Natural Remedies for Food Cravings

Sugar Belly Secret

Joe Bovino is not only the creator of this book of strategies but also the author of other four amazon number one bestsellers. Having done extensive research and consulted professionals, he has formulated a strategy on how to get rid of that extra fat and lose weight. That is after almost a decade and a half year. He has also experienced other products prior to researching the natural ways of having a good strategy for weight loss. He can, therefore, be trusted. It entails a fun and simple strategy of having weight loss that melts away the extra pound without exercise or dieting. At times, it is quite hard to stay motivated to work out on a daily basis, especially when you are busy with work and getting older, it is hard to find the time and maintain your workouts! With this book of strategies, you learn how to continue with your usual work and enjoy life with your friends and family while at the same time lose that extra weight and belly, without any shed of sweat. It will help you; Rejuvenating and refreshing your skin, Supercharge your energy levels and become activated most of the time, You will still continue eating your preferred food and drinks without restrictions., Melt away extra pounds and keep them off for a long time. Read more...

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Evaluation of inhibitory effects on sucrosedependent cell adhesion on smooth surfaces by mutans streptococci

When mutans streptococci are cultured in a medium containing sucrose, they strongly adhere on smooth surfaces. Dental biofilms are formed on teeth surface by interaction between glucan and oral bacteria. Therefore, the measurement of sucrose-dependent cell adhesion is used to evaluate the formation of biofilms on teeth surface. If sucrose-dependent cell adhesion on the smooth surface is inhibited by phytochemicals, the test substance indicates the possibility to reveal anticariogenic effects. This procedure has been described by Hamada and Torii (Hamada and Torii, 1978). After mutans streptococci (S. sobrinus or S. mutans) are grown in the medium, the collected cells are resuspended in the medium. The cell suspension (0.5 mL), sucrose solution (final concentration, 1 ) and 0.3 mL of phytochemical solution are mixed in a new glass test tube, and incubated at angle 20 for 24 h at 37 C. After incubation, the reaction mixture containing nonadherent cell is gently removed by a Pasteur...

Amount of sucrose intake and texture of diets

Dental caries is positively correlated with the amount of sucrose intake (Sreebny, 1982). Therefore, the amount of diet that the animals ingest needs to be equal among feeding groups. Furthermore, the Vipeholm Dental Caries Study clarified that the texture of food containing sucrose influences the occurrence of dental caries (Gustafsson et al, 1954). In that study, subjects ate several foods (e.g., bread, chocolate, caramel) containing sucrose. The incidence of caries was higher in the group consuming gooey foods between meals than in the control group. Namely, the ingestion of sucrose that causes the adhesion to the teeth surface becomes a high risk of dental caries induction. Therefore, the texture and configuration of test materials containing phytochemicals added to the animal experimental diet are important to get significance. If the texture and taste of test substances are unique and likely to influence intake and adhesion, the method to reduce these factors should be...

Effects of ELM and ES on sucrosedependent cell adhesion on smooth surfaces

The inhibitory effect of ELM on sucrose-dependent adherence of cells onto the surface of glass test tubes was examined using growing cells of S. sobrinus 6715. Fig. 8A shows that cells adhered to the surface of glass test tubes after incubation. The cells grew well and adhered to the glass surface of the control (no phytochemical), ELM, ES and oolong. However, cells and glucan did not adhere to the glass surface of blank test tubes (sucrose-free). Fig. 8B shows the conditions of test tubes in which the reaction mixture was removed by pipetting, and then washed gently with distilled water. As shown clearly in Fig. 8B, cell adhesion was very strong in control test tubes, but was feeble in ELM, ES and oolong tubes cells were removed by washing. The results demonstrate that ELM and ES inhibit the adhesion of cells to the glass surface. Adhered cells that remained on the surface of glass test tubes after washing were suspended with 1 N NaOH and absorbance measured at 550 nm (Fig. 9). The...

Read labels and watch out for refined sugars Counting fat grams is not enough

In the 1980's the media literally brainwashed everyone into believing that all fat was bad and that fat was the one prime cause of obesity and health problems. This spawned the proliferation of a huge variety of fat-free foods as well as the widespread practice of counting fat grams and keeping them to a minimum. However, counting total fat grams is an antiquated weight loss technique. The key to fat loss is to reduce fats and also reduce your intake of refined sugar. Many fat-free foods are almost one hundred percent refined sugar. Refined sugars are bad carbohydrates of the worst kind. Of all the nutritional bad guys, refined carbohydrates (white sugar, sweets, white flour and enriched bread products) are the worst of all arguably much worse than fat. In fact, refined sugars and other highly processed foods are probably more responsible for poor health and obesity than any other single factor. You might be wondering, Could refined sugar really be that bad After all, if your calories...

Beware of hidden refined sugars

Small amounts of refined sugar are hidden in foods you might never even think of such as nonfat salad dressings, steak sauce, pasta sauce, cranberry sauce, sliced lunch meats, ketchup, whole wheat bread, whole grain cereals and too many others to mention. It would be difficult and perhaps unrealistic for you to completely eliminate 100 of the sugar from your diet. What you should do is make a concerted effort to cut down your refined sugar intake as much as possible, especially from the obvious sources such as candy, soda, chocolate, ice cream, table sugar and cookies.

TABLEJ1 Median Nutrient Intakes by Range of Percent of Daily Energy Intake from Added Sugars Children 4 Through 8 Years

Percent of Energy from Added Sugars Percent of Energy from Added Sugars c Percent ranges of energy from added sugars have been assigned a letter (a-h). When ranges of intakes do not share the same letter, they are significantly different (p < 0.5). d Estimates of mg of a-tocopherol were obtained by multiplying estimates of mg of a-tocopherol equivalents by 0.8. NOTE Data are limited to individuals who provided a complete and reliable 24-hour dietary recall on Day 1. Individuals were assigned to ranges of energy intake from added sugars based on unadjusted Day 1 intakes. Estimates of nutrient intake were adjusted using the Iowa State University method and data from the subsample of individuals with Day 2 recalls

TABLEJ3 Median Nutrient Intakes by Range of Percent of Daily Energy Intake from Added Sugars Boys 14 Through 18 Years of

Percent of Energy from Added Sugars c Percent ranges of energy from added sugars have been assigned a letter (a-h). When ranges of intakes do not share the same letter, they are significantly different (p < 0.5). d Estimates of mg of a-tocopherol were obtained by multiplying estimates of mg of a-tocopherol equivalents by 0.8. NOTE Data are limited to individuals who provided a complete and reliable 24-hour dietary recall on Day 1. Individuals were assigned to ranges of energy intake from added sugars based on unadjusted Day 1 intakes. Estimates of nutrient intake were adjusted using the Iowa State University method and data from the subsample of individuals with Day 2 recalls

TABLEJ5 Median Nutrient Intakes by Range of Percent of Daily Energy Intake from Added Sugars Men 51 Years of Age and

Percent of Energy from Added Sugars Percent of Energy from Added Sugars c Percent ranges of energy from added sugars have been assigned a letter (a-h). When ranges of intakes do not share the same letter, they are significantly different (p < 0.5). d Estimates of mg of a-tocopherol were obtained by multiplying estimates of mg of a-tocopherol equivalents by 0.8. NOTE Data are limited to individuals who provided a complete and reliable 24-hour dietary recall on Day 1. Individuals were assigned to ranges of energy intake from added sugars based on unadjusted Day 1 intakes. Estimates of nutrient intake were adjusted using the Iowa State University method and data from the subsample of individuals with Day 2 recalls TABLE J-6 Median Nutrient Intakes by Range of Percent of Daily Energy Intake from Added Sugars, Girls 9 Through 13 Years of Age Percent of Energy from Added Sugars c Percent ranges of energy from added sugars have been assigned a letter (a-h). When ranges of intakes do not...

The Contribution of Sucrose to Energy Intake

The contribution of macronutrients and individual sugars to total energy intakes in industrialized nations is shown in Table 2. Sucrose is at the top of the league table for sugars, contributions coming from both the naturally occurring sources of sweetness such as fruit and vegetables and also from refined sucrose. Sucrose, like all carbohydrates, is burned (oxidized) in the body to yield energy, specifically 16kJg-1. This is only half the energy yield of a gram of fat (37kJg-1) and much less than that Table 2 The contribution of different types of carbohydrate and sucrose to energy intake in industrialized nations Sucrose of alcohol (29kJg-1). Other carbohydrates such as starch, glucose, and fructose have the same energy content per gram as sucrose. The new 'intense' sweeteners such as aspartame contribute virtually no energy, hence their use in 'low joule' products. In Western countries, total carbohydrate intake amounts to about 200-280 g per day for the average man and woman, or...

Functional Roles of Sucrose in Foods

Refined sucrose is added to foods for more than just its sweetness. The difficulties inherent in producing low-joule products using intense sweeteners attest to this. For example, sucrose contributes to the bulk and texture of cakes and cookies and it provides viscosity and mouth feel in liquids such as soft drinks and fruit juices. Sucrose is also a powerful preservative and contributes the long storage life of jams and confectionery. In frozen products like ice cream, sucrose has multiple functions It acts as an emulsifier, preventing the separation of the water and fat phases it lowers the freezing point, thereby making the product more liquid and 'creamier' at the temperature eaten. The presence of sucrose retards the crystallization of the lactose in dairy foods and milk chocolate (tiny crystals of lactose feel like sand on the tongue). In canned fruit, sucrose syrups are used to prevent mushiness caused by the osmotic movement of sugar out of the fruit and into the surrounding...

Effects of mediumchain triglycerides on appetite control

MCT may help with appetite control via their satiating properties. The satiating properties of MCT involve multiple pre-absorptive and post-absorptive mechanisms. First, MCT appear as a thin, light-yellow, clear, and odorless oil, with a nearly neutral or slightly bland taste, whereas MCFA are characterized by an odor of goat and strong bitterness (Bach et al., 1996). This repulsive quality is extremely strong, as a concentration of 0.1 makes a meal unfit for human consumption (Bach et al1996). These palatability properties are important determinants of feeding behavior of an individual, in particular satiation.

Make label reading a new habit and check the ingredients lists for refined sugars

The BFFM program was designed to teach you new habits that you can adopt and keep for life. One new habit you can begin working on immediately is the habit of reading nutrition labels. Many people already check the nutrition facts panel on food labels for calories, fat, protein and carbohydrates. What most people miss is the ingredients list. Always check the ingredients list for refined sugar content. Refined sugars are not always listed on the nutrition facts panel as sugar. They may be disguised in the list of ingredients as high fructose corn syrup, corn syrup, rice syrup, sucrose, glucose syrup, brown sugar and invert sugar. These are all different varieties of refined sugar. If sugar is listed as one of the top few ingredients, then that food is not something you should eat on a daily basis. The ingredients list on a food package is a good way to determine refined sugar content because labeling laws require that the ingredients be listed in the order of their precedence. The...

Changes in Sucrose Consumption

It is a much more straightforward business to enquire about sugar (refined sucrose) consumption than honey consumption in preindustrial times. All sugar supplies, in Europe, came from imports, so customs records constitute a readily accessible record of national consumption. In the 1520s, the Dissolution of the Monasteries reduced demand for bees-wax for church candles and brought about a small decrease in the production of honey. Almost simultaneous with this came an increase in the supply of refined sucrose, imported from the new European colonies. Sugar was still considerably more expensive than honey, but this combination of events gained it a more complete following among the wealthy. Cookery books were used exclusively by the well-to-do at this time and clearly illustrate that, for this section of society, sugar had, by the 1550s, usurped honey's place in the diet. It was not until the early 1700s, however, when the supply of sugar boomed, its price fell, and coffee, tea, and...

Eating Sweets

Stress can cause us to act irrationally and can lead us to want to erase any negative feelings by eating sweets. It is known that chocolate can compensate for romance, and it affects the pituitary gland. What does it do to our teeth and fragile gum tissue Try placing sweetened chocolate and other sweets on your skin. You will find they will irritate the skin. They will also irritate the oral cavity. Sugar turns to acid, and acid eats away at the soft and hard tissues of the oral cavity. Plaque and bacteria feed off the sugar and invade the support structures of your teeth. Remedies A conscious effort and a focused mind will help you to stop eating sweets at times of duress. Replace the belief that negative feelings are extinguished when you eat sweets, and instead eat foods that are good for you, like fruits such as apples, bananas, and strawberries, and vegetables such as broccoli, spinach, and dark green lettuce. I have recently tried to diet, and I find that when I am stressed out...

Added Sugars

Added sugars are defined as sugars and syrups that are added to foods during processing or preparation. Major sources of added sugars include soft drinks, cakes, cookies, pies, fruitades, fruit punch, dairy desserts, and candy (USDA HHS, 2000). Specifically, added sugars include white sugar, brown sugar, raw sugar, corn syrup, corn-syrup solids, high-fructose corn syrup, malt syrup, maple syrup, pancake syrup, fructose sweetener, anhydrous dextrose, and crystal dextrose. Since added sugars provide only energy when eaten alone and lower nutrient density when added to foods, it is suggested that added sugars in the diet should not exceed 25 percent of total energy intake. Usual intakes above this level place an individual at potential risk of not meeting micronutrient requirements. Nutrient data on added sugars has only recently become available in the U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA) Pyramid Servings Database, which includes data on added sugars for over 7,000 foods. Appendix...

Sugar Busters

Sugar Busters is a popular high-protein diet developed by a group of New Orleans based physicians (and a layperson) in the late twentieth century. The authors of the popular diet book, Sugar Busters include Samuel S. Andrews, MD (endocrinologist), Morrison C. Bethea, MD (thoracic surgeon), Luis A. Balart, MD (gastroenterologist), and H. Leighton Steward (the ghost writer and a New Orleans entrepreneur). Their premise, Sugar is toxic claims refined sugars are toxic for the body, causing it to release insulin and store excess body sugar as body fat. The diet calls for avoiding refined sugar and processed grain products. It is not a no sugar diet, but a less sugar diet. The theory behind Sugar Busters is condition since fat comes from sugar. The authors claim that a high-protein, low-carbohydrate meal causes an unnoticeable rise in glucose levels and, consequently, a very insignificant rise in insulin, but a significant increase in the level of glucagons, a hormone secreted by the...

What Is Sucrose

Sucrose is a pleasant tasting substance that contributes most of the sweetness in our diet. It has played a role in human diets ever since primates began evolving on a diet of fruit and berries in the tropical forests of Africa 50 million years ago. Sucrose is chemically classified as a carbohydrate and a simple sugar, specifically a disaccharide composed of glucose and fructose (Figure 1). Its proper scientific name is The natural sweetness of fruit and honey comes from mixtures of sucrose, glucose, and fructose. The mild sweetness of milk comes from another disaccharide, lactose, composed of glucose and galactose. Because sweetness comes from a mixture of sugars (not just sucrose) in many sources, we use different terms to define the original source, e.g., naturally occurring sugars, refined sugars, added sugars, concentrated sugars, intrinsic sugars, and extrinsic sugars. Refined sucrose is also known as table sugar, cane sugar, or beet sugar. Unfortunately, the term 'sugar' means...

Honey versus Sucrose

It is therefore possible that intakes of honey at various times during history may well have rivalled our current consumption of refined sugar. There are implications therefore for the role of sugar in modern diets. Refined sugar may not have displaced more nutrient-rich items from our present-day diets but only the nutritionally comparable food, honey.

Snacking and Soft Drink Consumption

In restaurants and cafes combined with an increase in snacking. Snacks, including soft drinks, now contribute a significant proportion of the daily energy intake of adolescents. Concerns about the possible impact of snacks on measures of overweight and nutrient composition have not been borne out by the evidence, although it is acknowledged that data collection in this area is complicated by the myriad of definitions for 'snack.' A number of observational studies have found that frequent snackers have similar nutrient intakes to those who snack infrequently. With respect to body size, snacking tends to relate to a lower body mass index rather than one that is high. Intervention studies also provide valuable evidence on the effects of snacking. A study in adults, which attempted to increase consumption of snacks to around 25 of daily energy using a variety of low- and high-fat products, found that the subjects compensated for the additional energy by reducing the amount eaten at meals....

Nutrient Functions And The Indicators Used To Estimate Requirements

Carbohydrates (sugars and starches) provide energy to cells in the body, particularly the brain, which is a carbohydrate-dependent organ. An Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) for carbohydrate is established based on the average amount of glucose utilized by the brain. The Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for carbohydrate is set at 130 g d for adults and children (Table S-2). There was insufficient evidence to set a daily intake of sugars or added sugars that individuals should aim for.

Criteria And Proposed Values For Tolerable Upper Intake Levels

Diets and still have adequate intakes of all other required nutrients. It is thus recommended that saturated fatty acid, trans fatty acid, and cholesterol consumption be as low as possible while consuming a nutritionally adequate diet. Although there were insufficient data to set a UL for added sugars, a maximal intake level of 25 percent or less of energy is suggested to prevent the displacement of foods that are major sources of essential micronutrients (see Chapter 11).

Biological Availability

The fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E, and K) are absorbed dissolved in lipid micelles, and, therefore, absorption will be impaired when the meal is low in fat. Gastrointestinal pathology that results in impaired fat absorption and steattorhea (e.g., untreated celiac disease) will also impair the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins, because they remain dissolved in the unabsorbed lipid in the intestinal lumen. Lipase inhibitors used for the treatment of obesity and fat replacers (e.g., sucrose polyesters such as OlestraTM) will similarly impair the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins.

Initiation and Stimulation of Eating Mechanisms Underpinning Hunger

The intimate contact of mainly chemical, but also physical, stimuli with receptors in the mucosa of the nose and mouth set up orosensory effects of food stimuli. This is in turn transmitted to the brain by afferent fibers of primary olfactory, gustatory, and somatosensory neurons of cranial nerves 1, 5, 7, 9, and 10. These peripheral inputs appear to make contact with dopamine and opioid neurotrans-mitters in the brain. The cephalic phase of appetite control refers to physiological responses engendered by the sight or smell of food, which are anticipatory and serve to prepare the system for the imminent ingestion of food. Cephalic phase responses occur in the mouth (anticipatory secretion of saliva), stomach, and small intestine and represent preprandial changes that are precursors for the onset of a meal.

Absorption of water and electrolytes

Water The mucosa of the proximal small intestine has a net Water secretion of about 30 ml hour (Knuison ei at., 1995). Water from the basolateral and pericapiIlary space readily flows across the tight junctions, if the lumen contains a high concentration of osmotically active nutrients (e.g. simple sugars). Water is largely taken up again into small intestinal enterocytes by cotransport with sodium and glucose via SGLTI (Wright and Loo. 2000), and exported across the basolateral membrane both via aquaporin 3 (Purdy et al 1999) and aquaporin 4 (Wang et al 2000). Aquaporin 3 expression increases from the stomach and is greatest in the ileum and colon. The large intestine further removes remaining water, potassium, and other electrolytes. Both aquaporin 3 and 4 (Wang el al., 2000) contribute to water transport across the basolateral membrane. Sodium. Digestive secretions (saliva, stomach secretions, bile, pancreatic juicc. and intestinal secretions) nio e large amounts of sodium into the...

Dietary Carbohydrate

A negative correlation between total sugars intake and body mass index has been reported in adults (Dreon et al., 1988 Dunnigan et al., 1970 Fehily et al., 1984 Gibson, 1993, 1996b Miller et al., 1990). Increased added sugars intakes have been shown to result in increased energy intakes of children and adults (see Chapter 6) (Bowman, 1999 Gibson, 1996a, 1997 Lewis et al., 1992). In spite of this, a negative correlation between added sugars intake and body mass index has been observed in children (Bolton-Smith and Woodward, 1994 Gibson, 1996a Lewis et al., 1992). Published reports disagree about whether a direct link exists between the trend toward higher intakes of sugars and increased rates of obesity. Any association between added sugars intake and body mass index is, in all likelihood, masked by the pervasive and serious problem of underreporting, which is more prevalent and severe among the obese population. In addition, foods and beverages high in added sugars are more likely to...

Secondary Deficiency

Factors that may exacerbate deficiency, generally by increasing requirements for or urinary excretion of chromium, include pregnancy, excessive exercise, infection, physical trauma and stress (Anderson 1986). Diets high in simple sugars have been found to increase urinary chromium excretion up to 30-fold, thereby increasing the risk of deficiency (Kozlovsky et al 1986). Corticosteroids also increase urinary losses of chromium (Kim etal 2002).

Association of glycaemic response with satiety and food intake

The rate of hydrolysis of ingested carbohydrate and the rate of gastric emptying are determinants of the rate of glucose absorption, which, in turn, determines the extent and duration of the glucose rise after consumption of a food or meal. Circulating insulin levels are directly determined by p-cell stimulation by absorbed glucose or amino acids. As explained above, the insulin demand is determined not only by the amount of carbohydrate ingested but also by its quality, which will determine the rate of absorption. The GI of foods or meals provides an indication of the rate at which their carbohydrates are digested. Low-GI foods may be considered potential dietary tools to reduce glucose absorption rate and insulin response (Augustin et al., 2002). Slowly digested carbohydrates, which are low GI, may be used to prolong satiety compared with high-GI foods. Studies that have investigated this relationship are summarized in Table 3.3. In one study, the effect of different rice types on...

Psychological Effects

Chocolate craving, which is reported to be the most common food craving (Weingarten & Elston 1991), is more common in women, with fluctuations occurring with hormonal changes just before and during the menses (Rozin et al 1991). The basis for chocolate craving, however, remains undetermined, but it is suggested that aroma, sweetness, texture and calorie content are likely to play a more important role 2007 Elsevier Australia in chocolate cravings than pharmacological factors (Brulnsma & Taren 1999, Mlchener & Rozln 1994, Rozln et al 1991, Smlt et al 2004).

Premenstrual Syndrome

Magnesium deficiency may contribute to the symptomology of PMS, which may be improved by chocolate or cocoa powder, which contain a high concentration of magnesium ( 100 mg 100 g in chocolate and 520 mg 100 g in cocoa powder). There is also some evidence to suggest that serotonin levels are low premenstrually, and it is possible that premenstrual chocolate cravings are the body's attempt to raise CNS concentrations of serotonin (Bruinsma & Taren 1999).

Fermentable Carbohydrate

Acidogenic bacteria metabolize (ferment) simple sugars (glucose, fructose, sucrose, lactose, and maltose) to acids. Sugars may be present as a result of their direct consumption or as a result of the enzymatic breakdown of starches within the mouth by salivary amylase. Thus, a substantial proportion of a typical diet will contain a source of fermentable carbohydrate, and many, if not all, eating and drinking occasions will give these bacteria one of these metabolic precursors. The more frequently an individual consumes carbohydrate, the more the acido-genic bacteria thrive and other, less acid tolerant, bacteria are disadvantaged. A wide variety of foods contain carbohydrate that is capable of giving rise to acids as a result of bacterial metabolism (fermentation) within dental plaque. Of the common dietary sugars, sucrose, fructose, and glucose are found in fruit and fruit juices, soft drinks, jams, honey, chocolate and other confectionary, and an immense variety of composite foods...

Protection from and Prevention of Dental Caries

Variations among individuals, and with time, will arise as a result of differences in acid generation from sugars at different localities within the dentition. These variations may be influenced by changing dietary habits and by the extent of the colonization of the relevant tooth surface by acido-genic bacteria. They may also be affected by changes in saliva flow, for example as a result of the use of certain medications or radiotherapy.

Classification of Dietary Carbohydrates

A disaccharide (e.g., sucrose, lactose, and maltose) consists of two sugar units. Oligosaccharides, containing 3 to 10 sugar units, are often breakdown products of polysaccharides, which contain more than 10 sugar units. Oligosaccharides such as raffinose and stachyose are found in small amounts in legumes. Examples of polysaccharides include starch and glycogen, which are the storage forms of carbohydrates in plants and

Plant Part Used Chemical Components

Dong quai contains essential oil (0.4-0.7 ) consisting of 45 ligustilide, n-butylphthalide, cadinene, carvacrol, safrole and isosafrol. The root also contains sucrose (40 ) and various lactones and vitamins, together with phytosterols, ferulic acid and coumarins, including osthole, psoralen and bergapten (Micromedex 2003). Ferulic acid and ligustilide are considered to be the main active components (Dong et al 2005) and it has been suggested that assessment of total ferulic acid content provides a good measure of herbal quality (Lu et al 2005).

Physiology of Digestion Absorption and Metabolism Digestion

The microvilli of the small intestine extend into an unstirred water layer phase of the intestinal lumen. When a limit dextrin, trisaccharide, or disaccharide enters the unstirred water layer, it is rapidly hydrolyzed by enzymes bound to the brush border membrane. These limit dextrins, produced from starch digestion, are degraded by glucoamylase, which removes glucose units from the nonreducing end to yield maltose and isomaltose. Maltose and isomaltose are degraded by intestinal brush border disaccharidases (e.g., maltase and sucrase). Maltase, sucrase, and lactase digest sucrose and lactose to monosaccharides prior to absorption.

Relations With Other Psychological Variables

Two other experiments, both studies of taste sensitivity, showed the same parallel prediction between the two measures (Hopmeyer & Stevens, 1989 Stevens, Dooley, & Laird, 1988). If people who are more responsive to personal cues or are high in body consciousness are more tuned in to sensations from their bodies, they might also be more sensitive to other sensations. To test this, subjects were asked to taste a series of concentrations of sucrose. The degree to which subjects are sensitive to sensory changes is expressed as the slope of the psychophysical function relating chemical concentration to taste intensity. As predicted, subjects who were more responsive to personal cues produced significantly steeper psychophysical functions, as did subjects higher in body consciousness. However, once again, responses to personal cues and body consciousness were not themselves significantly related.

Do people keep their weight off following verticalbanded gastroplasty

While initial weight loss is quite good with vertical-banded gastroplasty, long-term maintenance is poor. Unlike most other forms of gastric bypass surgery, following vertical-banded gastroplasty most people are not troubled by eating sweets (as you will read later sugary foods can cause bloating, diarrhea, and abdominal pain following other types of surgery), and as a result they may consume excessive amounts of sweets. This behavior has been linked to poor long-term weight loss. At ten years this procedure has an 80 percent failure rate (meaning much of the initial weight lost is regained). In addition 15 to 20 percent of people who have this procedure require a reoperation due to blockage of the polypropylene band or reflux of stomach acid into the esophagus. Because of these difficulties, it is unlikely that your doctor will suggest vertical-banded gastroplasty.

Hygienicdietary habits

Certain features of sugary foods and the conditions under which they are ingested, are more important in determining the cariogenic potential than amount of sugar (Moynihan, 2005). The factors that establish the potential cariogenicity of sugary foods are Time of ingestion sugary foods are more dangerous when consumed between meals, as the natural defense mechanisms operate at maximum during meals. The worst time to cariogenic food is just before bedtime, because the mouth is dry by the circadian rhythm of saliva during sleep. The frequency sugar intake reduces the pH of dental plaque that facilitates demineralization and promotes tooth decay, so that the more frequent the intake, more cariogenic foods become. But also, there are certain foods that can protect against the formation of dental caries by the substances that they contain in their structure, either because they are fibrous, fatty or protein, etc. which reduces their cariogenic potential, and when mixed with sugary foods,...

Insulin Sensitivity and Type 2 Diabetes

Two prospective cohort studies showed no risk of diabetes from consuming increased amounts of sugars (Colditz et al., 1992 Meyer et al., 2000). Furthermore, a negative association was observed between increased sucrose intake and risk of diabetes (Meyer et al., 2000). Intervention studies that have evaluated the effect of sugar intakes on insulin concentration and insulin resistance portray mixed results. Dunnigan and coworkers (1970) reported no difference in glucose tolerance and plasma insulin concentration after 0 or 31 percent sucrose was consumed for 4 weeks. Reiser and colleagues (1979b) reported that when 30 percent starch was replaced with 30 percent sucrose, insulin concentration was significantly elevated however, serum glucose concentration did not differ.

Physical Activity

High consumers of added sugars tended to weigh less than moderate consumers Significant negative correlation between added sugar intake and BMI Significant negative correlation between added sugar intake and BMI For each additional serving of sugar-sweetened drink consumed, BMI and frequency of obesity increased baseline consumption of sugar-sweetened drinks was independently associated with change in BMI

Hypothalamic Control of Hunger in Anorexia Nervosa

In normal individuals fasting and weight loss increase hunger by multiple mechanisms (decreased serum levels of leptin, insulin, and blood glucose and increased levels of ghrelin). At the level of the hypothalamus there is an increase in the potent orexigenic neuropeptide Y and other changes in neurotransmitters secondary to the fasting state. Some of these neurotransmitter changes may be the cause or a mechanism of anorexia nervosa, and for this reason they have received considerable attention in the past several years. It is important to understand that appetite control is a very complex hypothalamic function that involves many local and systemic neuropeptides, amines, and hormones.

Chronic Restrained Living

If you think this sounds exactly like a diet, that's because it is. While CRE doesn't feature some of the more outrageous claims of the classic low-carbohydrate or low-fat or low-sugar diets all of which contradict each other the idea at the core of CRE is exactly the same as that endorsed by all diets Eat less than you want to eat, and don't eat many of the things you would most like to eat at all. At bottom, CRE is a product of the fact that, in the wake of several generations of almost total failure, the diet industry has discovered diet is becoming a four-letter word and so they are busily coming up with euphemisms for diets, diet books, diet foods, and so forth.

Absorption of electrolytes in the small intestine

Carbohydrates are broken down by digestive enzymes in the intestine into simple sugars (glucose, galactose and fructose), which are then absorbed into the bloodstream via the intestinal mucosa, using either active transport or facilitated diffusion. Proteins are hydrolysed by proteolytic digestive enzymes into amino acids, which are absorbed by active transport.

Physiological Effects of Isolated and Synthetic Fibers

As interest has increased in fiber, manufacturers have isolated various types of fiber from a wide range of carbohydrate sources added to foods. Many of these isolated materials are used as food additives based on functional properties such as thickening or fat reduction. As enzymatic and other technologies evolve, many types of polysaccharides will continue to be designed and manufactured using plant and animal synthetic enzymes. Examples in this category include modified cellulose, in which the hydroxyl groups on the glucose residues have been substituted to varying degrees with alkyl groups such as methyl and propyl fructooligosaccharides manufactured from sucrose and polydextrose synthesized from glucose. In some instances, fibers isolated from plants or manufactured chemically or synthetically have demonstrated more powerful beneficial physiological effects than a food source of the fiber polysaccharide.

Have heard people can develop something called the dumping syndrome after RouxenY What is this and can it be prevented

Passing quickly from the small stomach pouch into the jejunum, this is generally not a major problem. The dumping syndrome seems to occur more frequently after a person eats sweets. It is believed that part of the success of the Roux-en-Y procedure is because when people find that eating sweets causes this problem they stop eating them.

Vitamin C And Antioxidants

We now look at compounds that derive from saccha-rides, or sugars. Saccharides are the closest relatives to glucose, the starting material for all botanical compounds in fact, glucose itself is a saccharide. The term saccharide refers to any carbohydrate, but is especially applied to the simple sugars monosaccharides, disac-charides, oligosaccharides, and polysaccharides.3

Evaluation of inhibitory effects on pH decline by acid production

Oral bacteria produce organic acids from sugars. If oral pH declines to approximately 5.5 due to organic acids produced, enamel demineralization of teeth begins. If organic acids produced from sugars by mutans streptococci are omitted or decreased and oral pH does not decline to 5.5, enamel demineralization is prevented by buffering action of saliva. Therefore, the degree of pH decline of the culture medium is measured during the incubation with oral bacteria (especially mutans streptococci) in the presence and absence of test substance with anticariogenic effects. Our procedure to measure pH decline is rapid and reliable. Cell suspension and phytochemical solution are added to 20 mM glucose solution in Stephan's buffer (pH 7.0) in a test tube (total volume, 1.0-2.0 mL), and incubated for 1060 min at 37 C under anaerobic conditions after mixing. During incubation, the pH of the reaction medium is periodically measured with a portable pH meter (Hashiguchi-Ishiguro et al, 2009). Another...

Evaluation of inhibitory effects on glucan production by GTase

Water-insoluble and water-soluble a-linked glucans produced from sucrose due to the action of GTases adhere to the surfaces of teeth and promote the development of dental caries. GTase inhibitors disturb the production of these glucans and prevent the development of dental caries. The inhibitory effect of test substances on GTase has been evaluated by partially purified GTase from mutans streptococci, particularly Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus, which are considered to be the primary causative agents of dental caries in humans. Partially purified GTase can be conveniently used to evaluate the inhibitory effects of test substances on glucan production because it is stable and readily administered after preparation. If S. mutans and S. sobrinus are directly used to evaluate the inhibitory effects of test substances on glucan production, the assay is complicated and additional effort is required An outline of our procedure to evaluate the inhibitory effect of...

Sugars caloric sweeteners

Sugars are classified into three groups monosaccharides, disaccharides, and trisaccharides. The simplest molecules of sugars are the monosaccharides, which include galactose, fructose and glucose, the only monosaccharides absorbed by humans. Disaccharides (including lactose, maltose and sucrose) and trisaccharides (including raffinose, found in cottonseed and sugar beets), are derived from the union of monosaccharides. All of these sugars provide approximately 4 cal g. Household 'sugar', or 'table sugar', is extracted mainly from sugar cane or beet. This sugar is a disaccharide composed of 50 glucose and 50 fructose linked by a-1,4 glycosidic bonds (Pancoast and Junk, 1980). Glucose, also known as dextrose or corn syrup, is produced from corn starch. Fructose is the sweetest of the simple sugars and is found as the monosaccharide, along with glucose and sucrose, in fruits and vegetables (Park and Yetley, 1993). It is generally present in honey and fruits and vegetables in similar...

Alternative sweeteners nonnutritive sweeteners

The hedonic value of sugars due to their sweetness can be provided in foods and beverages by artificial sweeteners (non-caloric sweeteners) or polyols (low-caloric sweeteners), alternatively called sugar substitutes, sugar replac-ers or alternative sweeteners. High-intensity sweeteners provide sweeteness with negligible calories, although the sensation of their sweetness is often different from that of sugar. Saccharine, the oldest artificial sweetener is 300 times as sweet as sucrose. Currently, five of the high-intensity sweeteners have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and include acesulfame-K, aspartame, sucralose, saccharin and neotame which are 200, 180, 600, 300 and 8000 times sweetener than sugar, respectively (FDA, 2006). Two other artificial sweeteners, alitame and cyclamate (2000 and 30 times sweeter than sugar, respectively), have been used in foods in Europe but not in the United States (CCC, 2006). Another group of sweeteners provides sweetness...

Animals and diets to evaluate anticariogenic effects

Fifteen-day-old specific pathogen-free Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats are suitable for caries studies. The first and second molars are coming through at this age. Mutans streptococci are inoculated to animals during this period. If inoculation lags behind, the prevalence of dental caries is reduced (Ooshima et al, 1994). The number of mutans streptococci that must be inoculated to definitely cause dental caries is very important. The breeding period after inoculation with mutans streptococci is about 55 days. Diet 2000 is a popular diet in animal experiments on caries (Keyes and Jordan, 1964) and contains 56 sucrose. If the percentage of sucrose is reduced, the prevalence of dental caries is also reduced. Phytochemicals are commonly added to the diet to evaluate anticariogenic effects. After breeding, the molar is removed and the degree of dental caries is scored. The details of the experimental protocol have been described (Ooshima et al, 1981 Tsunehiro et al, 1997). The typical procedure...

Is there a particular type of diet that will reduce my chance of type 2 diabetes

Modest weight loss can be very beneficial. The benefits can be shown very early, almost as soon as calorie intake drops below that required to maintain body weight and before significant weight loss actually occurs. The consumption side of this balance is, of course, food intake. The output side that we can control is exercise. Neither can operate successfully to regulate weight independent of the other. Very calorie-dense foods, such as those with a high fat content (e.g., cheese, ice cream, fried foods, and processed meats) are common components of diets that lead to weight gain, obesity, and ultimately diabetes. Although sugar itself does not cause diabetes, foods with a high content of refined sugar, such as sodas and candies, are also more likely to be associated with weight gain and diabetes than those with natural sugars. Natural sugars tend to be associated with fiber, which delays and limits their absorption. Thus, portion for portion, more sugar is consumed in foods high in...

Extractive from the leaves of Morus alba ELM

We have clarified that ELM competitively inhibits the activity of sucrase, maltase, and isomaltase using human and rat intestinal homogenates, and significantly suppresses the increment in blood glucose levels, when ELM is administered with sucrose to rats (Oku et al, 2006). In addition, we found that confections with ELM effectively suppress the postprandial blood levels of glucose and insulin in healthy humans (Nakamura M et al, 2009). We suppose that confections with ELM can contribute to the prevention and the quality-of-life for pre-diabetic and diabetic patients.

Questions About Medications

Various things to help make them more bearable. For instance, adding exercise to your routine or improving your diet can help with weight gain or feelings of fatigue. You can eat sugar-free hard candy to decrease the discomfort of dry mouth. Some people feel embarrassed by hand tremors that can be a side effect of some medications if that's the case for you, you could use credit cards rather than checks or money when in public so that people aren't as likely to see your unsteady hands. For side effects of sedation and fatigue, you can take medications at night. If you feel like you can't tolerate a side effect, talk with your doctor to see if there are other options available before discontinuing the medication.

HoneyA Sweet Alternative

My experience reveals that patients do not appear to get addicted to honey like they do refined sugar. However, honey does cause left neck pain. The pancreas must do some type of extra work to process it. Natural honey from a local beekeeper promotes health. Honey has over 150 ingredients such as collagen with a protein called proline. My suggestion is to slowly divert your sugar cravings to honey.

Biochemical Regulation

In the biochemist's toolbox, one strategy used to enhance end-product biosynthesis is to elevate substrate concentration. This has the potential of enhancing the rate of a given enzyme's activity. A case in point is the hydrolysis of sucrose to d-glucose and d-fructose, mediated by the enzyme invertase (P-fructofura-nosidase). When the photosynthetically produced sucrose level increases in source cells (green leaves and stems), this in effect causes invertase activity to increase in these cells so long as end-products are also being removed or metabolized. One of the consequences of this action, especially in the case of sucrose, is that other metabolic pathways are also up-regulated. The elevation in d-fructose levels leads to enhanced synthesis of the storage metabolite, fructan, found in cell vacuoles (see Chapter 2). Further, the parallel increases in the amount of the other product, d-glucose, leads to an enhancement in synthesis of cell-wall cellulose (a glucose polymer) and the...

How snacking fits into the BFFM eating plan

Most people's snacks of choice are refined carbohydrates and fatty foods such as crackers, cookies, candy, muffins, potato chips and pretzels. This is largely because carbo snacks are so readily available (it's not like you can grab a chicken breast or Salmon steak at the checkout counter of a convenience store ) In the next chapter, you'll be learning why eating carb snacks by themselves is not a good idea. On the BFFM program, usually you won't want snacks because you'll be eating meals so often that hunger and cravings between meals will be a thing of the past. If you make healthy choices and stay within your calorie limits, snacks are perfectly acceptable if you want them. Some of the best snacks include fruit, raw vegetables (carrots, celery, cauliflower, etc), nuts and seeds (in small quantities) non-fat or low-fat cottage cheese and non-fat or low-fat sugar free yogurt.

Potential of phytochemicals as anticariogenic materials

ELM, extractive from the leaves of Morus alba ES, extractive from Salacia chinensis Reaction mixture cell solution, 0.5 mL 2 sucrose (final concentration, 1 ) in BHI, 0.8 mL test substance 0.3 mL incubated at 20 for 24 h at 37 C. In the blank, distilled water was added instead of sucrose. In the negative control, distilled water was added instead of test substance (Hashiguchi et al, 2011). ELM, extractive from the leaves of Morus alba ES, extractive from Salacia chinensis Reaction mixture cell solution, 0.5 mL 2 sucrose (final concentration, 1 ) in BHI, 0.8 mL test substance 0.3 mL incubated at 20 for 24 h at 37 C. In the blank, distilled water was added instead of sucrose. In the negative control, distilled water was added instead of test substance (Hashiguchi et al, 2011). Fig. 8. Adhesion of S. sobrinus 6715 and glucan on smooth surfaces of glass after incubation with sucrose In addition, Alg53 suppressed pH decline by the production of organic acids from glucose, whereas ELM and...

Adhesionblockade effect

The ability of LF to inhibit in vivo colonization of E. coli has been examined (Naidu et al., unpublished). Infection with E. coli strain F18 was established in streptomycin-treated mice by gastric intubation and bacterial excretion was estimated as colony forming units per gram (CFU g) feces. The excretion of strain F18 in feces reached a steady-state (108 CFU g) within 7 days, independent of challenge (dose 8 x 108 or 103 CFU). Oral administration of bLF (20 mg ml in 20 sucrose solution) caused a 1- to > 3-log reduction in CFU g feces with high and low dosages of strain F18. The bacterial multiplication in vivo was markedly affected during the early 24 hours of infection, reflecting > 3-log lower number of bacteria in the feces (2 x 103 CFU g) than the control group. Oral administration of LF prior to infection reduced fecal excretion of E. coli from mouse intestine. In vitro effects of bLF on the molecular interactions of E. coli with subepithelial matrix proteins were...

How Sweet is Sweet Enough

Satan came to steal, kill and destroy. By far, in my experience of treating the most serious conditions, sugar seems to always be at the pivotal starting point. Watch what you feed your kids. Brightly colored packaged treats found at the movie theater and convenience stores should raise a suspicious eye. One particular movie candy that i recently evaluated had sugar, high fructose corn syrup, hydro-genated fat, and multiple toxic dyes. After eating this treat, unsuspecting kids instantly have brain waves that misfire possibly creating behavioral issues. i have discovered that sport drinks and power bars commonly found in athletic facilities, conventional, and health food stores are stealthy candy bars. Be aware of evaporated organic cane juice crystals which is sugar in disguise. I avoid all man-made synthetic sugars. Manitol, sorbitol, and xylitol, are alcohol-based sweeteners marketed as sugar free and create additional stress to the detox system. Seek grape juice sweetened, brown...

Fructose and Lipid Metabolism

When large amounts of fructose are ingested, the glycolytic pathway becomes saturated with intermediates. In these circumstances, the intermediates become substrates for triacylglycerol synthesis DHAP can be converted to glycerol, and acetyl-CoA can enter the lipogenic pathway to form fatty acids that are then esterified to the glycerol molecule to form triacylglycerols. During the initial step of lipogenesis, malonyl-CoA is formed. This intermediate serves to inhibit the transport of fatty acids into the mitochondria, where they are oxidized. By this regulatory mechanism, esterification of the newly synthesized fatty acids is reinforced. Studies have shown that the ingestion of fructose results in increased synthesis of fatty acids compared to ingestion of a comparable amount of glucose. The increased availability of fatty acids and subsequent triacylglycerol synthesis results in the production and secretion of triacylglycerols from the liver in the form of very low-density...

Fructose and Glucose Metabolism

Consumption of large amounts of fructose is also associated with an impairment of glucose disposal. Prolonged feeding of fructose or sucrose to animals impairs insulin signaling and induces insulin resistance. Less is known about the effect of fructose ingestion on glucose tolerance and insulin resistance in humans because the scientific literature contains conflicting results. However, the lipogenic effects of fructose may contribute to insulin resistance indirectly since increased blood levels of triacylglycerols and fatty acids and deposition of lipid in liver and skeletal muscle have been implicated in the etiology of insulin resistance.

Fructose and Diabetes

Historically, in the nutritional management of diabetes mellitus, the ingestion of fructose was recommended as a sweetener for diabetics because it causes smaller increases in blood glucose following ingestion compared to similar amounts of glucose, sucrose, or starches. In fact, fructose, in small quantities, increases the hepatic uptake of glucose and promotes glycogen storage, probably by stimulating the activity of hepatic glucokinase (EC 2.7.1.2). Also, in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus, the addition of a small amount of fructose to an oral glucose tolerance test improves the glycemic response, indicating improved glycemic control. It must be emphasized, however, that the consumption of large quantities of fructose is not recommended, particularly for diabetics who, as a group, are at increased risk for cardiovascular disease, because of

Very low carbohydrate high fat high protein

On the other end of the spectrum you have the very high fat, high protein, very low carbohydrate diets. The Atkin's Diet is the most popular. Others include Protein Power, The Carbohydrate Addicts Diet, Sugar Busters, The Ketogenic diet, The Anabolic Diet and a whole host of other programs that impose strict regulations on the amount of carbohydrate you can eat. Most people will lose fat simply by adding a regular exercise routine to their schedule and by cleaning up their diets. A clean diet means you've mastered all the nutritional basics like eating small frequent meals, controlling portion sizes, cutting down on saturated fats, avoiding sugar, drinking plenty of water and eating lean protein at every meal.

Keep Your Teeth And Gums Healthy

Some medicines that are often prescribed for people with MS can cause dry mouth, which can cause increased risk of dental problems. Amantadine is one example. Baclofen also can cause dry mouth. Drink sips of water or calorie-free beverages to moisten the mouth or try sucking on sugar-free candy or chewing sugar-free gum. (Be aware that sweeteners, such as sorbitol, found in sugar-free gum and candies, can

Sperm Nuclei Preparation

IX Nuclear Preparation Butter (NPB) 250 mM sucrose (1.5 M stock filter-sterilize and store aliquots at -20 C), 15 mM HEPES (1M stock titrate with KOH so that pH 7.7 is at 15 mM, filter-sterilize, and store aliquots at -20 C) (see Note 4), 0.5 mM spermidine trihydrochloride (Sigma S-2501 10 mM stock filter-sterilize and store aliquots at -20 C), 0.2 mM spermine tetrahydrochloride (Sigma S-1141 10 mM stock filter-sterilize and store aliquots at -20 C), 1 mM dithiothreitol (Sigma D-0632 100 mM stock filter-sterilize and store aliquots at -20 C) (see Notes 4 and 5). 5. Sperm dilution buffer (store at -20 C in 0.5-mL aliquots) 250 mM sucrose, 75 mM KCl, 1 mM EDTA (0.5 M stock, pH8), 0.5 mM spermidine trihydrochloride (Sigma S-2501 10 mM stock filter-sterilize and store aliquots at -20 C), 0.2 mM spermine tetrahydrochloride (Sigma S-1141 10 mM stock filter-sterilize and store aliquots at -20 C), 1 mM dithiothreitol (Sigma D-0632 100 mM stock filter-sterilize and store aliquots at -20 C).

Physicochemical properties

The physicochemical properties of flours made from potatoes vary with genotypes and method of preparation (Kamal et al, 2002). Flour from boiled tubers (gelatinized) showed higher water absorption and total and reducing sugars compared to flour prepared from raw tubers (ungelatinized). Pant and Kulshrestha (1995) determined the physical characteristics of potato flour made from six potato cultivars and observed a significant positive correlation between water absorption and particle size index. Singh et al. (2003) determined the physicochemical properties of potato flour from three potato cultivars. The amylose content of potato flours ranged from 9.1 to 10.8 . Significant cultivar differences were observed, with Kufri Jyoti flour showing the highest amylose content and Kufri Pukhraj flour the lowest. The water absorption index (WAI) was also higher for Kufri Jyoti flour (6.6) and lowest for Kufri Pukhraj flour (5.6). Potato flour with higher amylose

Disorders of Fructose Metabolism

There are three disorders of fructose metabolism, all inherited in an autosomal recessive fashion. Fructose is widely distributed in the diet as the primary sugar in fruits, vegetables, and honey. It is also derived from sucrose and sorbitol, which are found in large variety of products, including infant formulas and intravenous fluids. The toxic effect of fructose is due to inhibition

Scientific evidence for remineralization by Cppacp and Cppacfp

One randomized, controlled caries clinical trial of CPP-ACP assessed the impact of CPP-ACP in sugar-free gum relative to a control sugar-free gum. This trial demonstrated that the CPP-ACP gum significantly slowed progression and enhanced regression of caries compared with the control sugar-free gum (Morgan et al., 2008). A randomized, double-blind, crossover studies were conducted to investigate the potential of CPP-ACP added to hard candy confections to slow the progression of enamel subsurface lesions in an in situ model. Consumption of the control sugar confection resulted in significant demineralization (progression) of the enamel subsurface lesions. However, consumption of the sugar confections containing CPP-ACP did not result in lesion progression, but in fact in significant remineralization (regression) of the lesions. Remineralization by consumption of the sugar + 1.0 CPP-ACP confection was significantly greater than that obtained with the sugar-free confection (Walker, et...

Chemical Components

Other important constituents include flavonoids (isoflavonoids, liquiritin, isoliquiritin, liquiritigenin, formononetin, glabridin and the chalcones isoliquiritigenin, licochalcone A and B ) sterols (beta-sitosterol) polysaccharides (arabinogalactans) coumarins (glycerin) glabrol amines glucose, sucrose resin and volatile oil (Blumenthal et al 2000).

The 2000 Dietary Guidelines for Americans

In 1980, the first edition of Dietary Guidelines for Americans was released by the USDA and HHS. The seven guidelines were (1) Eat a variety of foods (2) Maintain ideal weight (3) Avoid too much fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol (4) Eat foods with adequate starch and fiber (5) Avoid too much sugar (6) Avoid too much sodium and (7) If you drink alcohol, do so in moderation. The second edition, released in 1985, made a few changes, but kept most of the guidelines intact. Two exceptions were the weight guideline, which was changed to Maintain desirable weight and the last guideline, in which alcohol was changed to alcoholic beverages.

Healthy Diets Healthy Hearts

DeMaria I had very bad sinus problems. I was also taking blood pressure medication. The information provided by Dr. Bob has made me more aware of the value of what goes into my mouth and how it affects my entire body. I have greatly reduced my sugar intake and I also use flax oil daily along with fresh carrot juice. Yum Staying away from processed food has been difficult. It is so easy to grab and eat, however I do not get any nutritional value from it. As a result from making a few lifestyle changes, I hardly notice any problems at all There are so many people who are my age with so many aches and pains due to their diet and I almost have none I feel really good about my maintenance care from Dr. Bob. Rebecca Szilagyi

Lactase Nonpersistence

In its pure form, lactose cannot be transported across the mucosa of the small intestine. To be absorbed, it must be hydrolyzed by lactase to free glucose and galactose. These two simple sugars are rapidly and completely absorbed in the normal small intestine. The rate of lactase synthesis is high from birth until ages 3-5 years. Between ages 5 and 14 years, many people undergo a genetically programmed reduction in lactase synthesis that results in a lactase activity level only 5-10 of that of infancy. This reduction, known as lactase nonpersis-tence or primary lactase deficiency, is not related to the continued intake of milk or lactose. As noted, less than one-third of the world's adult population is genetically predisposed to maintaining a high degree of lactase activity or lactase persistence throughout adulthood.

Secondary Lactase Deficiency

Secondary lactase deficiency is distinct from genetically determined loss of lactase with age. Secondary lactase deficiency is frequently associated with diseases of the small intestine. Enteric viruses, such as rotavirus and Norwalk agent, can induce lactase deficiency by penetration of the enterocyte in the small intestine Rotaviruses are a principal cause of diarrhea and lactose intolerance in infancy. Denudation of the brush border of the jejunal mucosa associated with diarrhea can lead to the loss of the other two disaccharides, maltase and sucrose. Continued diarrhea may also lead to severe complications such as monosaccharide intolerance. Giardiasis have also

Kellogg John Harvey MD 18521943

And toxins, Kellogg argued that only correct dieting can prevent disease (Kellogg 1896 19). It is the modern stomach that demands a modern cure for this formidable disease (Kellogg 1896 55). He provides a detailed list of what to do, including slow and regular chewing (Kellogg 1896 58) and the avoidance of substances like vinegar (because it is an alcoholic liquor 1896 112 ), too much sugar (1896 105), uncooked food (1896 96), and abundant use of fat. But, most importantly, Kellogg provides a detailed diet regimen for all people to follow to prevent or to cure dyspepsia. He begins with an aseptic dietry which advocates sterilized food prepared without milk or eggs, whole grains, fresh fruits raw, or cooked without sugar or with grains (Kellogg i896 227ff). Page upon page of proscriptive diets follow, all of which are intended to cure and prevent various forms of disease. In addition, all of Kellogg's diets focus on vegetarian diets, with the preparation or manufacture of the foods...

Why Diet Plays an Important Role

If we consume a high-sugar diet, the body will produce more bacteria in the mouth. Stress, combined with such a sugar diet, adds acid to our saliva and will show its results in gum disease. (It also may lead to hypoglycemia.) Studies have shown that it is more harmful to eat sugar-containing foods between meals than it is to eat them with meals. People who are obese and eat sugary foods have a higher susceptibility to gum disease than those who eat a balanced diet. Soft and sticky food (like nutrition bars), which tend to remain in the grooves of the teeth, are also a culprit and can lead to tooth and gum problems. It is not the vitamin content but the natural sugars such as honey in these nutritional bars that get stuck in the grooves of your teeth.

Nutrition Alcohol And Drugs

Cally leptin, a hormone secreted by fat tissue that affects the brain's appetite control centers. In some studies, mice given injections of leptin lost their appetites and, consequently, lost weight. The human response to leptin varies dramatically, and the relationship between plasma leptin levels and obesity in humans is not yet clear or confirmed. According to one study, mutations in the leptin gene are indeed responsible for obesity in both mice and humans, but these mutations are quite rare outside of the laboratory setting. Another study shows that leptin is a signal to the hypothalamus of peripheral fat deposits, but further studies are being conducted to determine if obese individuals have trouble with leptin access into the brain. Other researchers have found that lean, physically active men have lower levels of leptin than heavier, sedentary men (ages 47 to 83).

Simple Carbohydrates monosaccharides and disaccharides

The Monosaccharides include fructose, glucose, and galactose. The two we'll refer to the most are fructose (fruit sugar) and glucose (blood sugar.) Glucose is found naturally in food or it can be produced in the body through the breakdown of complex carbohydrates. Fructose is the type of simple carbohydrate found in fruit. Disaccharides are formed by the combination of two monosaccharide molecules. Examples include Sucrose (table sugar), which is formed by the combination of fructose and glucose, and Lactose (dairy sugar), which is composed of galactose and glucose. Sucrose (table sugar) glucose and fructose Fructose (fruit sugar)

The natural simple carbohydrates are healthy but ALL simple carbohydrates should be used in moderation during

When we talk about simple carbohydrates, we're often referring to refined sugar and white flour products - these are the bad carbohydrates. But not all simple carbohydrates are bad. Some simple carbohydrates occur in nature. These natural sugars include fructose (found in fruit) and lactose (found in dairy products). Natural sugars are fine when eaten in moderation. This is one of the many tricks bodybuilders use to get so lean - they cut out refined sugar completely, but they even cut back on natural sugars too, opting for starchy and fibrous carbohydrates instead.

Eat fruit in moderation but focus more on natural fibrous and starchy carbohydrates

Fructose is the other naturally occurring simple sugar. Some experts argue that because fructose (fruit sugar) is healthier than sucrose (white sugar), large amounts of fruit should be eaten on a fat burning diet. Although fruit is definitely a healthy food, loaded with antioxidants, vitamins, phytochemicals and fiber, eating a large percentage of

Natural vs refined The most important distinction you can ever make about carbohydrates

The more a whole grain is refined and processed, the finer the particle size becomes. When a complex carbohydrate is refined, it literally loses its complexity and takes on the properties of a simple carbohydrate. Refined breads and grains made from white flour are processed in your body the same way as simple sugars. That's why anything made out of white flour is not recommended in this program (that includes white or enriched pastas, breads, pretzels, crackers and bagels).

Reduce your intake of bad refined carbohydrates

Just because a label says fat-free or low-fat doesn't mean it helps you get lean or it's good for you, because a fat-free food can be high in refined sugars. For example, many nonfat frozen yogurts are loaded with refined sugar. Some fat-free cakes and cookies are nearly 100 sugar. Because we are still bombarded with the fat is bad message, many people switch to non-fat diet foods, but they completely fail to pay attention to refined sugars. You must work on reducing both

Amorphous calcium phosphate ACP 431 Cppacp paste

Due to the early stages of this technology, published independent research on the ACP products like MI Paste is limited. Generally, the studies on caries prevention with CPP-ACP consist of in-situ caries models with gums, mouthrinses, or lozenges (Iijima et al., 2004 Reynolds et al., 2003). In addition, the vast majority of these studies were carried out by the same group that first isolated CPP-ACP at the University of Melbourne, Australia. For example, using topical applications of CPP-ACP via sugar-free chewing gum and mouthrinse, Reynolds et al. showed that CPP-ACP incorporated into dental plaque can significantly increase the levels of plaque calcium and phosphate ions (Reynolds et al., 2003). Conversely, an in-vitro study carried out by an American group found that while fluoride 5000 ppm paste had a statistically significant protective effect against demineralization on enamel sections, MI Paste had no effect (Pulido et al., 2008).There are two published studies that examine...

Calorie density of carbohydrates

Because refined sugars are so highly processed, a lot of calories get packed into a small serving of food. The milling, grinding, bleaching and enriching of grains decreases their complexity and removes much of the nutritional content. The milling of grains into white flour also decreases the particle size while increasing the calorie density. In general, the smaller the particle size, the higher the calorie density and the quicker it is absorbed. Complex carbohydrates such as breads, pasta, bagels and cereal are processed, so they are metabolized more like simple carbohydrates than complex carbohydrates.

Processed and refined carbohydrates are calorie dense but nutrient sparse They are empty calories

Refined carbohydrates provide little or no nutritional value. Sucrose (white table sugar), for example, is 99 pure calories no vitamins, no minerals, no proteins, just empty calories that do nothing for you. Sugar is worse than zero nutrition - it's negative nutrition because it depletes minerals from your body. It's also stored easily as fat and causes fluctuating blood sugar and insulin levels.

Flora Nutrient Interactions

Disaccharides are broken down in the proximal small intestine by enzymes in the brush border and microvilli of the intestinal epithelium. Glucose, sucrose, lactose, and maltose are the predominant disaccharides hydrolyzed and these rarely reach the colon. When the brush border is unable to produces the enzymes needed for metabolism, the disacchar-ides are not absorbed in the small bowel and ultimately reach the colon where they interact with the abundant colonic bacteria. Subsequent fermentation causes an osmotic imbalance pulling water into the lumen and causing diarrhea. Significant and rapid production of short-chain fatty acids causes changes in the fecal pH and can irritate the colonic mucosa.

Shifts in Dietary and Activity Patterns and Body Composition Seem to Be Occurring More Rapidly

Clearly, there are quantitative and qualitative dimensions to these changes. On the one hand, changes toward a high-density diet, reduced complex carbohydrates, increased added sugar and other caloric sweeteners, and inactivity may be proceeding faster than in the past. The shift from laborintensive occupations and leisure activities toward more capital-intensive, less strenuous work and leisure is also occurring faster. On the other hand, qualitative dimensions related to multidimensional aspects of the diet, activity, body composition, and disease shifts may exist. The social and economic stresses that people face and feel as these changes occur may also be included.

What is the best diet for me to follow prior to surgery

To lose the weight most bariatric surgery centers require, you will obviously need to restrict calories. Since you will need to restrict sugar (sugar is a simple carbohydrate) following surgery to avoid the dumping syndrome (see Chapter Two), it makes sense to get used to reducing sugar preoperatively. Most centers recommend a reduced fat, high protein diet, which can include a moderate amount of more complex carbohydrates (complex carbohydrates include whole grain breads and cereals and a wide variety of fruits and vegetables). I strongly urge you to get into the habit of drinking mostly water and other low- or no-calorie beverages. You do not want to drink calories. In general people treat calories that they drink differently than calories that they eat. For example, even though a sixty-four-ounce bottle of soda contains a whopping 800 calories we don't treat it as almost half of our 2,000-calorie allowance for the day. In general I would recommend aiming for somewhere

Return To Sanity Please

Price's conclusions and recommendations were shocking for his time. He advocated a return to breast feeding when such a practice was discouraged by Western medicine. He urged parents to give their children cod liver oil every day. He considered fresh butter to be the supreme health food. He warned against pesticides, herbicides, preservatives, colorings, refined sugars, vegetable oils, in short, all the things that modern nutrition and agriculture have embraced and promoted the last few decades. Price believed that margarine was a demonic creation. Let me tell you, with recommendations like these, he was REALLY unpopular But the result of his research speaks for itself.

What about diet drinks and noncaloric drinks

As long as you're getting your daily allotment of pure water, it's fine to enjoy non-caloric beverages such as diet soda, tea, Crystal Lite, Diet Snapple or any other calorie free diet drink. Coffee is also fine in moderation (one or two cups per day), but be careful what you put in it. (We're talking regular black coffee here with maybe a splash of milk - no sugar). Many nutritionists and trainers suggest avoiding caffeinated beverages. Some studies have suggested that coffee lowers insulin sensitivity, which could hamper fat loss. However, in practice, I've never seen a fitness model or bodybuilder get less ripped because they drank coffee. Enjoy your coffee in moderation - a cup or two per day should pose no problem. Keep in mind, however that caffeine is a diuretic and large amounts of any diuretic can decrease your performance and your results.

Diet and Physical Activity Behaviors

Change, that could conceivably influence energy balance sufficiently to contribute to the prevention of weight gain and obesity. Behaviors that reduced the risk of obesity included regular physical activity, high dietary fiber intake, and possibly breast-feeding and low glycemic index diets. Behaviors that increased the risk of obesity included a high intake of energy-dense foods, a high intake of sugar-sweetened drinks and juices, time spent in sedentary behaviors, and possibly large portion sizes, a high intake of fast foods, and a restrained eating pattern.

Reducing Energy Intake

Countries (especially for women) Sugar-sweetened soft drinks and juices Possible Low glycemic index foods Large portion sizes Reducing the consumption of sugar-sweetened soft drinks and juices Evidence is accumulating from a variety of studies that energy consumed as sweetened drinks is less well compensated for than energy consumed as solid food. Longitudinal studies have also indicated that sweetened drinks (soft drinks or sodas) are associated with weight gain in both children and adults. Recent work has also demonstrated that the simple strategy of reducing the intake of sweetened drinks can be effective in preventing or limiting inappropriate weight gain.

The one food combination that you should never ever eat if you want to get lean

Even though it's a wise idea to allow yourself a cheat meal once a week, some foods or food combinations should be avoided as much as possible. The fat and sugar combination is undoubtedly the worst of all. It's a sure-fire way to gain body fat so fast you won't even know what hit you. Low quality fats and refined sugars, eaten together, are also contributing factors in the development of nearly every major disease. A few obvious examples of the fat + processed carb combination include ice cream, doughnuts, peanut butter cups, and fettuccini Alfredo.

Fat Replacement Strategies

The third fat-replacement strategy includes the use of engineered fats, which are made by putting together various food substances. One popular engineered fat is olestra, which is made by adding fatty acids to regular table sugar molecules (sucrose). This process results in a product that can neither be broken down in the digestive tract nor absorbed. It therefore cannot provide energy, in terms of carbohydrates or fatty acids, to the body. Olestra

Dietary Guidelines for Health Function and Disease Prevention

Robert Russell and colleagues constructed a food guidelines pyramid, which specifically focused on the health of the elderly. Among the elements and tenets that differed from the standard US pyramid are the following recommendations to drink additional water and liquid to increase consumption of dietary fiber and to consider dietary supplements such as calcium and vitamin E. Otherwise, selecting the same requisite serving portions of the specific food groups, and avoiding excess sugar, salt, and separated fats as indicated by the conventional guidelines emblem is recommended for the older population as well.

Notes on the Baseline diet menu template

Weight loss (with calories below maintenance level), for year-round maintenance (with calories at maintenance level), or even for weight gain (with calories at 10-20 above maintenance level). The baseline diet should include a wide variety of natural, low fat & low sugar foods including whole grain complex carbohydrates, fruits, low or non-fat dairy products, and lean proteins.

Stage 1 Clear Liquids Only

Once your doctor decides you can progress beyond the water ice chips only diet, you will move on to clear liquids. As you progress with clear liquids you will gradually work up to sipping a quarter cup of one of these liquids at a time. The goal is to get in two ounces or so every thirty minutes while awake. This will help you avoid dehydration. Fluids such as diluted cranberry juice, apple juice, herbal teas, and chicken broth and foods like sugar-free Popsicles and diet Jell-O are considered clear liquids because you can see through them. A clear liquid diet may also include sugar-free sorbet, decaffeinated coffee and tea, and of course water. Generally speaking, you will remain on clear liquids as your only source of calories for about two or three days, but this stage can last as long as two to three weeks. Occasionally the sugar in apple and cranberry juice can precipitate the dumping syndrome or vomiting. In this case, dilute the juice with water or switch to only sugar-free...

Microbial Polymerization Activity

The production of glucan and levan from sucrose by Lactobacillus reuteri and the production of a levan-type fructan by L. sanfranciscensis have been described by van Geel-Shutten et al. (1998). As suggested by Di Cagno et al. (2006), the synthesis of the previously mentioned EPS by sourdough LAB could be considered as a useful tool to replace the commercial additives used for improving the texture of baked goods. The fructan from L. sanfranciscensis has been found to positively affect dough rheology and bread texture. Moreover, glucan, fructans, and gluco- and fructooligosaccharides have potential gut health-promoting properties (Poutanen et al, 2009). Fructose oligosaccharides and inulin are increasingly used as prebiotic additives in baked goods. They are not digested by pancreatic enzymes and thus are available for metabolism by intestinal microorganisms, mainly Bifidobacteria (Tieking et al, 2003). In general, EPS are reported to be able to replace hydrocolloids currently used for...

Design and Recommendations of The Food Guide Pyramid

The Pyramid includes symbols that represent the fats and added sugars found in foods. These are most concentrated at the tip of the Pyramid, but are also found in foods from the five major food groups. This reveals that some foods within the five food groups are high in fat and or sugar. People can limit their fat and sugar intake, as suggested by the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, by selecting foods low in fat and added sugars most of the time.

How to make good choices in restaurants

Of course, you can indulge occasionally, but there's no excuse these days for completely blowing your diet just because you're eating out. Nowadays almost all restaurants are accommodating healthy eaters. Even fast food restaurants now have salad bars, low calorie dressings, grilled sandwiches, sugar free frozen yogurt, and bagels. Use the following Do's & Don'ts to help you eat healthier when dining out. DO order bagels or low-fat sugar-free muffins at breakfast instead of donuts or pastries. DO order desserts including frozen yogurt, frozen fruit ices, sugar-free jello.

The startling reason why you Should cheat on your diet once or twice a week

Some cravings are physiological in nature, such as those brought on by skipping meals or eating too many simple sugars by themselves. Other cravings are psychological in origin. If you're too strict on your diet all the time without allowing yourself any leeway for an occasional indulgence, you can trigger these psychological cravings. Being too strict all the time can set you up for serious cravings and bingeing (unless you have the willpower and discipline of a world class athlete.)

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