventilation), excessive intake of bases, as in antacid drugs, loss of gastric juice by vomiting, high intake of sodium and potassium salts of weak organic acids.
See also acid-base balance; acidosis. alkannet (alkanet, alkannin, alkanna) A colouring obtained from the root of Anchusa (Alkanna) tinctoria which is insoluble in water but soluble in alcohol and oils. Blue in alkali (or in the presence of lead), crimson with tin, and violet with iron. Used for colouring fats, cheese, essences, etc. Also known as orcanella.
allantoin Oxidation product of uric acid; excretory end-product of purine metabolism in most animals other than humans and other primates, which lack the enzyme uric acid oxidase (EC 18.104.22.168) and therefore excrete uric acid. Some allantoin is formed non-enzymically by reaction of uric acid with oxygen radicals, and uric acid may be considered to be part of the body's antiox-idant defence.
allergen A compound, commonly a protein, which causes the production of antibodies, and hence an allergic reaction.
See also adverse reactions to foods; allergy. allergy Often used indiscriminately to cover a number of adverse reactions to food, true allergy is an immune response to a food leading to the formation of immunoglobulin E (IgE) which results in the release of histamine and leucotrienes, among other substances, into the tissues. They are released from mast cells in eyes, skin, respiratory system and intestinal system. Allergy requires an initial sensitisation; reactions may range from relatively short-lived discomfort to anaphylactic shock, which can be fatal.
Over 170 foods have been shown to cause allergic reactions. The main serious food allergens include milk and eggs (and their products), wheat, soya, nuts, shellfish and fruits, and also, to a lesser extent, sunflower and cottonseeds, molluscs and certain beans. Allergens are usually active in extremely small amounts so that contamination from offending foodstuffs can result from traces left on processing machinery and utensils.
allicin A sulphur-containing compound (diallyl thiosulphinate; thio-2-propene-L-sulfinic acid-5-allyl ester), partially responsible for the flavour of garlic. Formed by the action of allinase on alliin (S-(2-propenyl)-L-cysteine sulphoxide) when the cells are disrupted, releasing the enzyme to act on the substrate. Has antibacterial properties. alligator pear See avocado. alliin, alliinase See allicin.
Allinson bread A wholewheat bread named after Allinson, who advocated its consumption in England at the end of the 19th century, as did Graham in the USA (hence graham bread). Now trade name for a wholemeal loaf. Allkream™ fat replacer made from protein. alloisoleucine Isomer of isoleucine. allolactose Isomer of lactose, p1,6-galactosyl-glucose. allotriophagy An unnatural desire for abnormal foods; also known as cissa, cittosis and pica. alloxan Pyrimidine derivative used experimentally to induce insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus; specifically cytotoxic to P-cells of the pancreatic islets of Langerhans, which secrete insulin. Now largely superseded by streptozotocin. alloxazine The tricyclic structure that is the central part of the molecule of riboflavin (vitamin b2). allspice Dried fruits of the evergreen plant Pimenta officinalis, also known as pimento (as distinct from pimiento) or Jamaican pepper. The name allspice derives from the aromatic oil, which has an aroma similar to a mixture of cloves, cinnamon and nutmeg.
allysine Semi-aldehyde of amino-adipic acid in connective tissue proteins; forms cross-links with lysine in collagen, and complex links between three or four peptide chains in elastin (desmosines and isodesmosines). It is formed by oxidative deamination of peptide-bound lysine by the enzyme lysyl oxidase (EC 22.214.171.124), which is copper-dependent, and its activity is impaired in dietary copper deficiency and by P-aminopropionitrile, one of the toxins in Lathyrus spp. (see odoratism). almond A nut, the seed of Prunus amygdalus var. dulcis. All varieties contain the glycoside amygdalin, which forms hydrogen cyanide when the nuts are crushed. The bitter almond, used for almond oil (P. amygdalus var. amara), may yield dangerous amounts of cyanide.
Composition/100g: (edible portion 40%) water 5.3 g, 2420kJ (578kcal), protein 21.3 g, fat 50.6 g (of which 8% saturated, 67% mono-unsaturated, 25% polyunsaturated), carbohydrate 19.7 g (4.8g sugars), fibre 11.8g, ash 3.1g, Ca 248mg, Fe 4.3mg, Mg 275mg, P 474mg, K 728mg, Na 1 mg, Zn 3.4mg, Cu 1.1 mg, Mn 2.5mg, Se 2.8|g, vitamin E 26mg, B1 0.24mg, B2 0.81 mg, niacin 3.9mg, B6 0.13 mg, folate 29|g, pantothenate 0.3 mg. A 20g serving (20 nuts) is a source of Cu, Mg, P, a good source of Mn, a rich source of vitamin E. almond oil Essential oil from the seeds of either the almond tree (Prunus amygdalis) or more commonly the apricot tree (P. armeniaca), containing benzaldehyde, hydrogen cyanide and benzaldehyde cyanohydrin. After removal of the hydrogen cyanide, used as a flavour and in perfumes and cosmetics. Composition 9% saturated, 73% mono-unsaturated, 18% polyunsat-urated, vitamin E 39 mg, K 7mg/100g. almond paste Ground almonds mixed with powdered sugar, bound with egg, used to decorate cakes and make petits fours. Also known as marzipan. aloe vera See laxatives.
Alpha-Laval™ (Alfa-Laval) centrifuge A continuous bowl centrifuge for separating liquids of different densities and for clarification. Widely used for cream separation. alum aluminum sulphate and aluminium potassium sulphate, used in pickles and to prevent discoloration of potatoes. aluminium (aluminum) The third most abundant element in the earth's crust (after oxygen and silicon) but with no known biological function. Present in small amounts in many foods but only a small proportion (0.01%) is absorbed. Aluminium is used in cooking vessels and as foil for wrapping food, as well as in cans and tubes.
The 'silver' beads used to decorate confectionery are coated with either silver foil or an alloy of aluminium and copper. baking powders containing sodium aluminium sulphate as the acid agent were used at one time (alum baking powders), and aluminium hydroxide and silicates are commonly used in antacid medications.
Aluminium salts are found in the abnormal nerve tangles in the brain in Alzheimer's disease, and it has been suggested that aluminium poisoning may be a factor in the development of the disease, although there is little evidence. ALV Available lysine value, see available lysine. alveograph A device for measuring the stretching quality of dough as an index of its protein quality for baking. A standard disc of dough is blown into a bubble and the pressure curve and bursting pressure are measured to give the stability, extensibility and strength of the dough. alverine citrate Bulking agent and antispasmodic used to treat irritable bowel syndrome and other colon disorders. AMA American Medical Association; web site http://www. ama-assn.org/.
amaranth (1) A Burgundy red colour (E-123), stable to light; trisodium salt of 1-(4-sulpho-1-naphthylazo)-2-naphthol-3,6-disulphonic acid. amaranth (2) Some Amaranthus spp. (A. paniculatus) are cultivated for their leaves (a good source of carotene) and seeds and others only for their leaves (A. polygamus and A. gracilis). Paste made from the seeds from A. hypochondrachus were widely eaten in central America, and used in religious ceremonies by the Aztecs.
Composition/100g: (edible portion 94%) water 91.7g, 96kJ (23kcal), protein 2.5 g, fat 0.3 g, carbohydrate 4g, ash 1.5 g, Ca 215mg, Fe 2.3mg, Mg 55mg, P 50mg, K 611mg, Na 20mg, Zn 0.9 mg, Cu 0.2 mg, Mn 0.9mg, Se 0.9 |g, K 1140mg, B1 0.03 mg, B2 0.16mg, niacin 0.7 mg, B6 0.19mg, folate 85 |g, pantothenate 0.1 mg, C 43mg. amarwa See orubisi.
ambali Indian; sour millet and rice cake; the dough is left to undergo a lactic acid bacterial fermentation before cooking. ambergris A waxy concretion obtained from the intestine of the sperm whale, containing cholesterol, ambrein and benzoic acid. Used in drugs and perfumery. Amberlite™ Group of polystyrene ion-exchange resins. Sul-phonic acid derivatives are used for cation exchange, basic types for anion exchange.
ambient-stable foods Foods that have been cooked in a can or plastic microwaveable container, so that only reheating is required prior to consumption.
See also retort pouches. amblyopia Poor sight not due to any detectable disease of the eye.
May occur in vitamin b2 deficiency. amenorrhoea Cessation of menstruation, normally occurring between the ages of 45 and 55 (the menopause), but sometimes at an early age, especially as a result of severe undernutrition (as in anorexia nervosa) when body weight falls below about 45 kg. Amer Picon™ Pungent bitters invented in 1830 by Gaston
Picon; contains quinine, gentian and orange. Ames test An in vitro test for the ability of chemicals, including potential food additives, to cause mutation in bacteria (the mutagenic potential). Commonly used as a preliminary screening method to detect substances likely to be carcinogenic. The test is based on treating bacteria that are already mutant at an easily detectable locus for reversal of the mutation (e.g. a strain of bacteria that cannot grow in the absence of histidine to a form that can do so).
amines Formed by the decarboxylation of amino acids. Physiologically active amines with vasoconstrictor (pressor) activity present in foods or formed by intestinal bacteria include tyra-mine, tryptamine, phenylethylamine and histamine.
Have been proposed as triggers for diet-induced migraine, and in patients taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors as antidepres-sant medication; intake of foods such as cheese, chocolate and fermented foods that are rich in these amines may provoke a potentially lethal hypertensive crisis. amino acid disorders A number of extremely rare genetic diseases, occurring between 1 and 80 per million live births, which affect the metabolism of individual amino acids; if untreated many result in mental retardation. Screening for those conditions that can be treated is carried out shortly after birth in most countries. Treatment is generally by feeding specially formulated diets providing minimal amounts of the amino acid involved.
See also argininaemia; argininosuccinic aciduria; citrulli-naemia; cystathioninuria; cystinuria; hartnup disease; homo-cystinuria; hyperammonaemia; maple syrup urine disease; phenylketonuria. amino acid, limiting The essential amino acid present in a protein in the lowest amount relative to the requirement for that amino acid. The ratio between the amount of the limiting amino acid in a protein and the requirement for that amino acid provides a chemical estimate of the nutritional value (protein quality) of that protein (chemical score). Most cereal proteins are limited by lysine, and most animal and other vegetable proteins by the sum of methionine + cysteine (the sulphur amino acids). In complete diets it is usually the sulphur amino acids that are limiting. amino acid profile Amino acid composition of a protein. amino acids The basic units from which proteins are made. Chemically compounds with an amino group (—NH2) and a carboxyl group (—COOH) attached to the same carbon atom (see p. 22).
Thirteen of the amino acids involved in proteins can be syn-thesised in the body, and so are called non-essential or dispensable amino acids, since they do not have to be provided in the diet. They are alanine, arginine, aspartic acid, asparagine, cys-teine, cystine, glutamic acid, glutamine, glycine, hydroxyproline, proline, serine and tyrosine.
Nine amino acids cannot be synthesised in the body at all and so must be provided in the diet; they are called the essential or indispensable amino acids: histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan and valine. Arginine may be essential for infants, since their requirement is greater than their ability to synthesise it.
Two of the non-essential amino acids are made in the body from essential amino acids: cysteine (and cystine) from methio-nine, and tyrosine from phenylalanine.
A number of other amino acids also occur in proteins, including hydroxyproline, hydroxylysine, y-carboxyglutamate and methylhistidine, but are nutritionally unimportant since they cannot be reutilised for protein synthesis. Other amino acids occur as intermediates in metabolic pathways, but are not required for protein synthesis and are nutritionally unimportant, although they may occur in foods. These include homocysteine, citrulline and ornithine. Some of the non-protein amino acids that occur in plants are toxic.
The amino acids are sometimes classified by the chemical nature of the side chain. Two are acidic: glutamic acid (glutamate) and aspartic acid (aspartate) with a carboxylic acid (—COOH) group in the side chain. Three, lysine, arginine and histidine, have basic groups in the side chain. Three, phenylala-nine, tyrosine and tryptophan, have an aromatic group in the side chain. Three, leucine, isoleucine and valine, have a branched chain structure. Two, methionine and cysteine, contain sulphur in the side chain; although cysteine is not an essential amino acid, it can be synthesised only from methionine, and it is conventional to consider the sum of methionine plus cysteine (the sulphur amino acids) in consideration of protein quality.
An alternative classification of the amino acids is by their metabolic fate; whether they can be utilised for glucose synthesis or not. Those that can give rise to glucose are termed glucogenic (or sometimes antiketogenic); those that give rise to ketones or acetyl CoA when they are metabolised are termed ketogenic. Only leucine and lysine are purely ketogenic. Isoleucine, phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan give rise to both ketogenic and glucogenic fragments; the remainder are purely glucogenic. amino acids, acidic Two of the amino acids, glutamic acid and aspartic acid, which have a carboxylic acid (—COOH) group in the side chain.
amino acids, antiketogenic See amino acids, glucogenic. amino acids, aromatic Three of the amino acids, phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan, which have an aromatic group in the side chain. histidine is technically also aromatic, but is not generally grouped with the aromatic amino acids. amino acids, basic Three of the amino acids, lysine, arginine and histidine, which have basic groups in the side chain. amino acids, branched chain Three of the amino acids, leucine, isoleucine and valine, which have a branched aliphatic side chain.
See also maple syrup urine disease. amino acids, glucogenic Those amino acids that can give rise to glucose when they are metabolised. Sometimes known as antike-togenic, since the glucose formed in their metabolism reduce the rate of production of ketone bodies. All except lysine and leucine can be used for glucose synthesis in the body, although some are also ketogenic. amino acids, ketogenic Those amino acids that give rise to ketone bodies or acetyl CoA when they are metabolised. leucine is purely ketogenic, and isoleucine, phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan give rise to both ketogenic and glucogenic fragments.
amino acids, non-protein A number of amino acids occur as metabolic intermediates, but are not involved in protein synthesis and are nutritionally unimportant, although they may occur in foods. These include ornithine and citrulline. Some in higher plants are toxic to animals and potentially so to humans, e.g. mimosine (in alfalfa), djenkolic acid (djenkola bean), hypoglycin (unripe ackee fruit), oxalylaminoalanine (Lathyrus spp.).
amino acids, sulphur Three amino acids, methionine, cysteine and cystine, contain sulphur in the side chain; although cysteine small neutral amino acids O
large neutral amino acids branched chain amino acids
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