101 Toxic Food Ingredients

101 Toxic Food Ingredients

Using this simple 4-step system is the easiest, fastest, and most powerful way to distinguish which food ingredients are toxic to your overall health and which are healthy to consume. There are hundreds, even thousands, of such toxic ingredients that food manufactures use, and it could take you months or maybe even years to dissect all of that information. This program is designed to restore your health and eliminate any Toxic ingredients that may be slowly causing your health to deteriorate. However, as a side effect, you may lose weight due to the change in your diet. If you exercise and lift weights, you may notice an increase in muscle and energy as well. You will immediately notice results within the first week of applying the concepts in this system. All you have to do is follow the proven plan I give you and you will instantly have more energy and vitality. The key is to use the alternative foods in your diet consistently to see the results. Continue reading...

101 Toxic Food Ingredients Summary

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The author has done a thorough research even about the obscure and minor details related to the subject area. And also facts weren’t just dumped, but presented in an interesting manner.

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Artificial Sweeteners

Artificial sweeteners may assist in weight management, prevention of dental caries, and control of blood glucose for diabetics. It has also been suggested that low-calorie sweeteners may stimulate the appetite, but the bulk of evidence does not support this hypothesis. Conclusive research demonstrates that artificial sweeteners have no effect on carbohydrate metabolism, short- or long-term blood glucose control, or insulin secretion, and they are thus an excellent sugar alternative for diabetics. There have been a number of health concerns related with these products, though the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval process for artificial sweeteners involves a comprehensive analysis of scientific data to satisfy safety requirements. All generally recognized as safe (GRAS) sweeteners have undergone extensive safety testing and have been carefully reviewed by the FDA.

Artificial Sweeteners Pending FDA Approval

Artificial sweeteners taste sweet like sugar without the added calories. They do not promote tooth decay, and they are an acceptable alternative diabetes inability to regulate level of for people with diabetes or those wishing to decrease their use of sucrose. sugar in the blood Artificial sweeteners, and their metabolic by-products and components, are not considered harmful to human beings at the levels normally used. When diet the total daily food intake, or the used in the context of a healthful diet, artificial sweeteners are generally safe Joint FAO WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (1993-2003). Evaluation of Certain Food Additives and Contaminants. Geneva, Switzerland World Health Organization.

Food Additives and Herbal Supplements

Pregnant women often express concern about food additives. However, all additives have to be approved as safe for almost all but a small proportion of the population who may experience rare reactions to them before they can be used in foods. The presence of an 'E' number demonstrates that it has passed safety tests and been approved for use by the European Community. In the United Kingdom, COT sets an Acceptable Daily Intake for each additive, which is the amount that can be eaten daily with no risk to health. This may limit the amount of an additive used or restrict its use to certain food products. Even when an additive has been approved, new research is constantly reviewed and approval for any additive will be withdrawn if doubt is raised about its safety.

Regulating Safety of Food Additives and Preservatives

Based on the 1958 Food Additives Amendment to the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic (FD& C) Act of 1938, the FDA must approve the use of all additives. The manufacturer bears the responsibility of proving that the additive is safe for its intended use. The Food Additives Amendment excluded additives and preservatives deemed safe for consumption prior to 1958, such as salt, sugar, spices, vitamins, vinegar, and monosodium glutamate. These substances are considered generally recognized as safe (GRAS) and may be used in any food, though the FDA may remove additives from the GRAS list if safety concerns arise. The 1960 Color Additives Amendment to the FD& C Act required the FDA to approve synthetic coloring agents used in The legendary longevity of some packaged foods such as Twinkies, is attributable in part to food additives that stabilize ingredients and prevent spoilage. Additives also enhance the nutrition, flavor, and consistency of foods. Photograph by Orlin Wagner. AP Wide...

Five FDAApproved GRAS Artificial Sweeteners

Acesulfame Potassium Toxicity

Acesulfame potassium (Acesulfame-K) was discovered in 1967 and approved for use in the United States in 1988. Its trade name is Sunette. Two hundred times sweeter than sucrose, this sweetener is stable when heated, making it suitable for cooking. However, when used in large amounts it has a bitter aftertaste. It is not broken down by the body, and it does not provide any calories. Over ninety scientific studies have been conducted by the FDA, and the World Health Organization's Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) has also endorsed Acesulfame K's safety. Saccharin was discovered in 1879 and approved for use in the United States in 1879. Its trade name is Sweet'n Low. Three hundred to five hundred times sweeter than table sugar, saccharin provides no energy, as it is not metabolized by human beings. It has a bitter and somewhat metallic aftertaste. The largest population study to date, involving nine thousand individuals, showed that saccharin does not increase the risk of...

Food contamination during preparation

RTE foods are the main cause of foodborne illness. RTE foods are often contaminated by food handlers. Food handlers play an important role in transmission of foodborne viruses a recent review suggested they were the most common source of viral contamination of food.73 Food handlers generally cause single strain outbreaks. Food handlers may themselves be infected and contaminate food or may be uninfected but have contaminated hands (e.g. contact with sick relatives, working with contaminated surfaces) and go on to contaminate food. Both hepatitis A virus and norovirus may induce an asymptomatic infection with variable amounts of viral shedding. Viral shedding may occur over days and weeks for both viruses. For these reasons, it is important to prevent sick and infected food handlers from working with food for a predetermined period of time (usually 2-3 days). It is also important to institute appropriate hygiene practices and sanitary conditions when working with food (e.g. frequent...

Uses of Additives and Preservatives in Foods

Additives and preservatives are used to maintain product consistency and quality, improve or maintain nutritional value, maintain palatability and wholesomeness, provide leavening, control pH, enhance flavor, or provide color. Food additives may be classified as 4. Artificial flavors and flavor enhancers, the largest class of additives, function to make food taste better, or to give them a specific taste. Examples are salt, sugar, and vanilla, which are used to complement the flavor of certain foods. Synthetic flavoring agents, such as benzaldehyde for cherry or almond flavor, may be used to simulate natural flavors. Flavor enhancers, such as monosodium glutamate (MSG) intensify the flavor of other compounds in a food.

Beecher Catharine 180078

One of the causes of this debilitated constitution is Eating too much, eating too often, eating too fast, eating food and condiments that are too stimulating, eating food that is too warm or too cold, eating food that is highly-concentrated, without a proper admixture of less nourishing matter, and eating food that is difficult of digestion (Beecher 1846 106). Dieting would be the reform of such bad eating habits. Indeed, she stresses in the third edition of 1846 that the health of the mind demands the limitation of the excessive exercise of the intellect or feelings (Beecher 1846 197). If too rich foods are to be avoided, then too is novel reading which wastes time and energies, and undermines the vigor of the nervous system (Beecher 1846 199).

Healthy Marketplace And Media Environments

Some leaders in the food industry are already making changes to expand healthier options for young consumers, offer products with reduced energy content, and reduce portion sizes. These changes must be adopted on a much larger scale, however, and marketed in ways that make acceptance by consumers (who may now have acquired entrenched preferences for many less healthful products) more likely. Coordinated efforts among the private sector, government, and other groups are also needed to create, support, and sustain consumer demand for healthful food and beverage products, appropriately portioned restaurant and take-out meals, and accurate and consistent nutritional information through food labels, health claims, and other educational sources. Similarly, the leisure, entertainment, and recreation industries have opportunities to innovate in favor of stimu

Sources of further information

National Institute of Science Communication, CSIR, New Delhi, India. farrell, k. t. (1990), Spices, Condiments and Seasonings, 2nd edition. AVI book, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York. Woodhead Publishing Limited, Abington. pruthi, j. s. (2001), Minor Spices and Condiments - Crop Management and Post Harvest Technology, ICAR, New Delhi, India.

Presentday Cultivation And Usage

The fruits are extensively used as a spice for flavoring bakery products, and the essential oil is added to foodstuffs and liquors as a sensory and flavoring agent. Aniseed possesses a sweet, aromatic taste, and when crushed, emits a characteristic agreeable odor. The active component, anethole imparts a pleasant and characteristic flavor. The active ingredients are methyl chavicol, and some amounts of p-methoxyphenol, acetone, and terpenes. If aniseed is boiled for too long, it is liable to be divested of its essential components due to the heating boiling process (www. diabetesmellitus-information.com).

Monitoring and Control of Hazards

The position in the US up to 1958 was similar to that in the UK. Food was considered adulterated if injury could arise from its use. Legislation was based on traditional food, added substances, and unavoidable added substances (contaminants). For added substances, listed in an inventory of over 3000 chemicals and often referred to as 'Everything Added to Food in the United States' (EAFUS), the food was considered adulterated if the added substance could render the food injurious to health for unavoidably added substances, a balance was applied between the essential nature of the food material and the degree of contamination. These strictures applied to both carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic toxicants. In 1958 a change in emphasis was introduced through the Food Additives Amendment. This established a licensing scheme for substances deliberately added to foods or for substances that could migrate into food, but excluded materials that were generally, through usage, regarded as safe...

Dosages Tragacanth Milkvetch

More food additive than food, the FDA defines GRAS gum tragacanth as the exudate from one of several species of Astragalus gummifier Labillardiere, permitting its use up to 2000 ppm in baked goods and baking mixes, 7000 ppm in condiments and relishes, 13,000 ppm with fats and oils, 8000 ppm with gravies and sauces, 2000 ppm with meat products, 2000 ppm with processed fruits and fruit juices, and up to 1000 ppm in all other food categories. 1 tsp (circa 3 g) granulated drug added to 250-300 ml liquid (PH2).

How the Definitions Affect the Interpretation of This Report

For example, most epidemiological studies use the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) database for fiber, along with other databases and data added by the investigators for missing values (Hallfrisch et al., 1988 Heilbrun et al., 1989 Miller et al., 1983 Platz et al., 1997). Such a database represents Dietary Fiber, since Functional Fibers that serve as food ingredients contribute a minor amount to the Total Fiber content of foods. In 1987, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) adopted AOAC method 985.29 for regulatory purposes to identify fiber as a mixture of nonstarch poly-saccharides, lignin, and some resistant starch (FDA, 1987). Related methods that isolated the same components as AOAC method 985.29 were developed independently and accepted by AOAC and FDA in subsequent years. These methods exclude all oligosaccharides (3 to 9 degrees of polymerization) from the definition and include all polysaccharides, lignin, and some of the resistant starch that is resistant to the...

Physiological Effects of Isolated and Synthetic Fibers

This section summarizes the fibers for which there is a sufficient database that documents their beneficial physiological human effects, which is the rationale for categorizing them as Functional Fibers. It is important to note that discussions on the potential benefits of what might eventually be classified as Functional Fibers should not be construed as endorsements of those fibers. While plant-based foods are a good source of Dietary Fiber, isolated or synthetic fibers have been developed for their use as food ingredients and because of their beneficial role in human health. In 1988 Health Canada published guidelines for what they considered to be novel fiber sources and food products containing them that could be labeled as a source of fiber in addition to those included in their 1985 definition (Health Canada, 1988). The rationale for these guidelines was that there were safety issues unique to novel sources of fiber, and if a product was represented as containing fiber, it...

Alternative sweeteners nonnutritive sweeteners

The hedonic value of sugars due to their sweetness can be provided in foods and beverages by artificial sweeteners (non-caloric sweeteners) or polyols (low-caloric sweeteners), alternatively called sugar substitutes, sugar replac-ers or alternative sweeteners. High-intensity sweeteners provide sweeteness with negligible calories, although the sensation of their sweetness is often different from that of sugar. Saccharine, the oldest artificial sweetener is 300 times as sweet as sucrose. Currently, five of the high-intensity sweeteners have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and include acesulfame-K, aspartame, sucralose, saccharin and neotame which are 200, 180, 600, 300 and 8000 times sweetener than sugar, respectively (FDA, 2006). Two other artificial sweeteners, alitame and cyclamate (2000 and 30 times sweeter than sugar, respectively), have been used in foods in Europe but not in the United States (CCC, 2006). Another group of sweeteners provides sweetness...

Technological Issues

In many developing nations, including Nigeria, for mechanization of agriculture to succeed, it must be based on domestic engineering initiatives to design, develop, and manufacture locally most of the tools, equipment, and machines needed for all agricultural production field operations, postharvest processes, and other rural industrial activities (Odigboh, 1999). Investigation of the physicochemical properties of okra products could provide a suitable benchmark as an indication of the need to develop improvised processing equipment for the crop. Required equipment includes solar driers for dehydration, seed dehulling equipment, an indigenous canning line, blanching equipment, and mechanical press for oil extraction (Oyelade and Ade-Omowaye, 2009). Thus, okra, due to its enormous potential in tropic and temperate regions, including potential production of biomass from its foliage and fiber from the dried stems and matured pods, which may be used for paper pulp or in the textile...

Hydrogenation partial hydrogenation and trans fatty acids the phantom fat

Partially hydrogenated oils contain large amounts of chemically altered fats known as trans fatty acids. Some nutritionists like to call them funny foods. Partial hydrogenation is what turns oils into spreadable margarines and makes the oils more stable. They also make baked goods moist and flaky. The Center for Science in the Public Interest calls trans fats the phantom fat because it's not required that they be listed on food labels they're invisible, so to speak, thus the phantom moniker.

Irritable Bowel Syndrome IBS

Treatments are rather hit or miss, requiring patients to try a variety or combination of treatments. These may include various diarrhea and constipation medications, anticholinergics (drugs that eases muscle contractions), tricyclic antidepressants, dietary change to add fiber, peppermint oil, reducing food additives and caffeine, and a recommendation to exercise.

Regulation of Dietary Supplements

DSHEA established a new regulatory framework for supplement safety and for the labeling of dietary supplements by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Dietary supplements are regulated under food law, but with certain provisions that apply only to dietary supplements. For example, dietary supplements escape the stringent approval process that food additives and drugs must go through before being marketed to the public, unless the manufacturer of a dietary supplement makes a claim for therapeutic efficacy.

Controversies Surrounding the Use of Dietary Supplements

DSHEA supporters fear that increased regulation of dietary supplements will decrease access to beneficial products. National opinion surveys show that many supplement users feel so strongly about the potential health benefits of supplements that they would continue to use them even if the supplements were shown to be ineffective in clinical studies. Consumers value freedom of choice, and many view regulation as an attempt by the government and medical establishment to monopolize treatment options. Clearly, a balance needs to be reached between preserving freedom of choice and ensuring that dietary supplements are safe and effective. see also Alternative Medicines and Therapies Food Labels Health Claims Quackery Vitamins, Fat-Soluble Vitamins, Water-Soluble.

Applications To Health Promotion And Disease Prevention

Vitamin C increases salivation, which decreases the activity of microorganisms that cause dental caries. Saliva plays an important role in fighting and preventing caries. Salivation is increased by the use of artificial salivary substitutes such as salivart, which usually consist of salt ions, flavoring agents, and preservatives like paraben, cellulose derivatives, animal mucin, and fluoride. In place of chemical substances as salivary substitutes, nature has provided foods that contain vitamin C. Intake of natural foods rich in vitamin C, like Emblica, shows a significant reduction in the occurrence of scurvy, xerostomia, Sjogren's syndrome, and dental caries.

Introduction and description

Three types of mustard seeds are popularly used as condiments pale yellow or white mustard (Sinapsis alba syn. Brassica hirta Moench or Brassica alba) brown or oriental mustard (Brassica juncea) and black or dark brown mustard (Brassica nigra). Apart from their use as a spice, mustards are widely used as green vegetables, as a salad crop, as an important oil seed crop (particularly in India where rape seed-mustard is the largest vegetable oil next to groundnut), green manure or as fodder crop and for industrial oil purposes.

Discovering Dietary Effects Good Foods Bad Foods

People with FMS are different from each other, and no large-scale studies have found that some foods are good and others should be banned for people with fibromyalgia, but patterns are emerging. For example, some fibromyalgia sufferers agree that most fruits and vegetables (especially berries) and plain cereals are FMS-friendly, but chocolate, citrus fruits, and foods high in monosodium glutamate (MSG, a chemical regarded as a flavor enhancer), aspartame (an artificial sweetener), or caffeine aggravate their FMS symptoms. Check food labels to see whether MSG or aspartame is included in the product. (You may have a hard time giving up aspartame because it's in a wide variety of products, particularly diet soft drinks and reduced-calorie foods.)

Dietary Counselling and Fortification

Dietary counselling, usually provided by a dietitian, is an integral part of oral nutritional support. It includes advice on dietary fortification, which is often the first-line treatment of malnutrition in the home and other care settings. Counselling may involve advice on eating patterns (e.g., eating certain types of snacks at particular times of day) or addition of energy- and protein-rich food ingredients (e.g., cream, milk, oil, butter, sugar, and skimmed milk powder) to meals. Commercial energy- and protein-containing supplements can also be used to improve intake without substantially altering the taste of food and drink. The use of nutritionally

What Are Fat Substitutes

In some cases, the FDA has approved fat-reduction ingredients as food additives. To be approved, food additives are tested extensively to assess their safety and level of use among different population groups. Examples of fat substitutes approved as food additives include carrageenan, olestra, and polydextrose. In other instances, fat-reduction ingredients are generally recognized as safe (GRAS). GRAS ingredients are made from common food components and are considered by experts to be safe. For example, many spices and flavoring agents, such as sugar and salt, are GRAS ingredients. Examples of GRAS fat substitutes include guar gum and maltodextrin.

Implications and future studies 1461 Implications for prevention

Contamination of foods by enteric viruses usually occurs through fecal-oral transmission routes. Within the fecal-oral transmission routes, the manual handling of foods is the most significant contributor to foodborne disease. Therefore, the most straightforward measures to reduce the probability of food contamination and resulting outbreaks are to implement strict sanitation and hygiene protocols (e.g. emphasize hand-washing), agree on rules for the furloughing of sick food handlers and agricultural workers, provide education on viral transmission and appropriate reporting to health facilities, vaccinate all food handlers against hepatitis A virus, and enforce appropriate barriers of protection from foods (e.g. gloves and hair nets). Nonetheless, for a variety of reasons, these measures are difficult to implement, and lack of compliance remains an important issue. providing ongoing education about the causes of food contamination and pathogen transmission, and maintaining open...

Starch Interaction With Microorganisms And Microbial Metabolites During Fermentation

Extensive research has been carried out to study the essential role of food ingredients and their properties in the modification of the microstructure and textural properties of starches as well as their physicochemical interactions with food aroma compounds (Terta et al, 2006). In particular, it has been shown that in several food systems, polysaccharides such as starch are involved in the retention of a wide spectrum of ligand molecules, such as flavor compounds (Guichard, 2002 Heinemann et al, 2003). Linear ligands are thought to be located in the hydrophobic cavities of the amylose helix, whereas bulky ligands such as n-butanol and n-pentanol may be located between the amylose helices (Helbert and Chanzy, 1994). The partitioning of the molecules between different phases of a food system is based principally on Vernocchi etal. (2008) studied the effect of soluble starch addition to liquid sourdough in order to evaluate whether the chemicophysical interactions of the microbial...

How Much Fiber Is Necessary

The recommended daily amount of fiber can be consumed by eating a diet high in fiber-rich fruits, vegetables, and whole grains. There are several ways to ensure one consumes enough fiber. First, it is important to read food labels. Although they do not distinguish between the two types of fiber, the labels of almost all foods will provide the amount of dietary fiber in each serving. Raw or slightly cooked vegetables will also provide an excellent source of liber. However, overcooking vegetables may reduce the fiber content. Whole-grain cereals, whole-wheat bread, fresh or dried fruit, beans, rice, and salad are all good sources of fiber. The table presents the fiber content of various foods.

Design and Recommendations of The Food Guide Pyramid

The Breads, Cereals, Rice, and Pasta Group forms the base of the Pyramid, with the largest number of servings recommended (six to eleven servings recommended daily). The next layer up includes the Fruit Group (two to four servings) and the Vegetable Group (three to five servings). At the third level are the Milk, Yogurt, and Cheese Group (two to three servings) and the Meat, Poultry, Fish, Dry Beans, Eggs, and Nuts Group (two to three servings). At the tip of the Pyramid are Fats, Oils, and Sweets. These foods calorie unit of food energy and food ingredients should be used sparingly to avoid excess calories

Spicing and flavoring your food

Feel free to spice up and season your food to make it more palatable. You can add any low or non-caloric condiments and sauces such as butter flavor sprinkles, light dressings, low calorie marinades, salsa, cinnamon, or artificial sweeteners (Stevia, Equal, or Sweet N Low). You can also use a wide variety of herbs, spices and seasonings such as pepper, garlic powder, oregano, parsley, sage, thyme, dill, ginger, chopped onion, paprika, Mrs. Dash, and any no-sodium seasoning mix. None of these items will alter the percentages or your caloric intake significantly.

Regulations Related to Functional Foods

Functional foods are regulated by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) under the authority of two laws. The Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FD& C) of 1938 provides for the regulation of all foods and food additives. The Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA) of 1994 amended the FD& C Act to cover dietary supplements and ingredients of dietary supplements. Functional foods may be categorized as whole foods, enriched foods, fortified foods, or enhanced foods. Labeling claims that are used on functional foods are of two types (1) Structure and function claims, which describe effects on normal functioning of the body, but not claims that the food can treat, diagnose, prevent, or cure a disease

Generally Recognized as Safe GRAS

Food and Drug Administration (FDA) established a list of seven hundred food substances that were exempt from the then new requirement that manufacturers test food additives before putting them on the market. The Generally Recognized as Safe, or GRAS, list acknowledged that many additives had existing scientific evidence of long and safe use in food. Among the additives on the list are sugar, salt, spices, and vitamins. Manufacturers can petition for GRAS status for new additives if the substances meet the criteria cited above. GRAS list additives are continually reevaluated based on current scientific evidence. see also Artificial Sweeteners Biotechnology Food Safety Functional Foods.

Informed Choices About Eating

The first and most important aspect in eating a healthy diet is learning about food. Reading the nutritional information on foods is an important way to learn how many calories the food contains and the distribution of fats, carbohydrates, and other substances. The federal government has set strict definitions for 12 terms that are used frequently on food labels, including free, reduced, lean, less, light, extra lean, low, fewer, high, more, good source, and healthy. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has also defined several health claims that can be used to describe food. High protein must have at least 10 g of protein per serving. Food described as being a good source of calcium must have at least 100 mg of calcium per serving. Food with more iron means that it has at least 10 more than the minimum daily requirement. Low fat food means it contains 3 g or less per serving. Reduced or fewer calorie foods must have at least 25 fewer calories per serving than a reference food....

Reasons for Revising the Regulatory Aspects in the EU

In the 1990s consumer confidence was severely undermined due to a number of food contamination scares, such as the occurrence of bovine spongiform encephalitis in cattle initially in the United Kingdom and later in many other countries (Schreuder, 1994) and the detection of polychlorinated biphenyls and dioxins in animal feed in Belgium (Bernard et al., 1999). As a result, the Commission adopted the White Paper on Food Safety in 2000.2 This ambitious programme contains a number of recommendations aimed at increasing food safety, improving the traceability of food products and regaining consumer confidence in the food industry. To this end a package of proposals for new legislation on food and feed has been prepared with the following characteristics to complete and update the legislation to improve official controls and ensure their efficient implementation. The package consists of a number of elements the general food law, the hygiene package, a comprehensive set of requirements for...

Individualized Approaches

Hypertensives can take steps to reduce their salt intake by modifying their diets. If these individuals come from societies where a substantial amount is eaten as discretionary salt then those responsible for adding salt to the cooking either in the home or in catering establishments need to be persuaded to take progressive measures to limit salt use and substitute herbs and other flavors. Individuals can also be asked to eliminate the addition of salt at the table but this can only make a minor contribution in most cases to reducing their salt intake. In theory it is possible for patients to select foods low in salt but this usually means selecting relatively unprocessed foods. Multimineral mixes may also be found to be more acceptable for use in households as these are a mix of different salts with, for example, the addition of potassium and calcium salts to the sodium chloride thereby both diluting the amount of sodium used and adding elements that counter the sodium's effects....

Impact of Interventions

Infants and women of reproductive age. The impact of vitamin A supplementation on preschool child mortality has been firmly established through eight controlled community trials performed in the 1980s and early 1990s involving 160,000 children on three subcontinents (Table 4). In six trials, children 6 months to 6 years of age were supplemented every 4-6 months with an oral dose of vitamin A containing 60 mg retinol equivalents (RE) (or 200,000 IU). Half this dosage was provided to children < 12 months of age. One study, in India, provided a small weekly dose to children and the other, in Indonesia, supplied half of a recommended allowance of vitamin A to children in treatment villages through a routinely marketed fortified mono-sodium glutamate product (a meal flavor enhancer). Rates of mortality in supplemented groups were compared to rates among children in concurrent control groups. Six of the eight trials showed reductions of 19-54 in preschool child mortality beyond either 6...

Historical Cultivation And Usage

The earliest records on watermelon date back to 3000 BC, appearing in Egyptian hieroglyphics on monument walls. The fruits were left in the tombs of mummified Pharaohs. The plant originates from the Kalahari Desert, in Africa. Probably, the wild species, with its high water content, was an ideal food for the Kalahari aborigines, leading to its selection as a cultivar. With growing experience, three varieties later became popular in northern Africa, and their seeds were used to make cooking oil (known as kalahari or ootanga oil), protein seed-cakes, and condiments. Cultivation spread to Arabian and Mediterranean countries, and later to America and Eastern Asia (Oyenuga & Fetuga, 1975). The seed oils were known to contribute to cardiac health.

Mezime Chemistry Delhi

Farrell, k. (1985), Spices, Condiments and Seasonings, AVI Publ., Westport, CT. farrell, k. (1990), Spices, Condiments and Seasonings, 2nd Edition, Van Nostard Reinhold, New York, 189-192. jecfa (1981), Joint FAO WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. Monograph on -asarone. WHO Food Additive Series No. 16. scf (2002), Scientific Committee on Food, European Commission. Opinion of the Scientific Committee on Food on the presence of -asarone in flavourings and other food ingredients with flavouring properties, 1-15.

Main uses in food processing and medicine 1441 General

Oregano is used in meat, sausages, salads, stewings, dressings and soups. The food industry uses oregano oil and oregano resin both in foods and in beverages and also in cosmetics. Oregano oil is used in alcoholic beverages, baked goods, meats and meat products, condiments and relishes, milk products, processed vegetables, snack foods, and fats and oils. It is the most common spice for pizza. Along with black pepper, it is a common ingredient of dressings and a good substitute for table salt. Marjoram, too, is used in many foods and beverages in food industry meat sauces, canned foods, vinegar, vermouths and bitters are often seasoned with marjoram. It increases aroma in such vegetable dishes as pea soup and other pea dishes, squash and stews made from mixed vegetables, mushrooms and asparagus.

Sources and properties of nondigestible oligosaccharides

Several NDOs are considered DFs, itself a broad category. As illustrated in Table 7.1, NDOs may occur naturally in many plants - mainly vegetables, whole grains and fruits (Meyer 2004). Another natural source of NDOs is milk (cow milk galacto-oligosaccharides and human milk oligosaccharides). Moreover, several NDOs - often added in food for their technological properties - may be synthesised from simple or complex carbohydrates. NDOs present in the diet differ from one another in their chemical structure, in other words the number (DP) or the type of hexose moeties (glucosyl-, fructosyl-, galactosyl-, xylosyl-), the position of links between the hexose moeties and their conformation (a- versus P-) (Delzenne 2003). All these characteristics have consequences on the physical properties of NDOs - and therefore on their putative usefulness as food ingredients and their effects and metabolism in the gastro-intestinal tract. Owing to interest in their nutritional properties, biotechnology...

TABLE 22 Seeds as Herbal Drugs and a Source of Medicinally Active Compounds

Antitumor in gout and rheumatism colchicine causes polyploidy Aromatic, carminative, stimulant, flavoring agent, condiment Carminative, aromatic, diuretic, smooth-muscle relaxant, vasodilator, antidysenteric, aphrodisiac Aromatic, carminative, stimulant, flavoring agent, condiment poisonous and narcotic in large amounts Emergency cardiotonic in acute cardiac failure poisonous in large amounts Sedative, demulcent, flavoring agent poisonous in large amounts Flavoring agent, fixative in perfumery Aphrodisiac, antispasmodic, carminative, demulcent, diuretic, stomachic, tonic, flavoring agent dermal irritant in large amounts As coffee substitute, diuretic, laxative, analgesic, antirheumatic Oral hypoglycemic, antimicrobial not recommended in pregnancy

Consumer preferences and public health

Y-ers' (persons born between 1977 and 1994) in particular are looking for healthier, fresher, more natural foods (Sloan, 2005). Although they are unwilling to give up convenience, consumers prefer food that has been subjected to minimal chemical treatment, both preharvest and postharvest (Senauer et al., 1991), and they understand less than people once did about potential naturally occurring hazards and proper preparation methods. Reformulation of foods to meet consumer demands may result in foods that are more likely to support growth of pathogens. Food additives are used to enhance the safety and shelf-life of foods, which should be viewed as desirable from the perspective of the consumer. Yet these additives are frequently perceived as unnatural and unsafe, in part because of controversies that have arisen over the years about potential harmful effects of additives such as cyclamates, saccharin, food dyes (e.g. red no. 2), and nitrite, and an apparent distaste for and distrust in...

Diagnostic Tests Skin Prick Tests

Skin prick tests are mainly used in research studies. The results of skin tests cannot be taken alone, and standard textbooks on allergy acknowledge that ''the proper interpretation of results requires a thorough knowledge of the history and physical findings.'' The problems in clinical practice are, for example, whether or not a subject with atopic disease (eczema, asthma, or hay fever) or symptoms suggestive of food intolerance will benefit from attempts to avoid certain foods or food additives. However, skin prick test results are unreliable predictors of response to such measures.

Additives and Contaminants

Food additives can be divided into two major groups, intentional additives and incidental additives. Intentional additives are chemical substances that are added to food for specific purposes. Although we have little control over unintentional or incidental additives, intentional additives are regulated by strict governmental controls. The U.S. law governing additives in foods is the Food Additives Amendment to the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act of 1958. According to this act, a food additive is defined as follows food additives 3. food additives Before the enactment of the 1958 law, U.S. laws regarding food additives required that a food additive be nondeceptive and that an added substance be either safe and therefore permitted, or poisonous and deleterious and

Sources of further information and advice

Studies of the role of calcium in weight loss or the prevention of overweight and obesity are a rather recent, still developing field of research. It is absolutely necessary to be prepared to question once again findings that in the past were thought to have been verified. Therefore, researchers who are interested in this field and who want to extend their knowledge, need to resort to reviewing articles published in scientific journals and the original literature cited in these articles, as well as any other original contributions, which can, for example, be obtained from scientific data banks such as Medline Monographs on this topic in books are hardly available. Furthermore, the National Dairy Council in the United States has a website that provides references exclusively for studies showing a positive impact of calcium and dairy products in weight management. The site contains short descriptions of the respective studies, links to the original abstracts and another link to an issue...

Flour And Bread Fortification With Emmer

Some of the ancient wheats have a unique composition in secondary components, such as carotenoids and starch, which may play a role as functional food ingredients. Emmer is particularly appreciated for its content of resistant starch, fiber, carotenoids, and antioxidant compounds (D'Antuono et al., 1998 Galterio et al., 2003 Serpen et al., 2008). Although

Barley Fiberrich Fractions

Armeense Genocide

Pure b-glucan isolates obtained via traditional extraction procedures described previously are not suitable for commercial applications because the procedures are time-consuming and costly. The alternative sources of b-glucans are fractions obtained by dry grain fractionation such as milling, pearling, sieving, and or air classification. The nonuniform distribution of components within the barley kernel allows fractionation by physical means into products enriched in various constituents, including b-glucans and arabinoxylans. Such naturally obtained products may be more desirable food ingredients for health-conscious consumers than products obtained through chemical processes.

Schoenheimer Sperry reaction A modification of the lieber

Any herbs, spices and condiments added to a savoury dish. sea truffle shellfish, a bivalve mollusc, Venus verrucosa. seaweed Marine algae of interest as food include badderlocks, carageenan, dulse, fingerware, irish moss, kelp, laver, nori, sugarware and wakame, which are eaten as local delicacies and serve as a mineral supplement in animal feed.

Future consumer trends

Consumers must rely on the training and diligence of commercial food workers who have assumed the role of assuring the safety of foods during preparation. Safe storage of foods prepared away from home then transported to the point of consumption raises concerns that temperature abuse could lead to re-emergence of some types of low-incidence foodborne illnesses, such as Staphylococcus aureus or Bacillus cereus (Little et al., 2002). These researchers concluded that establishments where the manager had participated in food safety training have less food contamination than those without trained managers. Cohen et al. (2001) evaluated the efficacy of an in-house food safety training program and learned that success was dependent on the motivation of the workers to practice safe food handling behaviors. Workers in food establishments in England, most of whom (95 ) had received some type of food safety training, were surveyed regarding their food handling practices (Clayton et al., 2002)....

Uses Of Hesperidine Dihydrochalcone In Bread

A first requirement for a substance to produce a taste is that it be water soluble. The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its taste is more easily established than that between structure and smell. In general, all acid substances are sour. Sodium chloride and other salts are salty, but as constituent atoms get bigger, a bitter taste develops. Potassium bromide is both salty and bitter, and potassium iodide is predominantly bitter. Sweetness is a property of sugars and related compounds but also of lead acetate, beryllium salts, and many other substances such as the artificial sweeteners saccharin and cyclamate. Bitterness is exhibited by alkaloids such as quinine, picric acid, and heavy metal salts. The salty taste is best exhibited by sodium chloride. It is sometimes claimed that the taste of salt by itself is unpleasant and that the main purpose of salt as a food component is to act as a flavor enhancer or flavor potentiator. The taste of salts depends on...

Conditions Limiting the Implementation of Effective Food Fortification Programs in Developing Countries

The difficulty of finding suitable vehicles to be fortified in the developing world has led to investigation of the fortification of oil, sugar, salt, fish and soy sauces, curry powder, and, in the past, other condiments such as monosodium glutamate. The main limitation of these food vehicles is that they allow the addition of only one or very few micronutrients.

Foods for special uses

Dairy products have long been known to be a functional food, as a good source of calcium. Additionally, fermented dairy products such as yogurt and kefir are a source of probiotics, live microbial food ingredients that are beneficial to human health (Roberfroid, 2000). Some probiotics are not part of a fermented milk product but are added to the milk as freeze-dried cultures. Intestinal microflora play an important role in the maintenance of health. Consumption of these live bacterial cultures are thought to affect the microbial ecology of the intestinal tract by colonization and replacement of non-beneficial bacteria (see also Chapter 8). Proposed benefits of the consumption of high levels of certain exogenous bacteria such as strains of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium include resistance to enteric pathogens, anti-colon cancer effect, strengthening of the immune response and alleviation of lactose intolerance (Sanders, 1999). Prebiotics are inulin-type fructans, i.e. carbohydrates...

Make label reading a new habit and check the ingredients lists for refined sugars

The BFFM program was designed to teach you new habits that you can adopt and keep for life. One new habit you can begin working on immediately is the habit of reading nutrition labels. Many people already check the nutrition facts panel on food labels for calories, fat, protein and carbohydrates. What most people miss is the ingredients list. Always check the ingredients list for refined sugar content. Refined sugars are not always listed on the nutrition facts panel as sugar. They may be disguised in the list of ingredients as high fructose corn syrup, corn syrup, rice syrup, sucrose, glucose syrup, brown sugar and invert sugar. These are all different varieties of refined sugar. If sugar is listed as one of the top few ingredients, then that food is not something you should eat on a daily basis.

The Dietary Supplement Health And Education Act Dshea Of 1994

The current U.S. approach to the regulation of herbal products is rather complex and generally considered to be unsatisfactory. Until 1994, the FDA classified most herbal remedies as either food additives or drugs, and manufacturers had to meet strict FDA standards before placing their products on the U.S. market. This changed in 1994 when Congress enacted the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA), which placed herbs together with vitamins and minerals in a category know as dietary supplements. DSHEA defines a dietary supplement as follows

Regulation of Functional Foods in the United States

Current US food regulations do not specifically address functional foods but, rather, include them in several categories within conventional foods, food additives, dietary supplements, medical foods, or foods for special dietary use. All of these fall under the amended Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act (FDCA) of 1938 and are implemented under regulations from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Four types of claims can be used to communicate the usefulness of functional foods to consumers health claims, qualified health claims, structure-function claims, and nutrient content claims.

Amino Acids and Protein

The nonessential amino acid glutamate (GLU) is an excitatory neurotransmitter, causing neurons that express GLU receptors to depolarize. Because GLU is excitatory, responsive neurons can become overexcited, when subjected to prolonged GLU exposure, and die. The term excitotoxicity was coined to describe this effect, and led to the concern that GLU ingested in food (as a constituent of dietary proteins as a flavoring agent) might cause the brain to become flooded with GLU, causing

Intentional Additives

Chemicals that are intentionally introduced into foods to aid in processing, to act as preservatives, or to improve the quality of the food are called intentional additives. Their use is strictly regulated by national and international laws. The National Academy of Sciences (1973) has listed the purposes of food additives as follows The use of food additives is in effect a food processing method, because both have the same objective to preserve the food and or make it more attractive. In many food processing techniques, the use of additives is an integral part of the method, as is smoking, heating, and fermenting. The National Academy of Sciences (1973) has listed the following situations in which additives should not be used There are several ways of classifying intentional food additives. One such method lists the following three main types of additives Some of the more important groups of intentional food additives are described in the following sections.

The Registered Dietitian RD

The RD is helpful in FM because many people's quality of life will improve through dietary change. The RD can help people learn not only what foods to avoid or minimize but how to introduce new foods into the diet and how to really enjoy those new foods. In FM, obesity is often a problem, especially due to the sporadic nature of FM flare cycles and the resulting disruption of an exercise routine. The RD can individualize an eating plan based on each patient's food preferences. In general, they discourage diets and emphasize healthier eating for the long run. They also try to strip away moral value from food by discouraging naming certain foods good or bad. Instead, they focus on which foods to eat often and which foods to enjoy less frequently or in smaller amounts. Another role of the RD is to help people with concurrent celiac disease since gluten and its related products are so prevalent in the food supply. Lactose intolerance is a bit easier to negotiate, but an RD will have tips...

Prickly Pear Tooth Decay Caries

Gout Flour Oxalic Acid

Acid ingredient of baking powder and self-raising flour, since it reacts with bicarbonate to liberate carbon dioxide. Calcium phosphates are permitted food additives (E-341). calculi (calculus) Stones formed in tissues such as the gall bladder (biliary calculus or gallstone), kidney (renal calculus) or ureters. Renal calculi may consist of uric acid and its salts (especially in gout) or of oxalic acid salts. Oxalate calculi may be of metabolic or dietary origin and people at metabolic risk of forming oxalate renal calculi are advised to avoid dietary sources of oxalic acid and its precursors. Rarely, renal calculi may consist of the amino acid cystine.

Rosemary Extracts Preparation And Composition A Preparation

Structure Thyme And Function

The leaves of the plant Rosmarinus officinalis L. are best known as a spice and flavoring agent but they are also reported as a herbal remedy with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticarcinogenic, antidiuretic, and hepatotoxic protective properties (1-3). Crude and refined extracts of R. officinalis L. are commercially available in the form of powders and liquids at different concentrations of the active components (e.g., Robertet S.A., Grasse, France LycoRed Natural Products Industries, Beer Sheva, Israel Kalsec Inc., Michigan, USA).

Requirements and High Intakes

Much of the silicon found in most diets probably occurs as aluminosilicates and silica from which silicon is not readily available. Owing to lack of evidence for a biological role for silicon in humans, no recommended intakes have been set. Silicon is essentially nontoxic when taken orally. Magnesium trisilicate, an over-the-counter antacid, has been used by humans for more than 40 years without obvious deleterious effects. Other silicates are food additives used as anticaking or antifoaming agents.

Medication generictrade Alprazolam Xanax

Patient example Lucinda is a 32-year-old woman with long-standing constipation-prone IBS. Recently she was diagnosed with FM. Interestingly, she has tried no medication for either her IBS or FM. After a history, physical exam, and laboratory tests ruled out both IBD (inflammatory bowel disease) and lactose intolerance, her provider asked if she was more concerned about the IBS or the FM. Lucinda reported she felt IBS limited her life more than FM. The provider prescribed Dicyclomine and peppermint oil and referred her to a registered dietitian who helped Lucinda start a gradual dietary program to reduce food additives, especially MSG and aspartame. They gradually have added fiber and increased her water intake. After six months, Lucinda's IBS is at least 50 percent improved. She says she was not aware how much she relied on fast foods and now cooks at home 90 percent of the time. She states she is now ready to explore treatment options for her FM.

Compare your estimated TDEE to how much youve been eating

Before you make any major alterations to the quantity of food you're eating now, figure out exactly how many calories you've been averaging over the past few months. Think back to a recent typical day of eating and write down everything you ate from the time you got up in the morning to the time you went to sleep at night. Don't forget the little things like sauces, condiments, the milk in your coffee, the sports drink during your workout, that beer on the weekend and late-night snacks.

Probiotics and Prebiotics

Prebiotics are nondigestible food ingredients that stimulate the growth or modify the metabolic activity of intestinal bacterial species that have the potential to improve the health of their human host. Criteria associated with the notion that a food ingredient should be classified as a prebiotic are that it remains undigested and unabsorbed as it passes through the upper part of the gastrointestinal tract and is a selective substrate for the growth of specific strains of beneficial bacteria (usually lactobacilli or bifidobacteria), rather than for all colonic bacteria, inducing intestinal or systemic effects through bacterial fermentation products that are beneficial to host health. Prebiotic food ingredients include bran, psyllium husk, resistant (high amylose) starch, inulin (a polymer of fructofuranose), lactulose, and various natural or synthetic oligosaccharides, which consist of short-chain complexes of sucrose, fructose, galactose, glucose, maltose, or xylose. The best-known...

Food Uses of Aluminum Compounds

Aluminum compounds that may be employed as food additives are listed in Table 1. Although most are present in foods as trace components, others may be present in significant quantities. For example, aluminum-based baking powders, employing sodium aluminum phosfate (SALP), may contain more than 10mgg_1 of aluminum, and bread or cake made with these may contain 5-15 mg of the element per slice. American processed cheese may contain as much as 50 mg of aluminum per slice due to the addition of Kasel, an emulsifying agent. Pickled cucumbers may contain 10 mg of aluminum per fruit when alum has been employed as a firming agent. Aluminum anticaking agents may also be present in significant quantities in common table salt. Table 1 Permitted aluminum-containing food additives and uses

Dietary Recommendations for Fibromyalgia Patients

This point is very important A quick and easy rule of thumb is to look at all ingredient lists, and if they are long and contain chemical names that are difficult to understand, don't eat it There are many chemicals added to our food preservatives, artificial colors and flavors, and flavor enhancers. These all could have long-term effects on health, and some will affect both cravings toward a food item and how you feel after eating them. Search for foods with very few ingredients that you can read without a PhD. Tip Be wary of sauces and mixed spices. Try using simple vinaigrettes for your salad as opposed to processed dressings like ranch or Caesar. 5. Avoid artificial sweeteners. Our bodies adapt to exposures. If a person eats sugar on a daily basis, they will find themselves craving sugar on subsequent days. Artificial sweeteners are actually much sweeter than sugar and make the body crave sweetness even more than sugar. This increases cravings, which in turn...

Synthesis Of Plant Metabolites In Specialized Structures Or Tissues

It has been shown by Croteau and Winters14 at Washington State University that leaves can synthesize a variety of monoterpenes from geranyl pyrophosphate (GPP), as shown in Figure 2.22. GPP production in the terpenoid pathway is the universal precursor of all monoterpenes. Monoterpenes, as well as some sesquiterpenes, in general serve as antiherbivore agents that have significant insect toxicity while having negligible toxicity to mammals. Mixtures of these low molecular weight volatiles, called essential oils, are what give plants such as peppermint, lemon, basil, and sage their characteristic odors, and many are commercially important in flavoring foods and in making perfumes.

Aids Cure In Natural

Health claims, 1 263-266 dietary supplements, 1 156 food labels, 1 232 functional foods, 1 242, 243 general requirements, 1 265 healthy, 1 264 and marketing strategies, 2 37-38 nutrient content claims, 1 264, 2651 soy protein, 1 243, 2 207 types, 1 265-266 See also Food labels Regulatory agencies Health communication, 1 266 Health education, 1 131, 1 266-267 Health promotion, 1 267 defined, 1 106 Healthy, on food labels, 1 264 Healthy Eating Index (HEI),

Flattened head syndrome See positional plagio

Many different common foods may trigger an allergic reaction, including citrus fruits, dairy products, wheat, eggs, fish, cola drinks, artificial coloring, shellfish, berries, tomatoes, pork, and nuts. Infants prone to allergies may be especially sensitive to milk and milk products, wheat, eggs, and citrus fruits. Allergic reactions can be caused by even very tiny (even undetectable) amounts of the food. For example, a child who is allergic to peanuts could go into anaphylactic shock after eating a food that only has been touched by peanuts. Food additives also may cause problems. About 15 percent of children who are allergic to aspirin are also sensitive to Yellow Dye 5 (tartrazine).

Learned Appetites Satieties and Feeding Behavior

As regards appetite 'regulation' a problem arises when foods are constructed to look and taste like foods with a different composition. For some time after the initial exposure to the food subjects will respond to it in a manner that is determined not by immediate exposure to the food but by what they have learned during the previous period of exposure to the similar foods upon which the learning was originally based. Only if the food produces a very large unconditioned stimulus will this previously learned response be instantly over-ridden. This raises the possibility that the use of food mimetics (e.g., artificial sweeteners) may disrupt stable patterns of learned feeding behavior in consumers at large.

The Food Guide Pyramid

Usda Food Guide Pyramid 1992

You must have noticed the food guide pyramid on food labels. The USDA and the DHHS designed this pyramid to be a flexible dietary guide for Americans. Each compartment contains a different food group and the recommended number of servings that should be consumed daily. The primary macronutrient (see Chapter 2) found in each food group is written in parenthesis. See Figure 3-1. Although this Food Guide Pyramid can be found on most food labels, many people are still unsure how to use its information. The most common questions concern both the size of a serving and how many servings should be eaten. Often people overestimate the size of a serving, thereby eating more kcals than they anticipated. Table 3-1 and Table 3-2 help answer questions about serving sizes. Table 3-1 gives an estimate of the amount of food per serving for each food group, and Table 3-2 lists the number of servings required from each food group to meet the total daily kcals shown in the left column. Using your...

How else can I change my eating habits to prevent GERD

Changing the way you prepare foods can make a difference. Eat low-fat foods and prepare foods with a minimum of added calories to aid in maintaining a good weight. Broil or barbeque meats to avoid the addition of fat calories lean meats, fish, and chicken are all good sources of protein. Avoid fatty or sugary condiments such as oils, mayonnaise, and ketchup to help cut calories. The easiest way to watch and reduce calories is by reading food labels and knowing the fat content. This is a good habit to get into and can benefit your health in the long run. My grandson asked one day, Grampie, why don't you put dressing on your salad Over the years, I have come to realize that certain types of foods upset my stomach, whereas others have a settling effect. I try to live by the USDA food pyramid and really limit my sweets, condiments, and processed foods. The more I adhere to the USDA food pyramid, the better my stomach feels and the less acid reflux symptoms arise or incidences occur.

Modulating host nonspecific defenses to foodborne pathogens

Prebiotics are defined as 'non-digestible food ingredients that beneficially affect the host by selectively stimulating the growth and or activity of one or a limited number of indigenous bacteria' (Gibson and Roberfroid, 1995). Pre-biotics act by selectively stimulating growth of certain intestinal microbes with potential health-promoting effects, and they are used with the aim of controlling the gut microflora in a beneficial manner (reviewed in Roy, 2004). Prebiotics in the form of nondigestible oligosaccharides, which are resistant to digestion in the upper gastrointestinal tract but are broken down and fermented in the large intestine, are used to promote the growth of Bifidobacteria and Lactobacilli. This increases the production of short-chain fatty acids, which can then provide energy for the host and alter fecal pH (reviewed in Farnworth, 2001). An additional mechanism through which prebiotics may act to reduce host susceptibility to infection is to act as 'decoys' for...

Management Dietary Elimination

The management of food allergy consists largely of elimination from the diet of the trigger food or foods. Elimination diets are used either for the diagnosis or the treatment of food intolerance, or for both. A diet may be associated with an improvement in symptoms because of intolerance to the food, a placebo effect, or the improvement may have been a coincidence. The degree of avoidance that is necessary to prevent symptoms is highly variable. Some patients are intolerant to minute traces of food, but others may be able to tolerate varying amounts. Strict avoidance and prevention of symptoms are the aims in certain instances, but in many cases it is unknown whether allowing small amounts of a food trigger could lead to either enhanced sensitivity or to the reverse, increasing tolerance. The duration required for dietary avoidance varies. For example, intolerance to food additives may last only a few years, whereas intolerance to peanuts is usually lifelong. Although food allergy is...

Hyperactivity and Antisocial Behavior

In children, there is an increasing frequency of the diagnosis of ADHD, a condition characterized by inattention, impulsive and disruptive behavior, learning difficulties, and increased levels of gross motor activity and fidgeting. Also, the prevalence of food allergies and intolerances has been increasing. Perhaps it is not surprising that dietary explanations and treatments for ADHD have been sought regularly for several decades, given theories of allergic reactions or intolerance to food additives, ingredients in chocolate, and even refined sugar (often grouped as the 'Feingold theory', after an early instigator of unproven dietary intervention). There has also been a long-standing interest in the possibility that antisocial behavior in children and adults might in part result from poor nutrition, although early studies were poorly designed. Behavioral effects of sugar and of many additives have by and large not been supported by controlled studies however, determining...

Controversies Related to Food Allergies and Intolerances

Controversial issues in this area include the diagnosis of brain allergy, the diagnosis of environmental illness related to food allergy, and the diagnosis of yeast allergy. The connection of these problems to food allergies is not universally recognized. Some have also linked hyperactivity to food allergy or intolerance. Hyperactivity in children, in some instances, may be related to eating large amounts of food additives, but it is not accepted to be an allergic condition by the majority of the scientific community.

Common Foods Associated with Food Allergy

An allergic reaction can be triggered by a very small amount of a food. Persons with food allergies need to read food labels carefully and ask restaurant workers about food ingredients, and the food industry needs to ensure that processed foods are appropriately prepared so that people are not exposed to food allergens unknowingly. This may happen when improperly cleaned food equipment is used to prepare multiple types of food.

Practical Applications

The current scale of the use of additives in food comes as a surprise to most people, and it is understandable that many should find these substances vaguely menacing. Nonetheless, the current phobia of food additives and food processing, and the obsession for so-called natural or health food arises largely out of misinformation and ignorance. Obsession with so-called natural or health food ignores the wide range of naturally occurring toxins in foods. The concept of health food is wholly misleading. For example, a survey of 'crunchy' peanut butter showed that 11 out of 59 samples from health food producers contained over 100 mg kg-1 of aflatox-ins, over 10 times the proposed maximum permitted level for total aflatoxins. Only one of the 26 samples from other producers contained aflatoxins in excess of 10 mg kg-1, and none contained more than 50 mgkg-1.

Enrichment Fortification of Foods with Zinc

Voluntarily add zinc to their products (20mg kg flour). Indonesia has also implemented a national program for the fortification of wheat flour, which includes addition of zinc. The fortification of condiments, such as fish sauce or seasoning powders in Asia, may serve as an additional vehicle for zinc fortification in the future. Several countries are adding zinc (and other micronutrients) to foods that are distributed in programs targeted to specific, vulnerable population groups. For example, in Chile and Argentina milk powder for use by young children is fortified with zinc, while in Mexico a milk powder-based supplement with added zinc is directed towards young children as well as pregnant and lactating women. As yet, there is an absence of information on the effectiveness of these programs to improve population zinc status.

Hazard Identification

The adverse effects of glutamic acid and its salts have been reviewed in great detail by the Joint FAO WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) (JECFA, 1988) and the American Institute of Nutrition of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology (FASEB) (Raiten et al., 1995). The acute toxicity has been evaluated in several animal species, with LD50 values for the oral route of administration ranging from 16,200 to 19,200 mg kg of body weight in mice, 10,000 to 19,900 mg kg of body weight in rats, and greater than 2,300 mg kg of body weight in rabbits (JECFA, 1988), indicating a low level of acute toxicity. Subchronic studies in mice showed an increase in body fat and female sterility in animals that had been subcutaneously injected with glutamate (2.2 to 4.2 g kg d) from day 1 to day 10 of life (Olney, 1969). Mice given subcutaneous injections of glutamate (3 g kg) at 2 days of age were also found to have higher body weights (Olney,...

Overview of Food Labeling

Food labels on products sold in the United States must have the product name (product identity statement) the manufacturer's name and address the net contents in terms of weight, measure, or count a list of ingredients and, in most cases, a Nutrition Facts statement. To insure consistent presentation of information so consumers can easily compare food products, each component of the label is defined by regulations in terms of placement, terminology, and type size. Regulation of food labeling falls

Control and Oversight

The primary agencies that monitor the safety of the U.S. food supply are the FDA, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), the Environmental Protection Agency, and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. When monitoring the food supply, the FDA focuses first on microbial food-borne illness, followed by natural toxins in food, and residues in food, including environmental contaminants, pesticides, and animal drugs. Nutritional composition and intentional food additives are monitored more closely as artificial food products enter the market. The FDA Food Code, which is published every two years, provides guidance for restaurants, grocery stores, and institutions such as nursing homes on how to prevent food-borne illness. Managers and supervisors of these institutions are now required to be certified

Common Foods Associated with Intolerance

Foods associated with intolerance include preserved foods, foods containing monosodium glutamate (MSG, a flavor enhancer), and specific foods such as milk, pickled herring, soy sauce, chili peppers, and nutmeg. Intolerance to lactose is a major problem for many populations. In the United States, lactose intolerance is common among those of African and Asian descent. The Native American population also has a high prevalence of lactose intolerance.

Advantages and Disadvantages

An advantage of the food exchange system is that it provides a system in which a wide selection of foods can be included, thereby offering variety and versatility to the person with diabetes. Other advantages of the lists are (1) they provide a framework to group foods with similar carbohydrate, protein, fat, and calorie contents (2) they emphasize important management concepts, such as carbohydrate amounts, fat modification, calorie control, and awareness of high-sodium foods (3) by making food choices from each of the different lists a variety of healthful food choices can be assured and (4) they provide a system that allows individuals to be accountable for what they eat. Furthermore, with an understanding of the nutrient composition of the exchange lists, nutrient values from food labels can be used and a wider variety of foods can be incorporated accurately into a meal plan.

Migration from Packaging Materials

Awareness of the problem developed in the mid 1970s when it was found that mineral waters sold in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) bottles contained measurable amounts of vinyl chloride monomer. Vinyl chloride is a known carcinogen. The Codex Alimentarius Committee on Food Additives and Contaminants has set a guideline of 1 ppm for vinyl chloride monomer in PVC packaging and 0.01 ppm of the monomer in food (Institute of Food Technologists 1988). Another additive found in some PVC plastics is octyl tin mer-captoacetate or octyl tin maleate. Specific regulations for these chemicals exist in the Canadian Food and Drugs Act.

Nutrients

Liquid alone leaves the stomach rather quickly unless it is a thick mixture or puree. Fruits are next, then vegetables, unless eaten with fat or sauces, followed by starches, and then starches mixed with legumes or meats because of the added protein content. Fats take the longest and slow emptying of the stomach if combined with any other food. Stimulants such as coffee, tea, and strong spices can hasten emptying time of the stomach and may also affect digestion by irritating the stomach walls. Certain food additives and excess salt may have the same effect.

Aging and Nutrition

The best way to establish a nutrient-dense diet is to balance a variety of food choices (in moderation) that are adequate to meet nutritional and caloric needs. The Food Guide Pyramid (FGP) is helpful to guide food selection and daily serving totals. An FGP specifically for those over 70 years of age recommends 1,200-1,600 calories from whole-grain foods, a variety of colored fruits and vegetables, low-fat dairy products, lean meats, fish and poultry, and eight glasses of fluid daily. Food labels help put single servings of food into the FGP. Results of national dietary surveys have led some experts to recommend calcium supplements and a one-a-day type of multiple vitamin. Other health food supplements are not generally needed and can be very expensive for those on fixed incomes.

Arkshell See cockles

Composition 100 g (edible portion 69 ) water 78 g, 318 kJ (76kcal), protein 2g, fat 0g, carbohydrate 17.4g (9.6g sugars), fibre 1.6g, ash 2.5g, Ca 14mg, Fe 3.4mg, Mg 17mg, P 78mg, K 429 mg, Na 4mg, Zn 0.1 mg, Cu 0.1 mg, Mn 0.1 mg, Se 0.7 g, vitamin A 1 g RE (12 g carotenoids), E 0.2mg, K 0.1 mg, B1 0.2mg, B2 0.06 mg, niacin 1.3 mg, B6 0.08 mg, folate 13 g, pantothenate 0.4 mg, C 4mg. A 120 g serving is a source of P, vitamin B1, a good source of Fe. artificial sweeteners See sweeteners, intense. asafoetida A resin extracted from the oriental umbelliferous plant Narthex asafoetida, with a bitter flavour and strong garliclike odour, used widely in oriental and Middle Eastern cooking, and in small amounts in sauces and pickles. (The strength of its aroma is suggested by its French and German names merde du diable Fr, Teufelsdreck Ger.) ascariasis Intestinal infestation with the parasitic nematode worm

Risk Factors

Achalasia is a swallowing disorder caused by degeneration of the intrinsic autonomic nerves in the esophagus wall and lower esophageal sphincter, leading to decreased or absent peristalsis in the esophageal smooth muscle or impaired relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter. Approximately 20-29 of achalasia patients may develop esopha-geal cancer within 15-20 years, predominantly squamous cell carcinoma, possibly because of increased inflammation, bacterial growth, and chemical irritation caused by prolonged contact of food ingredients with esophageal mucosa. In

Thresholds

The Joint FAO WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives and various national regulatory bodies have identified factors (called uncertainty factors UFs ) that account for interspecies and intraspecies differences in response to the hazardous effects of substances and for other uncertainties (WHO, 1987). UFs are used to make inferences about the threshold dose of substances for members of a large and diverse human population from data on adverse effects obtained in epidemiological or experimental studies. These factors are applied consistently when data of specific types and quality are available. They are typically used to derive acceptable daily intakes for food additives and other substances for which data on adverse effects are considered sufficient to meet minimum standards of quality and completeness (FAO WHO, 1982). These adopted or recognized UFs have sometimes been coupled with other factors to compensate for deficiencies in the available data and other uncertainties regarding...

Legislation

Many essential oils from herbs and spices are used widely in the food, health and personal care industries and are classified as GRAS substances or are permitted food additives (Kabara, 1991). A large number of these compounds have been the subject of extensive toxicological scrutiny and an example of the data available is shown in Table 3.6. However, their principal function is to impart desirable flavours and aromas and not necessarily to act as antimicrobial agents. Therefore, it is possible that additional safety and toxicological data would be required before regulatory approval for their use as novel food preservatives would be granted.

Food Habits

There exists great diversity in language, socioeconomic status, religion, age, education, social class, location, length of time in the United States, and country of origin among Asian Americans. Hence, caution needs to be taken not to generalize or imply that food habits are similar for all individuals of this group. For example, Chinese meals consist mainly of four food groups grains, vegetables, fruit, and meat. Because of lactose intolerance, most Chinese do not consume large amounts of dairy products, substituting soymilk and tofu as sources of protein and calcium. Some Asian food, such as Thai food, is generally spicy, hot, and high in sodium. Hot peppers are used daily. The Japanese are very concerned about the visual appeal of food and the separateness of the foods and tastes. Garlic and hot pepper, commonly used among Asian Americans, are not common ingredients in the Japanese cuisine. Korean Americans eat kimchi with each meal. Kimchi is cabbage marinated in salt water,...

Prebiotics

Prebiotics are nondigestible food ingredients that stimulate the growth or activity of bacteria, which are beneficial to health, in the digestive system. Soluble fiber or dietary fiber exhibits some prebiotic effects. The methanol extracts of buckwheat flour, which may contain pro-anthocyanidin with a high molecular weight, enhance the growth of lactic acid bacteria but inhibit the growth of Clostridium perfringens and Escherichia coli, suggesting that intestinal bacteria can respond to diets prepared from buckwheat grain. Prestamo et al. (2003) reported that a buckwheat diet in rats caused a slight decrease in some pathogenic bacteria and an increase in Lactobacillus plantarum, Bifidobacterium spp., and Bifidobacterium lactis, which have beneficial effects, suggesting that diets prepared from buckwheat have prebiotic effects.

Active packaging

Although absorbing oxygen and moisture or emitting carbon dioxide in a package can affect the growth of microorganisms, there are packaging schemes that are specifically designed to inhibit foodborne microorganisms. These fall mainly into two categories, packaging materials and edible films coatings that contain antimicrobial agents that interfere with microbial growth on the surface of the food (Cha and Chinnan, 2004). A variety of antimicrobials can be incorporated into packaging material or applied to the interior surface of the material, ranging from weak organic acids such as acetic, benzoic, lactic, propionic, and sorbic acids enzymes such as lysozyme bacteriocins such as nisin or pediocin triclosan chitosan and fungicides. The selection depends on the target organism and the food. Many of these same agents can be incorporated into edible coatings made from polysaccharides such as starch, cellulose, or gums. Proteins films are based on corn, soy, milk, collagen, and gluten while...

Sugars

The artificial-sweeteners beverages contained 54 aspartame, 22 ace-sulfame K, 23 cyclamate and 1 saccharine. On average, subjects received 815 and 240 kcal day from supplemented-sucrose and artificially sweetened diets, respectively. After 10 weeks, body weight gain was greater after the sucrose beverage by 1.6 kg (about 50 of that expected), whereas, the other group lost 1.0 kg. These results indicate that artificial sweeteners have the potential to reduce energy intake and promote weight loss compared with sugars (Raben et al., 2002). Nevertheless, the calories from the sucrose drinks were also compensated for at subsequent test meals by 56 . Based on the solutions' extra calories, if subjects had not compensated for the solution's calories, 7.4 and 2.2 kg weight gain would have been expected after the sucrose and artificially sweetened diets, respectively (Raben et al., 2002). In summary, several studies suggest that alternative sweeteners reduce cumulative energy intake in...

Population Studies

In a questionnaire offered to approximately 30 000 people in 11388 households in the High Wycombe area of Britain, 3188 of the 18 582 responders (17 ) thought that they had some sort of reaction to foods or food additives. A check on the nonresponders showed that they had almost no food-provoked symptoms. Particular attention was then paid to food additives, and it was found that 1372 of the 18 582 responders (7.4 ) believed they had adverse reactions to food additives. Of the 1372, 649 attended for a detailed interview, and 132 gave a history of reproducible clinical symptoms after ingestion of food additives. Eighty-one of these completed a trial of double-blind, placebo-controlled challenges with 11 food additives, but a consistent adverse reaction was found in only 2 subjects. One was a 50-year-old atopic man who reported headaches after ingesting coloring agents and who reacted to challenge with annatto, which reproduced his headache at both low (1mg) and high (10 mg) dose after...

Foods of the Islands

The food of the Caribbean can be highly spiced. The Scotch bonnet, a colorful pepper with a hot aroma, is widely used in soups, salads, sauces, and marinades. Some other important spices are annatto, curry, pimento, cinnamon, and ginger. Annatto seeds are often steeped in oil and used to flavor soups, stews, and fish dishes. Curry powder is made from a variety of freshly grounded spices. Curry dishes and hot sauces, which are used regularly in cooking, were brought to the islands by Indian settlers. condiments, and placed in thoroughly cleaned

Provocation Tests

Open food challenges are the simplest approach, but open food challenges run the risk of bias influencing the parents' (or doctors') observations. Often this is unimportant. But in some cases belief in food intolerance may be disproportionate, and where this is suspected there is no substitute for a double-blind placebo-controlled challenge. An open challenge may be an open invitation to the overdiagnosis of food intolerance. For example, in the UK parents widely believe that there is an association between food additives and bad behavior, but in one series, double-blind challenges with tartrazine and benzoic

Stevia Sweetener

Entrees, condiments, sauces, dressings, and soups. It can be found in nearly every imaginable commercially available item in conventional grocery stores. Tip Always make a shopping list and never shop when you are hungry. Read labels as though you were on a reconnaissance mission like a trained soldier. Eat as a cave man would whole food, grains, veggies, and fruit.

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