Natural Remedies for Food Cravings

Sugar Crush Detox

This program was designed by Jane who had the same problems with sugar. Throughout her life, she was addicted to sugar and she thought she needs swift intervention before that habit develops into something else. She had an experience that helped her beat sugar addiction with the rest of the world. Her program helps you cut all the roots of majority of the health problems you usually gets. It attacks the weight loss problem at its source which is the biological craving for sugar. This product was specifically created to help people with sugar cravings beat this addiction and lead a healthy life. This program contains a couple of guides available in PDF, MP3 and video formats. The author used simple language in all the formats to ensure that everybody will be able to handle sugar addiction. If you are one of them and you want to get the full support required to quit sugar and lead a heathy life, then Sugar Crush Detox is for you. Read more...

Sugar Crush Detox Summary

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TABLEJ2 Median Nutrient Intakes by Range of Percent of Daily Energy Intake from Added Sugars Boys 9 Through 13 Years of

Percent of Energy from Added Sugars Percent of Energy from Added Sugars c Percent ranges of energy from added sugars have been assigned a letter (a-h). When ranges of intakes do not share the same letter, they are significantly different (p < 0.5). d Estimates of mg of a-tocopherol were obtained by multiplying estimates of mg of a-tocopherol equivalents by 0.8. NOTE Data are limited to individuals who provided a complete and reliable 24-hour dietary recall on Day 1. Individuals were assigned to ranges of energy intake from added sugars based on unadjusted Day 1 intakes. Estimates of nutrient intake were adjusted using the Iowa State University method and data from the subsample of individuals with Day 2 recalls

Effects of mediumchain triglycerides on appetite control

MCT may help with appetite control via their satiating properties. The satiating properties of MCT involve multiple pre-absorptive and post-absorptive mechanisms. First, MCT appear as a thin, light-yellow, clear, and odorless oil, with a nearly neutral or slightly bland taste, whereas MCFA are characterized by an odor of goat and strong bitterness (Bach et al., 1996). This repulsive quality is extremely strong, as a concentration of 0.1 makes a meal unfit for human consumption (Bach et al1996). These palatability properties are important determinants of feeding behavior of an individual, in particular satiation.

Make label reading a new habit and check the ingredients lists for refined sugars

The BFFM program was designed to teach you new habits that you can adopt and keep for life. One new habit you can begin working on immediately is the habit of reading nutrition labels. Many people already check the nutrition facts panel on food labels for calories, fat, protein and carbohydrates. What most people miss is the ingredients list. Always check the ingredients list for refined sugar content. Refined sugars are not always listed on the nutrition facts panel as sugar. They may be disguised in the list of ingredients as high fructose corn syrup, corn syrup, rice syrup, sucrose, glucose syrup, brown sugar and invert sugar. These are all different varieties of refined sugar. If sugar is listed as one of the top few ingredients, then that food is not something you should eat on a daily basis. The ingredients list on a food package is a good way to determine refined sugar content because labeling laws require that the ingredients be listed in the order of their precedence. The...

Changes in Sucrose Consumption

It is a much more straightforward business to enquire about sugar (refined sucrose) consumption than honey consumption in preindustrial times. All sugar supplies, in Europe, came from imports, so customs records constitute a readily accessible record of national consumption. In the 1520s, the Dissolution of the Monasteries reduced demand for bees-wax for church candles and brought about a small decrease in the production of honey. Almost simultaneous with this came an increase in the supply of refined sucrose, imported from the new European colonies. Sugar was still considerably more expensive than honey, but this combination of events gained it a more complete following among the wealthy. Cookery books were used exclusively by the well-to-do at this time and clearly illustrate that, for this section of society, sugar had, by the 1550s, usurped honey's place in the diet. It was not until the early 1700s, however, when the supply of sugar boomed, its price fell, and coffee, tea, and...

The Contribution of Sucrose to Energy Intake

The contribution of macronutrients and individual sugars to total energy intakes in industrialized nations is shown in Table 2. Sucrose is at the top of the league table for sugars, contributions coming from both the naturally occurring sources of sweetness such as fruit and vegetables and also from refined sucrose. Sucrose, like all carbohydrates, is burned (oxidized) in the body to yield energy, specifically 16kJg-1. This is only half the energy yield of a gram of fat (37kJg-1) and much less than that Table 2 The contribution of different types of carbohydrate and sucrose to energy intake in industrialized nations Sucrose of alcohol (29kJg-1). Other carbohydrates such as starch, glucose, and fructose have the same energy content per gram as sucrose. The new 'intense' sweeteners such as aspartame contribute virtually no energy, hence their use in 'low joule' products. In Western countries, total carbohydrate intake amounts to about 200-280 g per day for the average man and woman, or...

Functional Roles of Sucrose in Foods

Refined sucrose is added to foods for more than just its sweetness. The difficulties inherent in producing low-joule products using intense sweeteners attest to this. For example, sucrose contributes to the bulk and texture of cakes and cookies and it provides viscosity and mouth feel in liquids such as soft drinks and fruit juices. Sucrose is also a powerful preservative and contributes the long storage life of jams and confectionery. In frozen products like ice cream, sucrose has multiple functions It acts as an emulsifier, preventing the separation of the water and fat phases it lowers the freezing point, thereby making the product more liquid and 'creamier' at the temperature eaten. The presence of sucrose retards the crystallization of the lactose in dairy foods and milk chocolate (tiny crystals of lactose feel like sand on the tongue). In canned fruit, sucrose syrups are used to prevent mushiness caused by the osmotic movement of sugar out of the fruit and into the surrounding...

TABLEJ5 Median Nutrient Intakes by Range of Percent of Daily Energy Intake from Added Sugars Men 51 Years of Age and

Percent of Energy from Added Sugars Percent of Energy from Added Sugars c Percent ranges of energy from added sugars have been assigned a letter (a-h). When ranges of intakes do not share the same letter, they are significantly different (p < 0.5). d Estimates of mg of a-tocopherol were obtained by multiplying estimates of mg of a-tocopherol equivalents by 0.8. NOTE Data are limited to individuals who provided a complete and reliable 24-hour dietary recall on Day 1. Individuals were assigned to ranges of energy intake from added sugars based on unadjusted Day 1 intakes. Estimates of nutrient intake were adjusted using the Iowa State University method and data from the subsample of individuals with Day 2 recalls TABLE J-6 Median Nutrient Intakes by Range of Percent of Daily Energy Intake from Added Sugars, Girls 9 Through 13 Years of Age Percent of Energy from Added Sugars c Percent ranges of energy from added sugars have been assigned a letter (a-h). When ranges of intakes do not...

TABLEJ3 Median Nutrient Intakes by Range of Percent of Daily Energy Intake from Added Sugars Boys 14 Through 18 Years of

Percent of Energy from Added Sugars c Percent ranges of energy from added sugars have been assigned a letter (a-h). When ranges of intakes do not share the same letter, they are significantly different (p < 0.5). d Estimates of mg of a-tocopherol were obtained by multiplying estimates of mg of a-tocopherol equivalents by 0.8. NOTE Data are limited to individuals who provided a complete and reliable 24-hour dietary recall on Day 1. Individuals were assigned to ranges of energy intake from added sugars based on unadjusted Day 1 intakes. Estimates of nutrient intake were adjusted using the Iowa State University method and data from the subsample of individuals with Day 2 recalls

Evaluation of inhibitory effects on sucrosedependent cell adhesion on smooth surfaces by mutans streptococci

When mutans streptococci are cultured in a medium containing sucrose, they strongly adhere on smooth surfaces. Dental biofilms are formed on teeth surface by interaction between glucan and oral bacteria. Therefore, the measurement of sucrose-dependent cell adhesion is used to evaluate the formation of biofilms on teeth surface. If sucrose-dependent cell adhesion on the smooth surface is inhibited by phytochemicals, the test substance indicates the possibility to reveal anticariogenic effects. This procedure has been described by Hamada and Torii (Hamada and Torii, 1978). After mutans streptococci (S. sobrinus or S. mutans) are grown in the medium, the collected cells are resuspended in the medium. The cell suspension (0.5 mL), sucrose solution (final concentration, 1 ) and 0.3 mL of phytochemical solution are mixed in a new glass test tube, and incubated at angle 20 for 24 h at 37 C. After incubation, the reaction mixture containing nonadherent cell is gently removed by a Pasteur...

Effects of ELM and ES on sucrosedependent cell adhesion on smooth surfaces

The inhibitory effect of ELM on sucrose-dependent adherence of cells onto the surface of glass test tubes was examined using growing cells of S. sobrinus 6715. Fig. 8A shows that cells adhered to the surface of glass test tubes after incubation. The cells grew well and adhered to the glass surface of the control (no phytochemical), ELM, ES and oolong. However, cells and glucan did not adhere to the glass surface of blank test tubes (sucrose-free). Fig. 8B shows the conditions of test tubes in which the reaction mixture was removed by pipetting, and then washed gently with distilled water. As shown clearly in Fig. 8B, cell adhesion was very strong in control test tubes, but was feeble in ELM, ES and oolong tubes cells were removed by washing. The results demonstrate that ELM and ES inhibit the adhesion of cells to the glass surface. Adhered cells that remained on the surface of glass test tubes after washing were suspended with 1 N NaOH and absorbance measured at 550 nm (Fig. 9). The...

Read labels and watch out for refined sugars Counting fat grams is not enough

In the 1980's the media literally brainwashed everyone into believing that all fat was bad and that fat was the one prime cause of obesity and health problems. This spawned the proliferation of a huge variety of fat-free foods as well as the widespread practice of counting fat grams and keeping them to a minimum. However, counting total fat grams is an antiquated weight loss technique. The key to fat loss is to reduce fats and also reduce your intake of refined sugar. Many fat-free foods are almost one hundred percent refined sugar. Refined sugars are bad carbohydrates of the worst kind. Of all the nutritional bad guys, refined carbohydrates (white sugar, sweets, white flour and enriched bread products) are the worst of all arguably much worse than fat. In fact, refined sugars and other highly processed foods are probably more responsible for poor health and obesity than any other single factor. You might be wondering, Could refined sugar really be that bad After all, if your calories...

Beware of hidden refined sugars

Small amounts of refined sugar are hidden in foods you might never even think of such as nonfat salad dressings, steak sauce, pasta sauce, cranberry sauce, sliced lunch meats, ketchup, whole wheat bread, whole grain cereals and too many others to mention. It would be difficult and perhaps unrealistic for you to completely eliminate 100 of the sugar from your diet. What you should do is make a concerted effort to cut down your refined sugar intake as much as possible, especially from the obvious sources such as candy, soda, chocolate, ice cream, table sugar and cookies.

Amount of sucrose intake and texture of diets

Dental caries is positively correlated with the amount of sucrose intake (Sreebny, 1982). Therefore, the amount of diet that the animals ingest needs to be equal among feeding groups. Furthermore, the Vipeholm Dental Caries Study clarified that the texture of food containing sucrose influences the occurrence of dental caries (Gustafsson et al, 1954). In that study, subjects ate several foods (e.g., bread, chocolate, caramel) containing sucrose. The incidence of caries was higher in the group consuming gooey foods between meals than in the control group. Namely, the ingestion of sucrose that causes the adhesion to the teeth surface becomes a high risk of dental caries induction. Therefore, the texture and configuration of test materials containing phytochemicals added to the animal experimental diet are important to get significance. If the texture and taste of test substances are unique and likely to influence intake and adhesion, the method to reduce these factors should be...

Added Sugars

Department of Agriculture (USDA) has defined added sugars for the purpose of analyzing the nutrient intake of Americans using nationwide surveys, as well as for use in the Food Guide Pyramid. The Food Guide Pyramid, which is the food guide for the United States, translates recommendations on nutrient intakes into recommendations for food intakes (Welsh et al., 1992). Added sugars are defined as sugars and syrups that are added to foods during processing or preparation. Major sources of added sugars include soft drinks, cakes, cookies, pies, fruitades, fruit punch, dairy desserts, and candy (USDA HHS, 2000). Specifically, added sugars include white sugar, brown sugar, raw sugar, corn syrup, corn-syrup solids, high-fructose corn syrup, malt syrup, maple syrup, pancake syrup, fructose sweetener, liquid fructose, honey, molasses, anhydrous dextrose, and crystal dextrose. Added sugars do not include naturally occurring sugars such as lactose in milk or fructose in fruits. The Food...

Sugar Busters

Sugar Busters is a popular high-protein diet developed by a group of New Orleans based physicians (and a layperson) in the late twentieth century. The authors of the popular diet book, Sugar Busters include Samuel S. Andrews, MD (endocrinologist), Morrison C. Bethea, MD (thoracic surgeon), Luis A. Balart, MD (gastroenterologist), and H. Leighton Steward (the ghost writer and a New Orleans entrepreneur). Their premise, Sugar is toxic claims refined sugars are toxic for the body, causing it to release insulin and store excess body sugar as body fat. The diet calls for avoiding refined sugar and processed grain products. It is not a no sugar diet, but a less sugar diet. The theory behind Sugar Busters is condition since fat comes from sugar. The authors claim that a high-protein, low-carbohydrate meal causes an unnoticeable rise in glucose levels and, consequently, a very insignificant rise in insulin, but a significant increase in the level of glucagons, a hormone secreted by the...

What Is Sucrose

Sucrose is a pleasant tasting substance that contributes most of the sweetness in our diet. It has played a role in human diets ever since primates began evolving on a diet of fruit and berries in the tropical forests of Africa 50 million years ago. Sucrose is chemically classified as a carbohydrate and a simple sugar, specifically a disaccharide composed of glucose and fructose (Figure 1). Its proper scientific name is The natural sweetness of fruit and honey comes from mixtures of sucrose, glucose, and fructose. The mild sweetness of milk comes from another disaccharide, lactose, composed of glucose and galactose. Because sweetness comes from a mixture of sugars (not just sucrose) in many sources, we use different terms to define the original source, e.g., naturally occurring sugars, refined sugars, added sugars, concentrated sugars, intrinsic sugars, and extrinsic sugars. Refined sucrose is also known as table sugar, cane sugar, or beet sugar. Unfortunately, the term 'sugar' means...

Honey versus Sucrose

It is therefore possible that intakes of honey at various times during history may well have rivalled our current consumption of refined sugar. There are implications therefore for the role of sugar in modern diets. Refined sugar may not have displaced more nutrient-rich items from our present-day diets but only the nutritionally comparable food, honey.

Eating Sweets

Stress can cause us to act irrationally and can lead us to want to erase any negative feelings by eating sweets. It is known that chocolate can compensate for romance, and it affects the pituitary gland. What does it do to our teeth and fragile gum tissue Try placing sweetened chocolate and other sweets on your skin. You will find they will irritate the skin. They will also irritate the oral cavity. Sugar turns to acid, and acid eats away at the soft and hard tissues of the oral cavity. Plaque and bacteria feed off the sugar and invade the support structures of your teeth. Remedies A conscious effort and a focused mind will help you to stop eating sweets at times of duress. Replace the belief that negative feelings are extinguished when you eat sweets, and instead eat foods that are good for you, like fruits such as apples, bananas, and strawberries, and vegetables such as broccoli, spinach, and dark green lettuce. I have recently tried to diet, and I find that when I am stressed out...

Healthy Diets Healthy Hearts

DeMaria I had very bad sinus problems. I was also taking blood pressure medication. The information provided by Dr. Bob has made me more aware of the value of what goes into my mouth and how it affects my entire body. I have greatly reduced my sugar intake and I also use flax oil daily along with fresh carrot juice. Yum Staying away from processed food has been difficult. It is so easy to grab and eat, however I do not get any nutritional value from it. As a result from making a few lifestyle changes, I hardly notice any problems at all There are so many people who are my age with so many aches and pains due to their diet and I almost have none I feel really good about my maintenance care from Dr. Bob. Rebecca Szilagyi

Notes on the Baseline diet menu template

Weight loss (with calories below maintenance level), for year-round maintenance (with calories at maintenance level), or even for weight gain (with calories at 10-20 above maintenance level). The baseline diet should include a wide variety of natural, low fat & low sugar foods including whole grain complex carbohydrates, fruits, low or non-fat dairy products, and lean proteins.

Jacquies Sample Full Liquid Menu

2 tablespoons low-fat strained cream soup 2 tablespoons sugar-free pudding 3 tablespoons low-fat strained cream soup 3 tablespoons sugar-free pudding In between meals it is very important to sip water or other sugar-free beverages to avoid dehydration. At this stage your goal is to consume six to eight cups of fluid per day.

Origin and Framework of the Development of Dietary Reference Intakes

Phospholipids, cholesterol, complex carbohydrates, simple sugars, dietary fiber, energy intake, and energy expenditure) to determine the roles, if any, they play in health (2) review selected components of food that may influence the bioavailability of these compounds (3) develop estimates of dietary intake of these compounds that are compatible with good nutrition throughout the lifespan and that may decrease risk of chronic disease where data indicate they play a role (4) determine Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (ULs) for each compound where scientific data are available in specific population subgroups and (5) identify research needed to improve the knowledge of the role of macronutrients in health. This was in coordination with a separate panel that was formed to review existing and proposed definitions of dietary fiber and propose a definition that could be of use in regulatory and other areas, and could serve as a basis for the review of dietary fiber by the Macronutrients Panel.

Water and Electrolyte Balance

Adding carbohydrate to the fluid confers an additional benefit by providing an energy source for the working muscles. Addition of small amounts (perhaps about 2-8 ) of carbohydrate in the form of glucose, sucrose, or maltodextrin will promote water absorption in the small intestine as well as providing exogenous substrate that can spare stored carbohydrate. The addition of too much carbohydrate will slow gastric emptying and, if the solution is strongly hypertonic, may promote secretion of water into the intestinal lumen, thus delaying fluid availability. Voluntary fluid intake is seldom sufficient to match sweat losses, and palatability of fluids is therefore an important consideration. It is not necessary to consume enough fluid during exercise to match sweat losses, as a body mass deficit of 1-2 is unlikely to have adverse consequences. If exercise is prolonged and sweat losses high, the addition of sodium to drinks may be necessary to prevent the development of...

Applications To Health Promotion And Disease Prevention

There are different experimental non-genetic animal models of diet-induced IR, dyslipidemia, overweight, visceral adiposity, and type 2 diabetes, such as high-fat or high-sucrose fructose fed rats. Numerous studies, including our own (Lombardo & Chicco 2006), have demonstrated that normal rats fed a high-sucrose (SRD) or -fructose diet for a short period of time (3 5 weeks) develop dyslipidemia, enhanced TG accumulation in liver and heart muscles, hyperinsulinemia, IR, and hypertension. In studies of rats fed a SRD for 4 weeks, Lavigne et al. (2000) demonstrated that soy protein lowers plasma fasting glucose and insulin concentration as well as TG levels, and improves peripheral insulin sensitivity, compared to rats that had casein as the source of protein. Moreover, Boimvaser et al. (2006) showed a decrease of both liver TG content and VLDL-TG secretion rate. TABLE 125.1 Main Effects of Dietary Soy Protein in the Prevention of Dyslipidemia and Insulin Resistance Induced by a...

Absorption of the digested food

Simple sugars from carbohydrate digestion and amino acids from protein digestion pass into the bloodstream via the villi and are then carried to the liver via the hepatic portal vein to be processed. The products of fat digestion pass into the intestinal lymphatics which absorb the fat molecules and carry them through the lymphatic system before they reach the blood circulation. Vitamins and minerals travel across to the blood capillaries of the villi and are absorbed into the bloodstream to assist in normal body functioning and cell metabolism.

Premenstrual Syndrome

Treatment with D-alpha-tocopherol (400 lU day) over three menstrual cycles significantly alleviated some affective and physical symptoms of PMS according to one randomised double-blind study (London et al 1987). Symptoms of anxiety, food craving and depression responded to active treatment, whereas effects on other measured parameters such as weight gain were not significant.

Technological Issues

Worldwide, bread products constitute a major source of dietary carbohydrates. Consequently, there is a need for new technologies that can modulate the GI of bread. The addition of organic acids such as propionate is one of the methods that can be used to lower the GI of bread without adverse effect due to its rapid cellular oxidative metabolism. As shown in several studies (Darwiche et al., 2001 Liljeberg and Bjorck, 1996 Liljeberg et al., 1995 Todesco et al., 1991), bread products with added sodium propionate exert beneficial metabolic responses on glucose and insulin levels as well as on feelings of satiety. In the near future, the food industry will likely add propionate to foods to produce non-acidic low-GI foods. With the increasing incidence of type 2 diabetes and other metabolic diseases, the beneficial potential of propi-onate as a preventive approach to the insulin resistance syndrome is likely a sound aspect to exploit (Chaput et al., 2006). Experimental studies are needed...

Public health aspects of dental caries

The most important predisposing factors for ECC are listed as diet, nutrition and feeding behaviour. Certain inappropriate feeding practices have also been associated with ECC. The bottle contents, the frequency and duration of feeding, and how long the child is bottle-dependent, are especially important. Bottle-feeding with liquids such as Jello water and soda-pop is particularly harmful because these drinks contain sucrose, a highly cariogenic substrate. Prolonged use of a bottle containing high-fructose liquid at naptime or bedtime is strongly associated with ECC (Reisines & Douglass, 1998). Although the type of sugar consumed is an important factor in the development of caries, the frequency of sugar consumption is of greater significance. Several studies support this hypothesis (Amiutis, 2004 Zita & McDonald, 1959). Since the publication of the Vipeholm study, (Gustafsson et al, 1954) it has been accepted that the frequency of ingestion of sugar-containing foods is directly...

Michael J Devlin Stephen A Wonderlich B Timothy Walsh and James E Mitchell

There has been significant progress in identifying factors that contribute to the development and persistence of BED. As reviewed in Chapter 3, we now know that BED tends to run in families in patterns that suggest there is a genetic component, although no specific gene has been clearly identified and replicated. The occurrence of BED is clearly associated with that of obesity, but the nature of the association - what is cart and what is horse - has not yet been elucidated. There appears to be an increased frequency of substance use disorders among those with BED, and, as referenced in the Foreword, there have been reports that more than half of individuals with BED meet criteria for food addiction. Indeed, there are striking parallels between the symptoms of people with BED and of those who abuse substances, including excessive consumption of, and craving for, food or the abused drug, respectively. It is very likely that this overlap of symptoms reflects the involvement of some of...

Presentday Cultivation And Usage

A dense, block-shaped confection made from sweetened tahin, known as halva (halaweh, halvah), is a common food in Greece and across South-west Asia. Halva is prepared from dehulled, roasted, and milled white sesame seeds (tahin), sugars (sucrose and glucose syrup), citric acid, and Saponaria officinalis L. root (Figure 122.1). Some manufacturers add natural Soluble simple sugars (g)

Sources and properties of nondigestible oligosaccharides

Several NDOs are considered DFs, itself a broad category. As illustrated in Table 7.1, NDOs may occur naturally in many plants - mainly vegetables, whole grains and fruits (Meyer 2004). Another natural source of NDOs is milk (cow milk galacto-oligosaccharides and human milk oligosaccharides). Moreover, several NDOs - often added in food for their technological properties - may be synthesised from simple or complex carbohydrates. NDOs present in the diet differ from one another in their chemical structure, in other words the number (DP) or the type of hexose moeties (glucosyl-, fructosyl-, galactosyl-, xylosyl-), the position of links between the hexose moeties and their conformation (a- versus P-) (Delzenne 2003). All these characteristics have consequences on the physical properties of NDOs - and therefore on their putative usefulness as food ingredients and their effects and metabolism in the gastro-intestinal tract. Owing to interest in their nutritional properties, biotechnology...

Probioticsderived biosurfactant

As it is clear, colonization of the teeth by mutans streptococci has been associated with the etiology and pathogenesis of dental caries in humans. The ability of these organisms, particularly Streptococcus mutans, to synthesize extracellular glucans from sucrose using glucosyltransferases (Gtfs) is a major virulence factor of this bacterium. The Gtfs secreted by S. mutans (particularly GtfB and GtfC) provide specific binding sites for either bacterial colonization of the tooth surface or attachment of bacteria to each other, modulating the formation of tightly adherent biofilms, the precursor of dental caries (Koo et al. 2010 Murata et al. 2010). However, the ability of S. mutans to adhere to the tooth surface is vital for the initiation and progression of dental caries. a-(1-3)- and a-(1-6)-linked glucan polymers are encoded by the genes gtfB, gtfC, and gtfD. In vitro studies have indicated that gtfB and gtfC are essential for the sucrose-dependent attachment of S. mutans cells to...

Triacylglycerol LDL and HDL Cholesterol Concentration

Fructose is more lipogenic than glucose or starches (Cohen and Schall, 1988 Reiser and Hallfrisch, 1987) however, the precise biochemical basis for this mechanism has not been elucidated (Roche, 1999). There is some evidence that increased intake of sugars is positively associated with plasma triacylglycerol and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol concentrations (Table 6-7). The data on triacylglycerol concentration is mixed with a number of studies showing an increase in concentration with increased sucrose, glucose, or fructose concentration (Albrink and Ullrich, 1986 Hayford et al., 1979 Kaufmann et al., 1966 Mann et al., 1973, Rath et al., 1974 Reiser et al., 1979a, 1989 Yudkin et al., 1986), whereas other studies have shown no effect (Bossetti et al., 1984 Crapo and Kolterman, 1984 Dunnigan et al., 1970 Hallfrisch et al., 1983 Mann and Truswell, 1972 Surwit et al., 1997 Swanson et al., 1992). Smith and colleagues (1996) demonstrated that hypertriacylglycerolemia...

Kelly C Berg and Carol B Peterson

I am a nurse manager at a local hospital, am married, and have two adolescent boys, ages 13 and 17. I'm seeking treatment for binge eating (BE), which occurs several times a week. As a child I would sneak food from my family's kitchen and hoard it in my bedroom. I would come home from school and binge in my room by myself. In typical episodes I would eat half a bag of brown sugar or a box of cookies. My BE has fluctuated in severity since childhood, with the worst periods occurring during college, my late twenties, and currently. My binge episodes usually occur in the evenings after dinner, when alone in the kitchen cleaning up and watching Tv. In a typical BE episode I eat two pints of ice cream or 30 to 50 snack crackers and experience a sense of loss of control, particularly a feeling of being unable to resist eating the food that I know is in the kitchen. I have struggled with being overweight since adolescence and have made multiple attempts at weight loss, including structured...

Chunagi Herera Books 1996

Interaction of dietary sucrose and fiber on serum lipids in healthy young men fed high carbohydrate diets. Am J Clin Nutr 43 419-428. Anderson GH, Atkinson SA, Bryan MH. 1981. Energy and macronutrient content of human milk during early lactation from mothers giving birth prematurely and at term. Am J Clin Nutr 34 258-265. Archer SL, Liu K, Dyer AR, Ruth KJ, Jacobs DR, Van Horn L, Hilner JE, Savage PJ. 1998. Relationship between changes in dietary sucrose and high density lipo-protein cholesterol The CARDIA Study. Ann Epidemiol 8 433-438. Aronow WS, Ahn C. 1998. Risk factors for new coronary events in older African- Bossetti BM, Kocher LM, Moranz JF, Falko JM. 1984. The effects of physiologic amounts of simple sugars on lipoprotein, glucose, and insulin levels in normal subjects. Diabetes Care 7 309-312. Bowman SA. 1999. Diets of individuals based on energy intakes from added sugars. Fam Econ Nutr Rev 12 31-38. Britten P, Basiotis PP, Davis CA, Anand R....

Promotion Of Remineralization And Reversal Of The Demineralization Process

Sjogren Wound

Increasing the amount of saliva in the mouth may be achieved in those individuals who have functioning salivary glands by means of the use of sugar-free hard candies or lozenges (Salive), sugar-free chewing gum, or by the use of a muscarinic agonist. A xylitol- containing gum or candy may have additional clinical benefit (Xylichew, Spry, TheraGum,). Pilocarpine tablets, Cevimeline capsules, or Bethanachol may be prescribed to increase saliva production. These medications are contraindicated in those who are pregnant or have a history of uncontrolled asthma, gastrointestinal ulcer, acute iritis or narrow angle glaucoma, and they may not be suitable for those who have unstable cardiovascular disease. Some individuals decide to discontinue the prescribed muscarinic agonist because of intolerable adverse effects, including sweating. In these cases, it is possible to titrate the medication (ie, pilocarpine, by cutting the 5 mg or 7.5 mg pill to a final dose of 2.5 to 3.75 mg three times...

What kinds of complications can occur in the first few months after the surgery

So far we have talked about mechanical obstruction leading to nausea, cramping, and vomiting. In addition to obstruction of the stoma, nausea and vomiting can occur with specific foods. Everyone is different. Some people consistently report vomiting with potatoes. Others find certain fruits and vegetables don't stay down. Still others are primarily troubled by high-fat foods. Some unfortunate people not only get diarrhea (dumping syndrome) with sugary foods, they vomit as well. For many people it is necessary to do some (sometimes painful) experimentation to determine what they can and cannot successfully eat. I do have a few patients who even up to a year following their surgery

Digestion Absorption and Elimination

Digestive System

The hamburger bun, the fries, and the shake contain sugars. Carbohydrates (types of sugars) must be broken down to individual units called monosaccharides. Some sugars, such as the starch in the bread and potatoes, have hundreds of monosaccharides. Other sugars, such as table sugar, the milk in the shake, or beer, have only two sugar units and are called disaccharides. Anything larger than a monosaccharide will not be absorbed through the

Background And Relevant Pharmacokinetics

Calcium's bioavailability from both food and supplements shows enormous variation, from 4 to 45 (Recker 1985) and is dramatically influenced by other foods present in the gastrointestinal tract. Phytates, oxalates, all types of fibres, unabsorbed dietary fatty acids and other divalent minerals all potentially compromise its absorption, while lactose (especially in children) and other sugars, as well as protein and the presence of vitamin D all enhance uptake (Groff & Groper 2000).

Endomorph training and nutrition strategy

High protein, low to moderate carb diets work best for the endomorph. Endomorphs usually have varying degrees of carbohydrate sensitivity and insulin resistance. Therefore, high carbohydrate, low fat diets are usually not effective. Sugar is a major no-no Processed and refined carbohydrates that contain white sugar and white flour tend to convert to body fat very rapidly in endomorphs because of the way they affect the hormone insulin.

Cereal Grains And Milling Fractions

The content of the acrylamide precursors (i.e., free asparagine and reducing sugars) varies with plant species cultivar and growing conditions, but data on cereal raw materials are rather limited. The content of asparagine is higher in whole grain rye flour than in whole grain wheat and oat flours (Mustafa et al., 2007) (Figure 30.2). In wheat flour, the content has been reported to vary between 0.1 and 0.7 mg kg (Claus et al., 2006). Selection of flour with low content may therefore offer a possibility to lower the acrylamide content in cereal products. Nitrogen fertilization has a strong impact on crude protein and free asparagine content in wheat flours, with up to a fourfold increase when 0 kg N ha was compared to 220 kg N ha (Claus et al., 2006). In the study by Claus et al. (2006), sulfur fertilization did not increase the content of free asparagine in wheat flour. Sulfur deficiency seems to lead to the greatest accumulation of free asparagine in the grain, and under very severe...

Carbohydrate Metabolites

The starchy tuberous root (Figures 4.11A and B and 4.12B) has traditionally been the food source of the plant (see Table 4.1 on the amounts of phytochemicals found in P. esculenta roots). Women and children used to gather the tuberous roots to eat raw, to put in stews, or to grind up into a powder for different cooking uses. Today, Ansel Woodenknife, a Lakota Indian of South Dakota, carries on traditional uses of tinpsila by marketing Woodenknife Indian Fry Bread Mix, which uses tinpsila powder as an ingredient. Other ingredients include wheat flour, sugar (sucrose), corn starch, bicarbonate of soda (NaHCO3), sodium aluminum sulfate, and acid phosphate of calcium.

Remedy For Achromotricia

Acesulphame (acesulfame) Methyl-oxathiazinone dioxide, a non-nutritive or intense (artificial) sweetener. The potassium salt, acesulphame-K, is some 200 times as sweet as sucrose. It is not metabolised, and is excreted unchanged. acetanisole A synthetic flavouring agent (p-methoxyacetophe- agave nectar A bulk sweetener from the blue agave (Agave tequilana). Mainly fructose, 30 sweeter than sucrose. ageing (1) As wines age, they develop bouquet and a smooth mellow flavour, associated with slow oxidation and the formation of esters. Composition 100g (edible portion 40 ) water 5.3 g, 2420kJ (578kcal), protein 21.3 g, fat 50.6 g (of which 8 saturated, 67 mono-unsaturated, 25 polyunsaturated), carbohydrate 19.7 g (4.8g sugars), fibre 11.8g, ash 3.1g, Ca 248mg, Fe 4.3mg, Mg 275mg, P 474mg, K 728mg, Na 1 mg, Zn 3.4mg, Cu 1.1 mg, Mn 2.5mg, Se 2.8 g, vitamin E 26mg, B1 0.24mg, B2 0.81 mg, niacin 3.9mg, B6 0.13 mg, folate 29 g, pantothenate 0.3 mg. A 20g serving (20 nuts) is a source of Cu, Mg,...

Eating too many simple carbohydrates causes blood sugar peaks and valleys

When there's a large blood sugar spike, your body tends to overreact and produce too much insulin. The insulin quickly clears the glucose from the bloodstream, leading to a sharp drop in blood sugar known as hypoglycemia. Low blood sugar is accompanied by cravings, hunger, weakness, mood swings and decreased energy. The hunger and cravings tend to cause the sugar consumption to perpetuate itself, resulting in a vicious cycle of ups and downs in energy throughout the day.

Nonwestern Medical Systems Traditional Chinese Medicine

Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has existed for thousands of years, long before Western medicine. Rather than following the disease model of Western medicine, TCM focuses on a symptom approach such that a person with PD who has mostly tremor would be evaluated and treated differently than another person whose symptoms were mostly gait and balance difficulty with no tremor. The specific symptoms of the individual signal a deficiency in the body fluids blood that is unable to properly nourish the energy flow or chi or Qi of the entire organism. There are three main symptom approaches under TCM (5). The first is Qi and blood deficiency, which is believed to arise from anger, emotional stress, frustration, and resentment. The second is phlegm-fire-agitating wind (yang), which is the result of poor diet, in particular eating greasy, fried, sweet, sugary foods and alcohol. The third is kidney and liver (yin) deficiency, which results from a lack of rest and overwork as well as part of...

Hypertension High Blood Pressure

Blood pressure is considered high at a reading of 140 90. There are no symptoms of the illness and it is recommended individuals over 40 be checked. Hypertension can be controlled by permanent diet and lifestyle changes this includes reducing stress, maintaining proper weight (not more than 5 lb overweight), and eating foods containing compounds that reduce blood pressure such as celery, garlic, and fresh fruits and vegetables. Having a home monitor is helpful. Smoking, alcohol, refined sugar, food allergies, and high-sodium foods can contribute to hypertension. Some people may need extra calcium to stabilize blood pressure. Some individuals are salt sensitive which causes a rise in their blood pressure. Daily exercises and various stress reduction techniques lower systolic and diastolic blood pressure.

Digestion In The Small Intestine

Fat Absorption

Digestive enzymes break starch, proteins, triglycerides, and nucleic acids into intermediate size pieces. Pancreatic amylase breaks down starch. The bicarbonate from the pancreas creates the alkaline conditions needed for amylase and other enzymes to function. Amylase does not break starch into glucose monosaccharide units, but into smaller pieces, including the disaccharide maltose. Thus far in the digestive process, the disaccharides, such as sucrose (from table sugar and fruits) and lactose (from milk, such as the chocolate shake in our example), that are ingested have not been broken down. Dietary triglycerides are broken apart by pancreatic lipase.

Anti Dental Caries Introduction

Dental caries and periodontal disease are major public health problems that bother all countries in the world. Dental carie is an infectious, communicable disease that acid-forming bacteria of dental plaque can destroy tooth structure in the presence of fermentable carbohydrates such as sucrose, fructose, and glucose. The mineral content of teeth is sensitive to increases in acidity from the production of lactic acid. So, the infection results in loss of tooth minerals from the outer surface of the tooth and can progress through the dentin to the pulp, finally compromising the tooth vitality. Industrialized nations have controlled the problem with fluoride enriched water and personal hygiene products since early in the 1960s, but cariogenicity remains a crisis that economically burdens the health care system. Dental disease remains a silent epidemic in the world that threatens children and adults. The oral streptococci especially mutans Streptococci are related with the development of...

Future prospects of functional foods for the prevention of dental caries

In Japan, various types of functional foods have been developed and widely consumed for health promortion. Some of them have been advanced for prevention of dental caries. GTase inhibitors and sugar substitutes that are not the direct cause of dental caries are actively developed and utilized as preventive foods for dental caries. Recently, functional materials which enhance the defence system of host on dental caries are further added to those foods. For example, there are functional materials that promote re-mineralization of tooth and stimulate saliva excretion to block oral pH decline. The probiotics which improves oral bacterial flora may also be expected to be one of these functions. If functional materials that have different types of preventive effect for dental caries are combined in a functional food, the potential of functional foods may expand the food market for health promotion.

How And Where Some Of The Wellknown Plant Metabolites Are Synthesized In Plant Cells

Composition Hair

The production of proteins is completely dependent on the presence of nucle-otides because every protein is coded by nucleic acids which are made from nucleotides. In eukaryotic cells, most proteins are initially produced in the cytosol and then transported to their final destination in the cell where they will perform their specific function. Organelles, such as chloroplasts and mitochondria, can also make proteins specific to these organelles. We have already mentioned that proteins may be enzymatic or structural in function, but plants do produce storage forms of proteins, like phytate, to provide a reserve of amino acids and energy especially in the process of seed germination. Some of these storage proteins can be lectins which are highly toxic and serve as herbivore deterrents (see Section 2.6.5), but their ability to bind sugars gives them function in recognition of sym-bionts, pathogens, and species-specific pollen grains as well. The purine and pyrimidine nucleotides that...

Differential Diagnosis

Hypoglycemia Differential

Frequent small meals containing only modest amounts of sugars (glucose and sucrose) and refined starches but rich in poorly absorbed complex carbohydrates and containing dietary fiber have replaced the diets rich in proteins (and fats) previously advocated, but evidence of their unique efficacy is lacking. Avoidance of drinks rich in sucrose or glucose, especially with alcohol, may be helpful in subjects who

Eating and Snacking Patterns

Eating meals and snacking away from home puts the responsibility for good food choices right in adolescents' hands. Snacks should be low in both fat and added sugar. Some healthful snack ideas include fresh fruit, sliced vegetables with low-fat dip, low-fat yogurt, low-fat string cheese, peanut butter and crackers, baked chips, granola bars, and graham crackers. Juices, fruit drinks, and sodas are usually very high in calories from natural or added sugar, so they should be consumed in moderation. The Food Guide Pyramid is an appropriate guide for adolescents' food choices, even when snacking.

Dental biofilm Dynamics of biofilm formation

A very important key point on biofilm formation is the synthesis of extracellular polyssacharides from sucrose by adherent bacteria (Figure 1). These insoluble molecules are considered very important contributors in the structural integrity and pathogenic properties of biofilms. Fig. 1. Production of extracellular polymers of S. mutans UA159 under planktonic form of growth with sucrose enriched medium. Note arrows that indicate the presence of polymers. (40x) Fig. 1. Production of extracellular polymers of S. mutans UA159 under planktonic form of growth with sucrose enriched medium. Note arrows that indicate the presence of polymers. (40x)

Glucose Galactose Malabsorption

Intestinal transport of glucose and galactose. It is characterized by the neonatal onset of severe, watery, acidic diarrhea. The diarrhea is profuse and contains sugar. In children given lactose, fecal sugar mainly consists of glucose and galactose with only small amounts of lactose, since lactase activity is usually adequate. Hyperosmotic dehydration and metabolic acidosis are the rule. Related gastrointestinal signs and symptoms include increase of abdominal gas, distension, and vomiting. Intermittent or permanent glycosuria after fasting or after a glucose load is frequent. Thus the combination of reducing sugar in the stool and slight glycosuria despite low blood glucose levels is highly suggestive of glucose-galactose malabsorption. The abnormality of carbohydrate metabolism is confined to glucose transport in the small intestine and the proximal renal tube. The main defect appears to be the absence of a functional sodium-dependent glucose contransporter. Electrolytes can be...

Suet crust See pastry

Sugar Table sugar or sucrose, which is extracted from the sugar beet or sugar cane, concentrated and refined. molasses is the residue left after the first stage of crystallisation and is bitter and black. The residue from the second stage is treacle, less bitter and viscous than molasses. The first crude crystals are muscovado or Barbados sugar, brown and sticky. The next stage is light brown, demerara sugar. Refined white sugar is essentially 100 pure sucrose officially described in EU as semi-white, white and extra-white. Yields 16kJ (3.9kcal) g. Soft sugars are fine grained and moister, white or brown (excluding large-grained demerara sugar). sugar alcohols Also called polyols, chemical derivatives of sugars that differ from the parent compound in having an alcohol group (CH2OH) instead of the aldehyde group (CHO) thus mannitol from mannose, xylitol from xylose, lactitol from lactulose (also sorbitol, isomalt and hydrogenated glucose syrup). Several occur naturally in fruits,...

Requirements and Recommendations

The DRIs for carbohydrate consumption of individual groups and lifestages are outlined in Table 2. These values are based on the average minimum amount of glucose needed for brain function. A UL for carbohydrates was not set because no studies have shown that excessive consumption of carbohydrates has a detrimental effect on health. Based on the dilutional effect of added sugars on micronutri-ents, the expert panel suggests a maximal intake of less than 25 of energy from added sugars. Total sugar intake can be decreased by limiting foods high in added sugars and consuming naturally occurring sugar products, like milk, dairy products, and fruit. cereals, vegetables, legumes, and fruit. Furthermore, it suggests that free sugars should be restricted to less than 10 of total energy. This report recognizes that there is no direct causal link between sugar consumption and chronic disease. However, sugars significantly increase the energy density of the human diet and high-sugar drinks have...

Tonic Signals The Moderating Effects of Energy Status

As noted earlier one of the classical theories of appetite control has involved the notion of a so-called long-term regulation involving a signal that informs the brain about the state of adipose tissue stores. This idea has given rise to the notion of a lipostatic or ponderostatic mechanism. indeed, this is a specific example of a more general class of peripheral appetite (satiety) signals believed to circulate in the blood reflecting the state of depletion or repletion of energy reserves that directly

Biological and Behavioral Influences

The regulation of energy balance and appetite in particular has been the subject of a large amount of research. Much of this work has been carried out in relation to obesity and whether this can be linked to a faulty mechanism or genetic defect of some kind. This work is reviewed in detail elsewhere in this encyclopedia, but a number of different mechanisms have been proposed whereby energy intake and balance might be regulated. These include the adaptive thermogenesis theory (now largely discounted, this proposed that energy expenditure was flexible in some individuals and increased to expend excessive energy intakes) nutrient-based models of feeding in which the energy and or nutrient composition of the diet is considered to lead to appetite suppression via complex gut-fill cues (e.g., the effect of carbohydrates on neurotransmitters and the central nervous system) and the glucostat, lipostat, and leptin theories, which are considered to operate via satiety effects. However,...

Type of Dietary Carbohydrate and the Glycemic Index

Short-chain carbohydrates are rapidly absorbed however, when they contain nonglucose sugars, the glycemic index is lowered proportionally. The disaccharides sucrose and lactose consist of 50 glucose and 50 fructose or galactose, respectively, and both have a lower glycemic index than maltose, the disaccharide formed from two molecules of glucose.

Dental plaque biofilm management

In a study, the ability of Mutans Streptococci to form biofilm measured in the presence of some sugars. The biofilm formation (percentage of strongely adherent strains in Fig. 3) in the presence of sucrose was higher than other carbohydrates significantly (p < 0.05). It is also revealed that the number of attached bacteria increased with the increase of sucrose concentration. The results corresponded to a non linear increase of attached bacteria (Tahmourespour et al., 2010). Therefore, among the various tested carbohydrates in this study and other different researches, sucrose is considered the most cariogenic dietary carbohydrate, because it is fermentable, and also serves as a best substrate for the synthesis of extracellular and intracellular polysaccharides and dental plaque formation (Brown et al., 2005 Bowen, 2002 Cury et al., 2000 Pecharki et al., 2005 Ribeiro et al., 2005 Leme et al., 2006). The ability of mutans Streptococci to adhere to teeth surfaces is vital for the...

Five FDAApproved GRAS Artificial Sweeteners

Acesulfame Potassium Toxicity

Acesulfame potassium (Acesulfame-K) was discovered in 1967 and approved for use in the United States in 1988. Its trade name is Sunette. Two hundred times sweeter than sucrose, this sweetener is stable when heated, making it suitable for cooking. However, when used in large amounts it has a bitter aftertaste. It is not broken down by the body, and it does not provide any calories. Over ninety scientific studies have been conducted by the FDA, and the World Health Organization's Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) has also endorsed Acesulfame K's safety.

The era of fat phobia has ended

FAT FREE DOESN'T MEAN SUGAR FREE OR CALORIE FREE What's happened over the past two decades is that many people cut out the fat, and simply replaced it with refined sugar. Even foods that always were fat free all of a sudden started sporting new labels that proudly proclaimed NO FAT A food can say fat free on the label and be 100 sugar If you eat a lot of sugar or if you eat more calories than you burn, it doesn't matter how little dietary fat you eat - you're still going to get fat Saturated and processed fats are bad enough, but in my opinion, sugar and processed carbohydrates are more responsible for disease and obesity in our society today than any other single factor. Replacing fat with sugar is going from the frying pan into the fire. It's only when you're eating a mildly calorie restricted diet that's low in refined sugar and low in the bad fats that your body fat will finally begin to drop.

Classification and Chemical Structure

Sucrose Cell fuel, constituent of Disaccharides consist of two monosaccharide units, linked by glycosidic bonds in the a or 3 orientation. The most important disaccharides are sucrose, lactose, and maltose. Sucrose consists of a molecule of a-glucose and a molecule of -fructose linked together (Figure 2A). Lactose is found in milk and dairy products and consists of a molecule of galactose linked to a glucose molecule by a -1,4glycosidic bond Figure 2 The molecular structures of (A) sucrose, (B) lactose, and (C) maltose. Sucrose Oligosaccharides consist of a chain of between three and nine monosaccharide units covalently linked to form large units and are named trioses, tetroses, etc, depending on the number of carbon atoms in their molecules. Oligosaccharides are distributed widely in plants and when digested yield their constituent monosaccharides. The major oligosaccharides are the raffinose series, formed by the linkage of galactose, sucrose, and glucose units, and the maltose...

Recommended daily amount or allowance RDA See reference intakes

A food may not claim to have a reduced content of a nutrient if it is already classified as low in or free from that nutrient. reducing sugars sugars that are chemically reducing agents, including glucose, fructose, lactose, many pentoses, but not sucrose. reduction See oxidation. reduction rolls See milling.

Improvement of Protein Quality Amino Acid Profile

Food storage and processing in adverse circumstances can reduce protein quality by making some EAAs unavailable for use in the human body. These conditions should be avoided to preserve protein quality. Some examples are the storage of dried milk under mild to moderate heat and humidity, which renders lysine side chains unavailable after reacting with the reducing sugar, lactose (Maillard or 'browning' reaction) the severe treatment of protein with alkali, which causes lysine and cysteine residues to react and form lysinoalanine and the treatment of proteins with oxidizing agents, which can result in a loss of methionine. Severe heating conditions in the presence of reducing sugars or oxidized lipids can make some food proteins resistant to digestion, thereby reducing the availability of all their amino acids.

Carbohydrate Malabsorption

Sucrose Congenital sucrase-isomaltase deficiency (SID) is the most common congenital disaccharidase deficiency. Patients with this disorder lack functional sucrase, although isomaltase deficiency may be normal or absent. Symptoms of SID can include diarrhea, abdominal pain, and poor weight gain. Dietary avoidance of sucrose or table sugar helps relieve symptoms and can sometimes help with the diagnosis. Sucraid, a sacrosidase produced from Sac-charomyces cerevisiae, is an enzyme that can be given with meals and allows increased tolerance to sucrose.

Your Health Empty Calories

Sometimes foods are described as having empty calories. This means that the item is made mostly of sugar, probably sucrose, and not much of anything else. When carbohydrates are ingested along with proteins, lipids, vitamins, and minerals, they form part of a balanced diet that fills our nutritional needs.

Macronutrients Energy Carbohydrate Fat Protein and Amino Acids

Carbohydrate The AI for carbohydrate for infants through 1 year of age is based on the average carbohydrate intake from human milk and complementary foods for the 7- to 12-month age group (Table 2). Although the carbohydrate from human milk is almost exclusively lactose and that from infant formula may be lactose, sucrose, or glucose polymers alone or in combination, there is no evidence that non-lactose-containing formulas vary from lactose contained in human milk with regard to available energy.

The indirect effect of anticariogenic substances on body except for tooth

The test substance might have multiple functions apart from anticariogenic effects. Test substances such as ELM, ES and Alg53, which have been used in our experiments, have inhibitory effect on a-glucosidase. Therefore, if experimental animals are given an a-glucosidase inhibitor and sucrose, the latter is not digested by intestinal disaccharidases and reaches the large intestine, where it is fermented by microbiota. These intestinal microbiota produce short-chain fatty acids, CO2, NH4 and H2 (Oku, 2005). This action is similar to that of prebiotics such as non-digestible oligosaccharides and sugar alcohols ingested orally. These short-chain fatty acids are energy sources for the host and improve intestinal microflora. In this way, sucrose (the digestion of which in the small intestine is inhibited by a-glucosidase) provides many beneficial effects. However, if a large amount of sucrose and a-glucosidase are ingested simultaneously, transient diarrhea is caused because of an increase...

Probiotics and Prebiotics

Prebiotics are nondigestible food ingredients that stimulate the growth or modify the metabolic activity of intestinal bacterial species that have the potential to improve the health of their human host. Criteria associated with the notion that a food ingredient should be classified as a prebiotic are that it remains undigested and unabsorbed as it passes through the upper part of the gastrointestinal tract and is a selective substrate for the growth of specific strains of beneficial bacteria (usually lactobacilli or bifidobacteria), rather than for all colonic bacteria, inducing intestinal or systemic effects through bacterial fermentation products that are beneficial to host health. Prebiotic food ingredients include bran, psyllium husk, resistant (high amylose) starch, inulin (a polymer of fructofuranose), lactulose, and various natural or synthetic oligosaccharides, which consist of short-chain complexes of sucrose, fructose, galactose, glucose, maltose, or xylose. The best-known...

Feed Your Humpty Dumpty Body Right

The variety of body types and circumstances, including childbirth and discipline to control appetite, need to be considered. The body's energy system works very effectively with carbohydrate consumption. Fruits and vegetables burn very well in a clean machine. A stressed pancreas from refined sugar, low thyroid function antagonized by chlorine, and an over-worked adrenal gland fuel pump from too many activities and personal stress, creates an imbalance resulting in more refined sugar cravings.

Dairy wW s Up with That

Initially, researchers suspected that fat might be a factor, since whole milk is a source of excess fat and saturated fat. However, because 83 percent of the subjects in the study drank nonfat or skim milk, the researchers had to turn their attention to other possibilities. Dairy cows are treated with bovine growth hormone (rBGH) in order to boost milk production. This causes the level of IGF-1 to double in the cow's milk. Dr. Neal Barnard of the Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine, says, IGF-1 is indeed a growth factor, as the name implies. It causes things to grow. If you mix some of it with prostate cancer cells they grow like crazy. Other research studies have shown that when men (or women, for that matter) drink 2 or 3 glasses of milk a day, the amount of IGF-1 rises by about 10 percent. If you have more of this growth factor in your blood, the belief is that this would increase the likelihood that prostate cancer would arise. Dr. Barnard indicated that there...

Burn the Fat Feed the Muscle is not just about cosmetic improvements its about your health

The recommendations I make in this program for losing body fat are the same ones I would make for good health reduce saturated fat, reduce refined sugars, eat a variety of natural, unrefined foods, eat plenty of fiber, eat small, frequent meals, drink plenty of water, and so on. This program is healthy and nutritionally balanced. Any diet program that is not nutritionally balanced is going to fail you in the long run.

Pathophysiology of Stone Formation

Diet and lipid profile The ingestion of refined sugars has been shown to be associated with gall stone disease. However, no such association has been shown for alcohol or tobacco. It is not clear if high serum cholesterol predisposes to gall stone formation. In fact, the contrary has been shown in some studies. This is also the case for dietary cholesterol ingestion, which was shown to be a protective factor for gall stone formation in one study. Hypertriglyceridemia, on the other hand, is positively associated with an increased incidence of gall stones.

Health Effects of Carbohydrates

Increased sugar consumption has generated concern in recent years because of the potential to displace the micronutrient content of the diet by increasing 'empty calories' and energy intake. There is some evidence that essential nutrient intake decreases with increasing total sugar intake. However, sugar intake has not been shown to accurately predict micronu-trient ingestion. Moderate intakes of sugar coincide with sufficient nutrient intake. The risk of low micronutrient status is increased for individuals with a diet high in sugars and low in total energy intake, as in the case of children or people on restrictive diets. Data analysis on food intake of preschool children suggests that the intake of some micronu-trients (calcium, zinc, thiamin, riboflavin, and nia-cin) is inversely related to sugar intake. However, the dilutional effects of sugars may be somewhat distorted by the fact that some rich sources of added sugars are also fortified with micronutrients, as in the case of...

Dietary Carbohydrate

High carbohydrate (low fat) intakes tend to increase plasma tri-acylglycerol and decrease plasma HDL cholesterol concentrations (Borkman et al., 1991 Brussaard et al., 1982 Marckmann et al., 2000 West et al., 1990 Yost et al., 1998). This effect has been observed especially for increased sugar intake (Mann et al., 1973 Rath et al., 1974 Reiser et al., 1979 Yudkin et al., 1986). Fructose is a better substrate for de novo lipogenesis than glucose or starches (Cohen and Schall, 1988 Reiser and Hallfrisch, 1987), and Parks and Hellerstein (2000) concluded that hypertriacylglycerolemia is more extreme if the carbohydrate content of the diet consists primarily of monosaccharides, particularly fructose.

Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges For Healthy Diets

No more than 25 percent of energy from added sugars should be consumed. This maximal intake level is based on ensuring sufficient intakes of essential micronutrients that are, for the most part, present in relatively low amounts in foods and beverages that are major sources of added sugars in North American diets.

Why Stress Is the Culprit

If you are stressed out and not paying much attention to your body's needs, you may be the victim of a poor diet, an important factor in gum disease. Most people who are under the influence of stress eat improperly. Your diet may consist of quick bites of food, sugar, or alcohol, and reduced intake of fluids. If you eat a high-sugar diet, you are certain to have a more acidic saliva, and probably will be a candidate for bacterial plaque. The bacterial plaque will irritate your gums and be a cause of gum disease. Alcohol, as discussed in the previous chapter, has a high sugar content and also diminishes the saliva flow, which is a cause of gum disease. If you drink less water and take in less fluid because of stress, you may notice your saliva thickening. This can cause plaque to attach quickly to the tooth's structure. Plaque feasts on the fragile gum tissue and eats away at the bone supporting the teeth.

Feeding pattern in children with ECC

The relationship between sugar consumption and dental caries is one of cause and effect. The evidence to support such a relationship is generally considered overwhelming (Burt, 1986). Epidemiological studies have shown that caries prevalence was highest among children who ingested a diet high in sugar (Sheiham, 1991). Surveys have also shown that high consumption of cariogenic drinks and foods at bed time by pre-school children is an important factor in risk of caries (Palmer, 1971). Holt's study in 1991 on a group of preschool children showed that children consume sweets, biscuits and sweet drinks regularly and that mean dmft increases significantly with a higher rate of sugar consumption (Holt, 1991).

You Are Known by Your Fruit

Fructose, which is fruit sugar not to be confused with high fructose corn syrup (HFCS), does not stress the pancreas like white table sugar. Eating fruit can help restore needed nutrients and improve bowel function, all which are needed to live a happy life Some fruit, though, should be eaten in moderation. Patients who suffer with left neck and mid-back pain may have a common source for that pain the regular consumption of bananas, raisins, grapes, pineapple, and any dried fruit. All of these fruits are loaded with sugar.

Dietary Recommendations for Fibromyalgia Patients

Our bodies adapt to exposures. If a person eats sugar on a daily basis, they will find themselves craving sugar on subsequent days. Artificial sweeteners are actually much sweeter than sugar and make the body crave sweetness even more than sugar. This increases cravings, which in turn hampers weight loss. By removing all artificial sweeteners from the diet and by limiting your intake of sugar (especially high-fructose corn syrup), you can actually increase your body's ability to taste sweetness in healthy foods, like vegetables and fruit. Watch out for gum, breath mints, and medications which all can be hidden sources of artificial sweeteners. You can find safe versions of these at your local health food store, but still be careful to read labels as not all items at the health food store are safe. 7. Don't increase carbohydrate intake to increase energy levels. Everyone knows that carbs are the body's energy source, so many mistakenly think that increasing...

Practical Management of Eating Difficulties

Xerostomia (dry mouth) may be a long-term side effect of cancer treatment, and patients may need to use extra sauce with their foods or have soft food, and they usually need to sip a drink while eating. Chewing gum, preferably sugar-free, can stimulate saliva, although it should be avoided by those with no saliva because it will stick to their teeth. Pineapple can also stimulate saliva and eating it between meals may make the mouth more comfortable. glucose, jam, etc. Have small, frequent snacks. Use full-fat and full-sugar products. Avoid large amounts of lower energy foods (e.g., fruit and vegetables).

Properties and Sources of Fructose

Fructose has a fruity taste that is rated sweeter than sucrose. Sweetness ratings of fructose are between 130 and 180 (in part dependent on the serving temperature) compared to the standard, sucrose, rated at 100 . Both sucrose and fructose are used extensively in foods to provide sweetness, texture, and palatability. These sugars also contribute to the appearance, preservation, and energy content of the food product. Natural sources of dietary fructose are fruits, fruit juices, and some vegetables. In these foods, fructose is found as the monosaccharide and also as a component of the disaccharide, sucrose (Table 1). However, the primary source of fructose in Western diets is in sugars added to baked goods, candies, soft drinks, and other beverages sweetened with sucrose and high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS). HFCS is produced by hydrolyzing the starch in corn to glucose using -amylase and glucoamylase. This is followed by treatment with glucose isomerase to yield a mixture of glucose...

Ascorbic Acid And Dehydroascorbate

Aspartame An artificial sweetener, P-aspartyl-phenylalanine methyl ester, some 200 times as sweet as sucrose. Stable for a few months in solution, then gradually breaks down. Used in soft drinks, dessert mixes and as a 'table top sweetener'. Trade names Canderel, Equal, Nutrasweet, Sanecta.

Fructose Consumption Body Weight and Obesity

With the increase in fructose intake, primarily as sugar-sweetened beverages, occurring coincidently with the increase in prevalence of overweight and obesity during the past two decades, it is important to examine the evidence that links fructose consumption and body weight gain. In epidemiological studies, consumption of larger amounts of soft drinks and sweetened beverages is associated with greater weight gain in women and increased energy intake and higher body mass index in children. In experimental studies, when fructose- or sucrose-sweetened beverages are added to the diet, subjects do not compensate for the additional energy provided by these beverages by reducing energy intake from other sources, and total energy intake increases. Possibly, this lack of compensation may be explained by the lack of a significant effect of fructose ingestion on the secretion of hormones involved in the long-term regulation of food intake.

The Low Glycemic Index Diet

The metabolic requirement of the human brain for glucose provides a theoretical basis for understanding the evolving importance of GI in health. Hormonal regulatory systems have evolved to maintain stable concentrations of blood glucose under various conditions, such as fasting or feasting, consumption of foods with varying nutrient composition, varying levels of physical activity, illness, and pregnancy. However, one environmental condition rarely encountered before the modern era is the wide availability of high-GI foods. Before the agricultural revolution, human beings did not often consume grain products and concentrated sugars. With the technological progress of cereal grain processing, the GI of human diets increased substantially. In the past few decades, prevailing diets in the United States and Europe have become even higher in GI because of dual concomitance of daily increase in carbohydrate consumption with processed carbohydrates in food (Ludwig, 2007).

Historical Cultivation And Usage

All parts of neem have been in use since ancient times, to treat several human ailments, and also as a household pesticide. The commercial use of neem was known to exist in the Vedic period in India (over 4000 years BC), and domestic uses were mentioned by Kautilya in his Arthasastra (4 BC). Under natural conditions, neem seeds ordinarily fall onto the ground and the viable seeds germinate within a week or two, in the presence of rain water. The seedlings that grow in the shade of the tree are transplanted and propagated in empty fields, since neem is renowned for good growth on dry, infertile sites. Neem seed oil, bark, and leaf extracts have been therapeutically used as folk medicine to control diseases such as leprosy, intestinal helminthiasis, respiratory disorders, constipation, and skin infections (Biswas et al., 2002). Neem's excellent antibacterial and anti-allergic properties make it effective in fighting most epidermal dysfunctions, such as acne, psoriasis, and eczema....

Nonnutritive Sweeteners

Saccharin Sweet and Low, Sweet Twin, Sweet'N 0 200-700 times sweeter than sucrose noncarcinogenic and Aspartame Nutrasweet, Equal, Sugar Twin (blue box) 4 160-220 times sweeter than sucrose noncarcinogenic and produces limited glycemic response Acesulfame-K Sunett, Sweet & Safe, Sweet one 0 200 times sweeter than sucrose noncarcinogenic and produces no glycemic response Sucralose Splenda 0 600 times sweeter than sucrose noncarcinogenic and 50-70 as sweet as sucrose some people experience a laxative effect from a load > 50 g 50-70 as sweet as sucrose some people experience a laxative effect from a load > 20 g As sweet as sucrose 60-80 as sweet as sucrose also acts as a flavor enhancer, formulation aid, humectant, 45-65 as sweet as sucrose used as a bulking agent 30-40 as sweet as sucrose used as a bulking agent 90 as sweet as sucrose used as a bulking agent 25-50 as sweet as sucrose other names include hydrogenated starch hydrolysates and

Carbohydrate type glycaemic response and weight control

It has been debated whether excess dietary carbohydrate can increase adipose stores. Although test animals are able to convert significant amounts of ingested carbohydrate into body fat, in humans, de novo lipogenesis from carbohydrate appears to be limited (Strawford et al., 2004). Despite this, excess dietary carbohydrate may indirectly increase body fat stores. Dietary carbohydrate, in the form of starch or sucrose, increases blood insulin levels,

Environmental Factors

The best way to lower the risk of diabetes is to lead a healthy life style by eating a healthy balanced diet, engaging in regular physical activity, and balancing the energy intake with energy expenditure. Indeed, recent evidence would suggest that the adoption of a healthy life style in high-risk subjects can decrease the risk of developing T2D by 60 . There is a close relationship between diabetes and obesity, especially when the latter has central distribution. Apart from obesity, several other nutritional factors affect glucose metabolism and the risk of T2D. Current evidence suggests an association between different types of fats and carbohydrates and insulin resistance and T2D. Diets rich in saturated fats are associated with insulin resistance a multicentre study in a group of healthy individuals showed that a diet high in saturated fat decreased insulin sensitivity compared with a diet high in monounsaturated fat with the same total fat content. Prospective and...

Physiological factors influencing food intake

Peptide YY (PYY), which is also a gut hormone, is postprandially released in response to medium- and long-chain fatty acids but not after sucrose polyester ingestion (Maas et al., 1998). PYY suppresses 24-h food intake in humans (Batterham et al., 2002) and is correlated with measures of appetite (Macintosh et al., 1999).

Dietary Intakes In The United States And Canada Sources of Dietary Intake Data

Appendix D provides the mean and the 1st through 99th percentiles of intake for added sugars and amino acids from NHANES III, adjusted by methods described by the National Research Council (NRC, 1986) and by Feinleib and coworkers (1993) for persons aged 6 years and older. Appendix E provides similar data for energy, carbohydrate, dietary fiber, fat, fatty acids, cholesterol, protein, and alcohol by life stage group from the first phase of the CSFII, adjusted for day-to-day variation by the method of Nusser and colleagues (1996).

The Effects of Feeding on Blood Glucose Glucose

Before being absorbed, sucrose is cleaved into glucose and fructose, and lactose is cleaved into glucose and galactose. Galactose shares a transporter mechanism with glucose, whereas fructose uses a less efficient one of its own. Fructose and galactose, and a percentage of absorbed glucose, are removed on their first pass through the liver and converted into glycogen. This provides a store of carbohydrate that is released as glucose into the body pool when absorption from the gut is no longer occurring and gluconeogenesis has not yet become fully reestablished.

Dietary Interventions

Tolerance tests, had patterns of blood glucose levels similar to the pattern seen in adults with functional reactive hypoglycemia. Similar results have also been found in aggressive criminal offenders. A subsequent study showed that the patterns that Langseth and Dowd found can be normal variations in childhood, but the Langseth and Dowd study was followed by two correlational studies that suggested an association between sugar intake and hyperactivity. The hyperactive children who consumed more sugar displayed more hyperactive and aggressive behavior.

Essentiality and Metabolic Functions of Chromium

Stresses that have been shown to alter Cr metabolism in humans are glucose loading, high simple sugar diets, lactation, infection, acute exercise, chronic exercise, and physical trauma. Urinary losses can be used as a measure of the response to stress since once Cr is mobilized in response to stress it is not reabsorbed by the kidney but is lost in the urine. The degree of stress as measured by the stress hormone, cortisol, is correlated with the amount of Cr lost in the urine. urine, were shown to decrease with age in a study of more than 40 000 people. The recommended intakes in France are higher and more in line with studies demonstrating that a large segment of the population may not be consuming adequate Cr. The French Conseil National d'Etudes et de Recherche sur la nutrition et l'Alimentation has proposed daily intakes of 55 mg for adult French women 19-65 years old and 60 mg day for those older than 65 years and 65 and 70 mg, respectively, for men. Since Cr losses are...

Hyperactivity and Antisocial Behavior

In children, there is an increasing frequency of the diagnosis of ADHD, a condition characterized by inattention, impulsive and disruptive behavior, learning difficulties, and increased levels of gross motor activity and fidgeting. Also, the prevalence of food allergies and intolerances has been increasing. Perhaps it is not surprising that dietary explanations and treatments for ADHD have been sought regularly for several decades, given theories of allergic reactions or intolerance to food additives, ingredients in chocolate, and even refined sugar (often grouped as the 'Feingold theory', after an early instigator of unproven dietary intervention). There has also been a long-standing interest in the possibility that antisocial behavior in children and adults might in part result from poor nutrition, although early studies were poorly designed. Behavioral effects of sugar and of many additives have by and large not been supported by controlled studies however, determining...

Food and Chemical Allergies and Depression

Wheat is not the only substance capable of triggering a maladaptive reaction within the brains and nervous systems of sensitive people. Alcohol, certain foods (particularly the grains from which alcohol is made), and many chemicals (particularly hydrocarbon-based products like gasoline and paints) can also cause reactions. Food addiction keeps us coming back for more of certain foods. We love the initial mild energy they provide as they bring us out of our withdrawal state. We don't understand that the downside of this addiction is depression, anxiety, and mental confusion, the result of the inevitable withdrawal in the nervous system and the brain. So be suspect of foods that you feel you cannot do without.

Other Factors Affecting the Epidemiology of Caries

Experimental studies using chewing gum (usually sugar-free). Reductions in caries incidence were seen when subjects were encouraged to chew the gum, especially between and immediately after meals, while continuing their normal regular oralhygiene practices. Convincing evidence of an effect at the population level, however, is awaited. Chemistry and Dietary Sources. Sucrose Dietary Sucrose and Disease. Vitamin D Rickets and Osteomalacia.

Historical Perspective

Sugar cane and sugar beet have a naturally high content of sucrose and have been commercially exploited as a concentrated sources of sucrose since 1600 ad. Sugar cane was first cultivated in Papua New Guinea 10 000 years ago, and the practice spread gradually to Egypt (2300 years ago), Arabia (1300 years ago), and Japan (1100 years ago). Sugar beet was first grown in Europe 500 years ago. Prior to this, refined sucrose was still a rare and expensive commodity and honey was much cheaper. When the industrial revolution began 200 years ago, sucrose consumption increased dramatically, replacing honey as the major source of concentrated sweetness. Intake of refined sucrose peaked in about 1900 and consumption has remained, with minor variations, much the same over the past century. Since 1970 high-fructose corn syrup solids (glucose-fructose syrups made from hydrolyzed corn starch) have partially replaced refined sucrose in manufactured products, particularly in the USA.

Gross and Metabolizable Energy

The traditional way of measuring the energy content of foostuffs is to use a 'bomb calorimeter' in which the heat produced when a sample of food is combusted (under high pressure of oxygen) is measured. When the food is combusted, it is completely oxidized to water, carbon dioxide, and other incompletely burned elements. The total heat liberated (expressed in kilocalories or kilojoules) represents the gross energy value or heat of combustion of the food. The heat of combustion differs between carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. There are also important differences within each category of macronutrient. The gross energy yield of sucrose, for example, is 16.5 kJg 1, whereas starch yields 17.5 kJg 1. The energy yield of butterfat is 38.5 kJg 1 and of lard 39.6 kJg 1. These values have been rounded off to give 17.3 kJg 1 for carbohydrates rich in starch and poor in sugar, 39.3 kJg 1 for average fat, and 23.6 kJg 1 for mixtures of animal and vegetable proteins.

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