F

FAD See flavin adenine dinucleotide. faeces Composed of undigested food residues, remains of digestive secretions that have not been reabsorbed, bacteria from the intestinal tract, cells, cell debris and mucus from the intestinal lining, substances excreted into the intestinal tract (mainly in the bile). The average amount is about 100g day, but varies widely depending on the intake of dietary fibre. faecolith Small hard mass of faeces, found especially in the vermiform appendix. faggot (1)...

Nonstarch Polysaccharides

Nor- Chemical prefix to the name of a compound indicating (1) One methyl (CH3) group has been replaced by hydrogen (e.g. noradrenaline can be considered to be a demethylated derivative of adrenaline). (2) A homologue of a compound containing one methylene (CH2) group fewer than the parent compound. (3) An isomer with an unbranched side-chain (e.g. norleucine, norvaline). noradrenaline Hormone secreted by the adrenal medulla together with adrenaline also a neurotransmitter. Physiological effects...

Terpeneless oil See terpenes

Terpenes Chemically consist of multiple isoprenoid (five-carbon) units. Monoterpenes consist of two isoprenoids sesquiterpenes of three, diterpenes of four, triterpenes of six, and tetraterpenes of eight. Phytol and retinol are diterpenes carotenes are tetraterpenes. Major components of the essential oils of citrus fruits,but not responsible for the characteristic flavour, and since they readily oxidise and polymerise to produce unpleasant flavours, removed from citrus oils by distillation or...

P

P. 4000 A class of synthetic sweeteners, chemically nitro-amino alkoxybenzenes (propoxyamino nitrobenzene is 4100 times as sweet as saccharin). They are not considered harmless and are not permitted in foods. PA 3679 Designation of a putrefactive anaerobic bacterium widely used in investigations of heat sterilisation. paak South-east Asian salty fish paste made by fermenting fish or shrimps with rice. PABA See maa-amino benzoic acid. pacificarins Compounds present in foods that resist...

Spaghetti See pasta

Spaghetti squash A gourd, also called cucuzzi, calabash, suzza melon often classed as summer squash but not a true squash. Only after cooking does the flesh resemble spaghetti in appearance. Composition 100 g (edible portion 71 ) water 92 g, 130 kJ (31kcal), protein 0.6g, fat 0.6g, carbohydrate 6.9g, ash 0.3g, Ca 23 mg, Fe 0.3 mg, Mg 12mg,P 12mg,K 108 mg, Na 17 mg, Zn 0.2 mg, Mn 0.1 mg, Se 0.3 g, vitamin A 3 g RE, B1 0.04mg, B2 0.02mg, niacin 0.9 mg, B6 0.1 mg, folate 12 g, pantothenate 0.4 mg,...

H

HACCP Hazard analysis of critical control points. A technique for identification of stages in a process (e.g. in food manufacture) where there are risks that can be anticipated, assigning a degree of seriousness and identifying control mechanisms. hachis Minced or chopped mixture of meat and herbs. haddock White fish, Melanogrammus aeglefinus. Composition 100g water 79.9g,364 kJ (87 kcal), protein 18.9g, fat 0.7g, cholesterol 57mg, carbohydrate 0g, ash 1.2g, Ca 33 mg, Fe 1mg, Mg 39mg, P 188mg,...

Q

QUAC stick Quaker arm circumference measuring stick. A stick used to measure height which also shows the 80th and 85th centiles of expected mid-upper arm circumference. Developed by a Quaker Service Team in Nigeria in the 1960s as a rapid and simple tool for assessment of nutritional status. See also anthropometry. quahog American bivalve mollusc, Venus mercenaria. quail Formerly a game bird, now so endangered in the wild that shooting is prohibited, but farmed to some extent. Two main species,...

I

Iatrogenic A condition caused by medical intervention or drug treatment iatrogenic nutrient deficiency is caused by drug-nutrient interactions. IBC Intermediate bulk container. iberian moss See carrageenan. ice cream A frozen confection made from fat, milk solids and sugar. Some European countries permit the use of non-milk fat and term the product ice cream, while if milk fat is used, it is termed dairy ice cream. According to UK regulations, contains not less than 5 fat and 7 other milk...

Prickly Pear Tooth Decay Caries

See packaging, modified atmosphere. cabbage Leaves of Brassica oleracea capitata. Composition 100g (edible portion 80 ) water 92.5 g, 100kJ (24 kcal), protein 1.2g, fat 0.2g, carbohydrate 5.4 g, fibre 2.3 g, ash 0.7 g, Ca 47 mg, Fe 0.6 mg, Mg 15 mg, P 23 mg, K 246 mg, Na 18 mg, Zn 0.2 mg, Mn 0.2 mg, Se 0.9 jg, vitamin A 6 jg RE, B1 0.05 mg, B2 0.03 mg, niacin 0.3 mg, B6 0.09 mg, folate 57 j.g, pantothenate 0.1 mg, C 51 mg. An 85 g serving is a good source of folate, a...

Recommended daily amount or allowance RDA See reference intakes

Recrystallisation Changes in shape, size or orientation of ice crystals in frozen foods that cause a loss of quality. rectal feeding Also known as nutrient enemata. The colon can absorb 1-2 L of solution per day maximum daily amount of glucose that can be given is 75g (equivalent to 1260kJ, 300kcal), and 1 g of nitrogen, in the form of hydrolysed protein (equivalent to 6g of protein). red blood cells See blood cells. red colours amaranth (E-123), carmoisine (E-122), cochineal (E-120),...

B

Baba A French cake supposedly invented by King Stanislas I of Poland and named after Ali Baba. 'Rum baba' is flavoured with rum a French modification using a 'secret' syrup was called brillat-savarin or savarin. babaco The seedless fruit of the tree Carica pentagona, related to the pawpaw, discovered in Ecuador in the 1920s, introduced into New Zealand in 1973, and more recently into the Channel Islands. babassu oil Edible oil from the wild Brazilian palm nut (Orbignya matiana or O. oleiferae),...

Bile Salts

Bilirubin, biliverdin The bile pigments, formed by catabolism of haemoglobin. Blood bilirubin is normally < 17 imol L when it rises above 20-30 imol L there is visible jaundice. biltong South African strips of dried meat, salted, spiced and dried in air for 10-14 days. binge-purge syndrome A feature of the eating disorder bulimia nervosa, characterised by the ingestion of excessive amounts of food and the excessive use of laxatives. Bingham fluid See plastic fluids. bio Commonly used to...

Blackcock See grouse

Blackcurrants Fruit of the bush Ribes nigra, of special interest because of their high vitamin C content. The British National Fruit Collection has 120 varieties. Composition 100g (edible portion 98 ) water 82g, 264kJ (63kcal), protein 1.4g, fat 0.4g, carbohydrate 15.4g, ash 0.9g, Ca 55 mg, Fe 1.5 mg, Mg 24 mg, P 59 mg, K 322 mg, Na 2mg, Zn 0.3 mg, Cu 0.1 mg, Mn 0.3mg, vitamin A 12 g RE , E 1mg, B1 0.05 mg, B2 0.05 mg, niacin 0.3 mg, B6 0.07mg, pantothenate 0.4mg, C 181mg. A 110g serving is a...

Vasoactive intestinal peptide VIP Protein secreted by the

Pancreas over-secretion can cause severe diarrhoea. vasoconstriction Constriction of the blood vessels the reverse of vasodilatation. vasodilatation (vasodilation) Dilation of the blood vessels the reverse of vasoconstriction. Caused by a rise in body temperature serves to lose heat from the body. vasopressin Antidiuretic hormone secreted by the pituitary acts to increase resorption of water in the kidneys and to constrict blood vessels. VCD See vacuum contact drying. VDP Volatile decomposition...

D

D-, L- and DL- Prefixes to chemical names for compounds that have a centre of asymmetry in the molecule, and which can therefore have two forms. Most naturally occurring sugars have the D-conformation apart from a few microbial proteins and some invertebrate peptides, all the naturally occurring amino acids have the l-configuration. Chemical synthesis yields a mixture of the d- and L-isomers (the racemic mixture), generally shown as dl-. See also isomers optical activity r- and s-. d- and l- An...

Pantothenic Acid And Coenzyme A

Papain Proteolytic enzyme (see proteolysis) (EC 3.4.22.2) from the juice of the pawpaw used in tenderising meat sometimes called vegetable pepsin. The enzyme is obtained as the dried latex on the skin of the fruit by scratching it while still on the tree, and collecting the flow. The rate of reaction is slow at room temperature, increasing to maximum activity at 80 C and rapidly inactivated at higher temperatures hence, it continues to ten-derise the meat during the early stages of cooking....

Showarma See kebab

Shrimp Small shellfish, species of the Paleamonidea and Pandal-idae (prawns), Crangon crangon (brown shrimp) and Pandalus montagui (pink shrimp). In the UK smaller fish are known as shrimp and larger as prawns in the USA all are called shrimp. Three species are farmed commercially the black tiger or giant tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon), the Chinese white (P. chinen-sis) and the eastern Pacific white shrimp (P. vannamet). Composition 100g water 76g, 444kJ (106kcal), protein 20.3g,fat 1.7g (of...

L

Lac A red colourant (a complex mixture of anthraquinones) obtained from the insect Laccifera lacca (Coccus lacca) found on the trees Schleichera oleosa, Ziziphus mauritiana and Butea monosperma, which grow in India and Malaysia. The lac insects are also the source of shellac. laccase See phenol oxidases. lacquer With reference to canned foods (see canning), a layer of synthetic resin is coated onto the tinplate and hardened with heat. The layer of lacquer protects the tin lining from attack by...

Shear stress or shearing force The force that moves a liquid

See also shear rate viscosity. shellfish A wide range of marine molluscs (abalone, clam, cockle, mussel, scallop, oyster, whelk, winkle) and crustacea (order Decapoda crab, crayfish, lobster, prawn, shrimp). shellfish poisoning Paralysis caused by eating shellfish contaminated with toxic organisms (dinoflagellates) that contain saxi-toxin and related toxins. See also red tide. sherbet (1) Arabic name for water-ice (sugar, water and flavouring), also known by French name, sorbet, and the Italian...

M

See packaging, modified atmosphere. maasa W. African shallow fried cakes made from millet or sorghum dough that has been allowed to undergo lactic acid bacterial fermentation for a short time. maatjes See matjes herring. macadamia nut Or Queensland nut, fruit of Macadamia ternifolia. Composition 100g (edible portion 31 ) water 1.4g, 3006kJ (718kcal), protein 7.9g, fat 75.8g (of which 17 saturated, 81 mono-unsaturated, 2 polyunsaturated), carbohydrate 13.8g (4.6g sugars),...

Vinegar nonbrewed or nonbrewed condiment A solution of

Acetic acid, 4-8 , coloured with caramel. vinegar, rice Made from sak . vine leaves Leaves of the grape vine, Vitis vinifera, used in Mediterranean cuisine. Composition 100 g (edible portion 95 ) water 73 g, 389 kJ (93 kcal), protein 5.6g, fat 2.1 g (of which 20 saturated, 7 mono-unsaturated, 73 polyunsaturated), carbohydrate 17.3g (6.3 g sugars), fibre 11g, ash 1.6g, Ca 363 mg, Fe 2.6mg, Mg 95 mg, P 91 mg, K 272 mg, Na 9mg, Zn 0.7mg, Cu 0.4mg, Mn 2.9mg, Se 0.9 g, vitamin A 1376 g RE (18579 g...

Rice wine See sake

Ricin A lectin in the castor oil bean. ricing Culinary term cutting into small pieces about the size of rice grains. rickets Malformation and undermineralisation of the bones in growing children due to deficiency of vitamin d, leading to poor absorption of calcium. In adults the equivalent is osteomalacia. In early (subclinical) rickets there is a marked elevation of plasma alkaline phosphatase. Refractory or vitamin D-resistant rickets does not respond to normal amounts of vitamin D but...

Suet crust See pastry

Sufu Chinese cheese, made by inoculating soybean curd (tofu) with the mould Actinomucor elegans stored after adding salt and alcohol. sugar Table sugar or sucrose, which is extracted from the sugar beet or sugar cane, concentrated and refined. molasses is the residue left after the first stage of crystallisation and is bitter and black. The residue from the second stage is treacle, less bitter and viscous than molasses. The first crude crystals are muscovado or Barbados sugar, brown and sticky....

E

E On food labels, before the weight or volume, to indicate that this has been notified to the regulatory authorities of the EU as a standard package size. E See e-numbers and Table 7 of the Appendix. EAA index Essential amino acid index, an index of protein quality. earth almond See tiger nut. earth nut A very small variety of truffle, Conopodium denuda-tum, also called pig nut and fairy potato. Also another name for the peanut. eau de vie Spirit distilled from fermented grape juice (sometimes...

K

Kaffir beer African beer brewed from millet. kaffir corn See sorghum. kaffir manna corn See millet. kahweol Diterpene in coffee oil, potentially anticarcinogenic by enhancement of phase ii metabolism of foreign compounds, but unlike cafestol, probably not associated with hypercholes-terolaemia and hypertriglyceridaemia. Only released into the beverage when coffee is boiled for a prolonged period of time. kaki See persimmon. kale Scottish name for any type of cabbage in England means...

Phenetylurea See dulcin

Phenol oxidases Group of enzymes that oxidise phenols to quinones, which then undergo non-enzymic polymerisation to red-brown pigments. Tyrosinase (monophenol oxidase, EC 1.14.18.1) is a copper-dependent enzyme in mammalian tissues, responsible for formation of melanin. Polyphenol oxidase (catechol oxidase, laccase EC 1.10.3.2) is a calcium-dependent enzyme responsible for browning of cut fruit and vegetables. It acts on catechols and other polyphenols, including flavonoids. Inhibited by...

Cholesterol

Cholestyramine Ion-exchange resin used to treat hyperlipidaemia by complexing bile salts in the intestinal lumen and increasing their excretion, so increasing the metabolic clearance of cholesterol. cholic acid One of the primary bile salts synthesised in the liver and secreted in the bile as a glycine or taurine conjugate. choline N-Trimethylethanolamine, a derivative of the amino acid serine an important component of cell membranes. Phosphatidylcholine is also known as lecithin, and...

W

Wahe Swiss tarts made from yeast-leavened dough filled with fruit, vegetables or cheese. waist hip circumference ratio Simple method for describing the distribution of subcutaneous and intra-abdominal adipose tissue. wakame Japanese lobe leaf seaweed, normally dried. Composition 100g water 80g, 188kJ (45kcal), protein 3g, fat 0.6g, carbohydrate 9.1 g (0.6g sugars), fibre 0.5g, ash 7.2g, Ca 150 mg, Fe 2.2 mg, Mg 107 mg, P 80 mg, K 50 mg, Na 872 mg, Zn 0.4mg, Cu 0.3mg, Mn 1.4mg, Se 0.7 g, vitamin...

Schoenheimer Sperry reaction A modification of the lieber

Mann-burchard reaction for cholesterol. scifers Cornish name for Welsh onion (see onion, welsh). scintillation counter Instrument for measurement of radioactivity by emission of light from a solid or liquid scintillator that emits a photon after absorbing a P-particle or y-ray. sclerosis Hardening of tissue due to scarring, inflammation or ageing. See also arteriosclerosis atherosclerosis. scolex Head of a tapeworm, with hooks or suckers to permit attachment to the intestinal wall. scombroid...

Chestnut mushroom See mushrooms

Chevda (chewda) A dry and highly spiced mixture of deep fried rice, dhal, chickpeas and small pieces of chickpea batter, with peanuts and raisins, seasoned with sugar and salt, a common N. Indian snack food, also known as Bombay mix. chewing gum Based on chicle and other plant resins, with sugar or other sweetener, balsam of Tolu and various flavours. chichi South American effervescent sour alcoholic beverage made from maize, other starch crops or beans both a lactic acid bacterial and a yeast...

Remedy For Achromotricia

Abalone A shellfish (mollusc), Haliotus splendens, H. rufescens, H. cracherodii, also sometimes called ormer, or sea ear. Found especially in waters around Australia, and also California and Japan, the Channel Islands and France. Composition 100g water 75g, 440kJ (105kcal), protein 17g, fat 0.8 g, cholesterol 85 mg, carbohydrate 6g, ash 1.6g, Ca 31 mg, Fe 3.2mg, Mg 48mg, P 190mg, K 250mg, Na 301mg, Zn 0.8mg, Cu 0.2 mg, Se 45 g, vitamin A 2 g retinol, E 4mg, K 23 mg, B1 0.19mg, B2 0.1 mg, niacin...

Potato tule See arrowhead

Poteen Irish name for illicit home-distilled spirit American equivalent is moonshine. pot liquor Liquid left in the pan after cooking vegetables. pot pie American meat or poultry pie baked in an uncovered vessel with a crust of pastry or biscuit dough. pottage A thick soup of stewed vegetables (sometimes with meat) literally 'what is put in a pot'. pottle Traditional English wine measure 1 2 gallon ( 2.25L). poularde A neutered hen bird. poultry General term for farmyard birds (as opposed to...

Vitamin A

The recommended upper limits of habitual daily intake of retinol are about 12.5 x reference intake for adults, but only 2.5 x reference intake for infants. Retinol is also teratogenic in excess, and for pregnant women the recommended upper limit of daily intake is 3000-3300 g. vitamin A2 Old name for dehydroretinol, the form found in livers of freshwater fish has 40 of the biological activity of retinol. vitamin B complex Old-fashioned term for the various B vitamins vitamin b1 (thiamin),...

Folic Acid

Folinic acid 5-Formyl folic acid, more stable to oxidation than folic acid itself, and commonly used in pharmaceutical prepara-tions.The synthetic (racemic) compound is known as leucovorin. fondant Minute sugar crystals in a saturated sugar syrup used as the creamy filling in chocolates and biscuits and for decorating cakes. Prepared by boiling sugar solution with the addition of glucose syrup or an inverting agent (see sugar, invert) and cooling rapidly while stirring. fondue Swiss cheese...

Cucumber African horned See kiwano

Cucurbit A term used for vegetables of the family Cucurbitaceae. See gourds. Culinary Institute of America Founded in New Haven, Connecticut, 1946, as the New Haven Restaurant Institute, a storefront school. cultivar Horticultural term for a cultivated variety of plant that is distinct and is uniform and stable in its characteristics when propagated. cumin (cummin) Pungent herb, the seed of Cuminum cyminum (parsley family). Black cumin is the seed of Nigella sativa (fennel flower) and sweet...

Phosphatidylethanolamine A phospholipid containing

Ethanolamine. phosphatidylinositol A phospholipid containing inositol. phosphatidylserine A phospholipid containing serine. phospholipids (phosphatides, phospholipins) Glycerol esterified to two molecules of fatty acid, one of which is usually a polyun- saturated fatty acid. The third hydroxyl group is esterified to phosphate and one of a number of water-soluble compounds, including serine (phosphatidylserine), ethanolamine (phos-phatidylethanolamine), choline (phosphatidylcholine, also known...

O

OatrimTM fat replacer made from non-starch polysaccharide. oats Grain from Avena spp., especially A. sativa, A. steritis and A. strigosa. Oatmeal, ground oats oatflour, ground and bran removed groats, husked oats Embden groats, crushed groats Scotch oats, groats cut into granules of various sizes Sussex ground oats, very finely ground oats rolled oats, crushed by rollers and partially precooked. Composition 100g water 8g, 1628 kJ (389kcal), protein 16.9 g, fat 6.9g (of which 20 saturated, 37...

The Protein Amino Acids

Is not an essential amino acid, it can only be synthesised from methionine, and it is conventional to consider the sum of methionine + cysteine in determinations of protein quality. aminoaciduria Excretion of abnormally large amounts of an amino acid or a group of metabolically related amino acids. Overflow aminoaciduria occurs when the plasma concentration exceeds the renal threshold, as a result of impaired metabolism renal aminoaciduria occurs with normal or lower than normal plasma...

T

T3, T4 Tri-iodothyronine and thyroxine (tetra-iodothyronine), the thyroid hormones. TabTM Sugar-free cola drink sweetened with cyclamate, introduced 1963. tabasco A thin piquant sauce prepared by fermentation of powdered dried fruits of chilli pepper (see pepper, chilli), mixed with spirit vinegar and salt. tachycardia Rapid heartbeat, as occurs after exercise may also occur, without undue exertion, as a result of anxiety and in anaemia and vitamin b1 deficiency. tachyphagia Rapid eating....

Gastrointestinal Tract

The whole fish is served and the filleted portion chopped and stuffed back between the skin and the backbone. More frequently today, the fish is simply chopped and made into balls, which are either fried or boiled. In the UK has been referred to legally as 'fish cutlets in fish sauce' instead of a fish cake. gel Colloidal suspension (see colloid) consisting of a continuous phase (commonly water) and a dispersed phase (the gelling agent) the water molecules are held in a three-dimensional...

Niacin

Niacinamide American name for nicotinamide, see niacin. niacin equivalents Nicotinamide can be formed in the body from the amino acid tryptophan on average 60mg dietary tryptophan is equivalent to 1 mg preformed niacin. The total niacin content of foods is generally expressed as mg niacin equivalents the sum of preformed niacin (excluding that in cereals, see niacytin) plus one-sixtieth of the tryptophan. niacinogens Name given to protein-niacin complexes found in cereals see also niacytin....

Blaeberry See bilberry

Blanching Partial precooking by treating food with hot gas, hot water, steam, super-heated steam, microwave, for a short time. Also known as scalding, a preferred term, since the original reason for blanching was to whiten food, but the process is also used to preserve colour. Fruits and vegetables are blanched before dehydrating or freezing, to soften the texture, shrink the food or remove air, destroy enzymes that may cause spoilage when frozen, and remove undesirable flavours. Blanching is...