Canning

The history of canning began with Nicholas Appert, a French confectioner, who heated foods in wide-mouthed, corked glass bottles in boiling water to preserve them for use by the French military. At the time, preservation was primarily through drying or the addition of 'a foreign substance for the purpose of impeding fermentation or putrefaction' (sugar, salt, vinegar), each process having specific drawbacks (Appert, 1812). The French government, at war with several countries, offered rewards...

Impact of technologies that reduce competitive microflora

0ne potential disadvantage of new technologies may be the impact they have on reducing microorganisms that would compete with pathogens. Jay (1997) has proposed the idea that new technologies for extending the shelf-life of foods not only reduce the targeted pathogens but also that the numbers of spoilage microorganisms may be creating foods with a greater risk of causing foodborne illness because of the removal of the normally harmless bacteria that are antagonistic to pathogens. He suggested...

Epidemiologic factors

The burden of disease is unknown, but it is hypothesized that over 90 of adults have been exposed to norovirus. This hypothesis is based on antibody acquisition data indicating that antibody prevalence to norovirus is lowest in children 0-5 years old and increases with age. In industrialized countries such as the United States and the United Kingdom, antibody prevalence ranged from undetectable to 20 in the 0-5 year old age group to 65-70 in the 11-15 year...

Increased severity of Vibrio vulnificus infections in those with underlying liver disease

Vibrio vulnificus is a Gram-negative bacterium that lives in salt and brackish water, which can cause gastroenteritis, wound infections, and primary septicemia (Shapiro et al., 1998). Wound infections are acquired through contact with contaminated seawater or marine animals. Gastroenteritis and primary bacteremia are caused by consumption of raw or inadequately cooked seafood. While the pathogen exists in warm marine environments worldwide, the implicated food or exposure in a particular area...

Impact of injury and stress

Exposure of microorganisms to sublethal stresses has long been known to injure them. This could have the effect of allowing an overestimation of the lethality of the process when viable, injured cells are not recovered and are presumed dead. Microorganisms are also known to adapt to stressful environments and even become more resistant to the stress. Exposure to physical and chemical stresses encountered during food processing, such as heat, pressure, increased osmolality, or weak organic acids...

Keep foods at safe temperatures

Mead et al. (1999) reported that 100 of the cases of Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium perfringens, and Bacillus cereus illness are foodborne, but FoodNet does not conduct active surveillance of foodborne pathogens that are primarily controlled by storage temperature. Reported incidence of illnesses associated with improperly stored foods currently is low, perhaps because illnesses caused by these pathogens are largely self-limiting and medical treatment is infrequent (Mead et al., 1999), or...

Factors contributing to the pathogenicity of viral foodborne diseases

The pathogenicity of foodborne viruses depend on both the stability of the virus in the environment, as well as virus-host interactions at several different levels. The route of entry into the organism, mechanism of virus spread, site of replication, effects of virus infection on cells, and the adaptive and innate antiviral responses all play roles in determining the pathogenicity of the virus. Recent studies show that the nutritional status of the host also contributes to the ultimate...

Mechanisms of biofilm formation by Salmonella enterica species

While S. enterica serovar Typhi causes systemic infections in humans by traversing the intestinal epithelium and invading and growing within macrophages, it is well known that bacteria can also be carried to the gallbladder where a carrier state can develop (Dutta et al., 2000 Prouty et al., 2002). Patients in a carrier state can asymptomatically shed bacteria for years, even when administered antibiotics. To determine if biofilm formation might contribute to the carrier state of S. Typhi,...

Hostparasite coevolution an evolutionary arms race

There is a constant revolutionary struggle between the parasite and the host. The parasite develops evolutionary adaptations that help it overcome its host's defence mechanisms, infect the host successfully and produce new invasive stages. The host species, on the other hand, develops evolutionary adaptations that increase the organism's resistance to the attacks of the parasite. The parasite is usually a step ahead of the host in this never-ending struggle. This is because its evolutionary...

Refrigeration and freezing

Canning was not the only method being developed for preservation of food. The use of cold temperatures as a means of preserving foods had long been recognized. As long ago as 1000 BC, the Chinese used ice cellars to preserve foods (Archer, 2004). In Egypt, Greece, Rome, and India evaporative cooling was used to cool water in clay vessels at night (Tressler and Evers, 1943 Woolrich, 1968). Packing foods in snow or in ice cut from lakes or ponds in the winter was common in many countries until...

Mass distribution of food

This century has seen new technologies in transportation and distribution, particularly new developments in ocean shipping, which facilitate worldwide distribution of food (i.e. mass distribution). For example, although container-ization has reduced world transportation costs since the 1950s, it was not until the 1960s, when refrigerated containers called 'reefers' were developed, that perishables could be integrated into the flow of general cargo (Coyle et al., 2001). Reefer containers have...

Concerns about refrigerated foods

While consumers focus on the convenience of prepared foods, they still want 'fresh' foods. And while they want 'fresh' foods, they want to keep the foods longer. The consumer demand for high-quality convenient meals that require minimal preparation has resulted in an increase in refrigerated foods that are lightly processed to preserve flavor, texture, nutrients, and other quality factors. This has often been combined with packaging in a vacuum or modified atmosphere to help extend shelf-life....

Need for continuing surveillance

Underlying diseases have been investigated extensively as risk factors for foodborne illnesses on many occasions. However, the interaction between the humans and pathogens is dynamic and not static, so ongoing surveillance is necessary. For example, although gastric acid inhibitors may increase the number of people susceptible to enteric infections, antimicrobial treatment of peptic ulcer disease caused by H. pylori may decrease gastric acid inhibitor use. On the other hand, gastric acid...

Negative consequences of not using a technology

One technology that is only 'emerging' because of its limited application in the market is that of irradiation. Treatment of foods with ionizing radiation has been researched for decades. A report by the World Health Organization concluded that food irradiated to any dose to achieve the intended technological objective is safe to consume and nutritionally adequate (WHO, 1999). However, consumers associate the process with the negative effects of radiation on humans resulting from atomic bombs...

Microevolution in population of parasitic species

Microevolution is a set of evolutionary processes unfolding inside the populations of a particular species. Macroevolutionary novelties arise from mutations. At the level of the population, however, recombinants created in sexual reproduction as a consequence of genetic recombination and migrants introducing new alleles into the population from other populations represent a much more significant source of evolutionary novelties. While new mutations are mostly harmful, or neutral, for their...

References

AKHTAR M, WATSON JL, NAZLIA and McKAY DM (2003), 'Bacterial DNA evokes epithelial IL-8 production by a MAPK-dependent, NF-kappaB-independent pathway', FASEB J, 17(10), 1319-21. ALVARADO J, TAYLOR P, CASTILLO JR and THOMAS LE (2005), 'Interferon gamma bound to extracellular matrix changes the hyporesponsiveness to LPS in crypt but not villous intestinal epithelial cells', Immunol Lett, 99(1), 109-12. AUTENRIETH IB and FIRSCHINGR (1996), 'Penetration of M cells and destruction of Peyer's patches...

Reduction of preservatives

As a result of concerns about the potential for formation of carcinogenic nitrosamines in products containing nitrite, there have been numerous studies, reports, and debates about safe levels. However, nitrite serves as a means of preventing growth of Clostridium botulinum and is thus an important safety component of these products restricting its use presents an increased risk of botulism from cured products (Marriott et al., 1981 Tompkin, 1980). The residual level of nitrite in today's cured...

Mechanisms of invasion evasion and survival

Biological interests of the parasite and its host are in many respects antagonistic. Anything that enhances the biological fitness of the parasite usually reduces the biological fitness of its host. Most parasite adaptations take the form of arms that allow the parasite to overcome its host's defence mechanisms, while many adaptations of the host take the form of counter-arms designed to defend against specific and non-specific parasites. A parasite's most important defences include various...

Case study 141 Multistate outbreaks caused by oysters from Louisiana USA

In February 1996, 75 individuals from four states developed gastroenteritis from eating raw oysters harvested from Louisiana.17 Though the individuals consumed oysters at different gatherings, they all had the same strain of norovirus in stool samples. The Louisiana Department of Health and Hospitals determined that the implicated oysters had been harvested in South Black Bay. A visit to the South Black Bay area revealed a functioning oil rig that had eight employees sick with diarrhea and...

Viral genes and pathogenicity

Many recent insights into the pathogenic mechanisms of enteroviruses have come from the development of transgenic mouse models expressing the human poliovirus receptor.234 Mouse is a natural host of coxsackievirus (CV) and mouse models for the investigation of CV pathology have been extensively utilized.23 154 In addition, primate models for PV and HAV have been the source of much of the information currently available. In vitro studies with mammalian cells in culture, as well as in cell-free...

Vertical integration of agricultural production

Production in livestock agriculture occurs more and more within the framework of vertically integrated companies. These vertically integrated companies shift the decisions of what, where, and how to produce away from farmers and landowners and give the power to marketing entities. In vertical integration, a single firm controls administrative operation of two or more successive stages of production. In vertically integrated firms, management directives dictate the transfer of resources across...

Interactions between pathogens and the gastrointestinal mucosa

9.2.1 Intestinal M cells in foodborne infection Membranous epithelial (M) cells are specialised epithelial cells that reside in the follicle-associated epithelium (FAE) and are associated with underlying lymphoid tissue. These cells are characterised by reduced surface microvilli, a thin glycocalyx and an increased capacity to transcytose particles across the intestinal mucosa (Clark and Jepson, 2003) (Fig. 9.1). This mechanism of antigenic sampling is essential for the stimulation of...

Mucosal immune responses

Foodborne pathogens encounter the gastrointestinal mucosal surface, and must face the mucosal immune system as well as the physical barriers the location presents. The mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues (MALT) includes the GALT, a location reported to contain more lymphocytes than are found in the total content of all other secondary lymphoid organs (Nagler-Anderson, 2001). The GALT is composed of lymphoid aggregates, including the Peyer's patches (located mainly in the small intestinal distal...

Active packaging

Packaging of food has traditionally been used to contain the product, to protect it from contamination by microorganisms and insects, and to maintain quality by reducing the rate of oxidation and moisture loss or pickup. In addition to this passive role of packaging in food preservation, a new breed of packaging being developed is known as active or smart packaging. Active packaging interacts with the food and the atmosphere surrounding the food to create an environment that extends shelf-life...

Parasite invasion strategies

In the course of their evolution, parasite species have developed a whole series of extremely varied invasion mechanisms that allow them to invade host organisms successfully and overcome their defence systems. The best-known invasion mechanisms include the development of indirect life cycles, avoidance of immune system surveillance, molecular mimicry, immunosuppression, immunomodulation, and manipulation with the host's endocrine and neural systems. One of the most successful and widespread...

Implications and future studies 1461 Implications for prevention

Contamination of foods by enteric viruses usually occurs through fecal-oral transmission routes. Within the fecal-oral transmission routes, the manual handling of foods is the most significant contributor to foodborne disease. Therefore, the most straightforward measures to reduce the probability of food contamination and resulting outbreaks are to implement strict sanitation and hygiene protocols (e.g. emphasize hand-washing), agree on rules for the furloughing of sick food handlers and...

Consumer groups at risk of foodborne illness 221 Infants and children

Certain consumer groups are at high risk for acquiring foodborne illnesses. For example, infants and children are more highly susceptible to infections because of their immunological naivety. Repeated exposure to pathogens or immunizations creates antigenic memory as adaptive immunity matures. Therefore, the Table 2.2 Incidence of foodborne pathogen infection in children 20031'2 Table 2.2 Incidence of foodborne pathogen infection in children 20031'2 1 Cases per 100 000 population. 1 Cases per...

Crosscontamination and adequate cooking

In addition to transfer of pathogens by failure to wash hands prior to handling foods, hands contaminated during food preparation also can transfer pathogens to previously safe foods. This primary control factor differs from personal hygiene because the immediate source of the pathogen is the food rather than hands contaminated by non-food related routes. The critical control point for foods at risk for causing foodborne illnesses is either cross-contamination of foods eaten without additional...

Irradiation

One of the newer methods of food processing is irradiation - the exposure of foods to ionizing radiation such as gamma rays, X-rays, or electron beams. Radiation extends shelf-life by delaying ripening of fruits and vegetables or destroying spoilage microorganisms it inhibits sprouting of vegetables such as potatoes and onions and, most importantly for public health, it inactivates many pathogens. Although the benefits of irradiation in making food safer and more plentiful have been studied...

Parasites that are in the intestine and cross the intestinal barrier

Trichinella species are nematode parasites of most mammals, yet humans are more susceptible to developing clinical disease after infection. Currently, there are seven identified species of Trichinella however, the species usually associated with human infection is T. spiralis. All life cycle stages for this parasite occur within a single host. Transmission occurs after ingesting encysted larvae present in the skeletal muscle of a host. Following release from acid pepsin digestion in the...

Modulating host nonspecific defenses to foodborne pathogens

8.6.1 Can innate host defenses against foodborne pathogens be enhanced Strategies for bolstering defenses at the gut mucosal level that are currently receiving attention are the inclusion of probiotics and prebiotics in foods, including both traditional applications and nontraditional innovations. Yoghurt is perhaps the best-known traditional approach to the use of probiotic bacteria in foods, and much research has focused on the immunomodulatory actions of lactic acid bacteria as a result of...

Individuals with chronic disease

Chronic disease may increase risk of foodborne illnesses because of disease-associated immune suppression or pharmacological immune suppression. Advanced age and male gender were common descriptors of non-pregnancy associated cases of listeriosis in France (Goulet and Marchetti, 1996). Of the identified cases, the greatest risk of illness was found in patients who also had an immunosuppressing condition, such as diabetes mellitus, malignancy, organ transplantation, or AIDS. Diabetes leads to...

Increased susceptibility to enteric infections in those receiving gastric acid inhibitors

Hydrochloric acid is secreted in gastric juice by parietal cells in the stomach lining. This plays an important role in protecting the body from pathogens in food or water. In vivo and in vitro data documenting the bactericidal effects of gastric juice have been reviewed extensively (Smith, 2003 Martinsen et al., 2005). Decreased gastric acidity can occur through a variety of mechanisms. These include acquired disease states (atrophic gastritis) and surgery (vagotomy, gastric resection)....

Exposure assessment for foodborne pathogens

Rachman, Exponent, USA Foodborne illnesses have declined over much of the last century as the result of advances in processing and storage technologies such as pasteurization, canning, packaging and refrigeration, coupled with strong regulation of the food industry, increased hygiene and sanitation. The globalization of agriculture and food trade has also led to many benefits, including lower food prices for American consumers and year round access to a huge variety...

Globalization of the food supply and the influence of economic factors on the contamination of food with pathogens

Buzby, Economic Research Service, USDA, USA Evidence is lacking on whether the globalization of the food supply increases or decreases foodborne disease risks. As a first effort in understanding potential linkages, this chapter takes a broad view of the economic factors that influence human exposure to and infection with foodborne pathogens. As the foundation, this chapter looks at some of the demand-side and supply-side factors that have driven the substantial increase in international...

Listeriosis in pregnancy a risk to the woman and her newborn child

Listeria monocytogenes is a small Gram-positive bacillus that can be found in soil, decaying vegetation, and stool of mammals (Lorber, 2000). It is an infrequent cause of illness, but when it occurs, it can cause severe disease, including bacteremia and meningoencephalitis. Listeriosis tends to occur in pregnant women, their developing fetus or newborn child, and people with underlying illnesses. Active surveillance for listeriosis was performed for about 2 years from 1989 to 1990 in several...

Acquired immunity to foodborne pathogens

9.4.1 Antigen presentation and development of cytolytic CD8+ memory T cells in the GI tract It is clear that dendritic cells migrate from the intestine to the mesenteric lymph nodes in response to chemotactic signals (Kobayashi et al., 2004). In turn, signals produced by dendritic cells directly influence the migration of naive T cells to the GI tract by inducing T cell expression of the mucosal integrin a4 37 (Mora et al., 2003). In addition, T cells expressing the chemokine receptor CCR9 home...

Introduction evolutionary parasitology

Evolutionary parasitology studies evolutionary processes at intraspecific and interspecific levels in both parasite and host species. At the intraspecific level, it focuses in particular on changes in virulence, resistance against the host's defense mechanisms and against human therapeutic interventions, changes in life-history parameters arising from coevolutionary struggle with the host species, development of host specificity and development of resistance, tolerance and life-history...

The role of foodborne disease outbreaks in changing production and manufacturing processes

Unfortunately, in many instances it is an outbreak of foodborne illness that first alerts us to production and manufacturing processes that may be inadequate to control a foodborne pathogen. This can result in changes to the production or manufacturing process for specific products. Illnesses from E. coli 0157 H7 in sausages In 1994 an outbreak of illnesses due to E. coli 0157 H7 was attributed to dry-cured salami, a product produced by fermentation and drying (CDC, 1995a). USDA Food Safety and...

Food contamination during preparation

RTE foods are the main cause of foodborne illness. RTE foods are often contaminated by food handlers. Food handlers play an important role in transmission of foodborne viruses a recent review suggested they were the most common source of viral contamination of food.73 Food handlers generally cause single strain outbreaks. Food handlers may themselves be infected and contaminate food or may be uninfected but have contaminated hands (e.g. contact with sick relatives, working with contaminated...

Case study 143 Gastroenteritis at a university in Texas USA

In March 1998, the Texas Department of Health received a call reporting gastrointestinal illness in a student and his roommate at a university.176,177 Subsequent calls to local health facilities revealed 23 ill students at a local hospital and 20 ill students at the student health center in the previous day. Over several days, 125 students sought treatment at either health facility, and 65 were interviewed and reported vomiting (91 ), diarrhea (85 ), headache (66 ), myalgias (49 ), bloody...

Vaccine delivery and future research

One of the major goals of future research into mucosal immune responses is the development of oral vaccines that are capable of stimulating lasting systemic immunity as well as local mucosal immune responses. Such vaccines must stimulate active immunity rather than immunological tolerance and the immune responses induced must be appropriate for control of the target pathogen. Currently a limited number of oral vaccines are approved for human use these include the oral polio vaccine, a...

Parasite evasion strategies

Several basic evasion strategies can in general be distinguished, used by different parasite groups to a varying extent and in different specific forms. The principle of this strategy consists of the parasite's multiplying as fast as possible after having penetrated the host organism, to produce the maximum number of propagules and infect the maximum number of other host population members before the host builds a sufficiently effective immune response to eliminate the parasite. If the immunity...

Historical perspective on food processing Roman sausage to canning to space food

Early humans were hunters and gatherers. Getting food was a daily process, and food spoilage and foodborne illnesses must have been common. Agricultural production of grains and animal husbandry followed the hunting gathering stage, although hunting and gathering remained common means of obtaining food. Early forms of preservation such as salting, drying, smoking and fermenting were practiced long before people understood why they worked, and were likely discovered by accident. Although food...

Maximization of basic reproduction rate by optimization of virulence

The basic growth constant R0, or the average number of hosts infected by one infected host in a naive host population, is a critical parameter that determines biological fitness of members of a parasite species. This also largely determines the direction in which the microevolution of a parasite species will progress. In the course of microevolutionary processes, phenotypic properties increasing the R0 under given circumstances become fixed, while properties decreasing the R0 disappear. The...

Mass production of food

But does mass production of food increase or decrease the risk of infectious foodborne disease The answer is not clear cut and data are insufficient to reach an answer to which all can agree. Some claim that modern production methods that result in mass production of foods can lead to reduced costs and production efficiency but also can increase the chance of accidental contamination of foods and amplify their consequences (Morse, 1995). Claiming that the chance of accidental contamination is...

Foods for special uses

Food processors are aware of the special needs of consumers such as infants, the elderly final.doc), and immunocompromised patients. In addition to providing foods that are highly nutritious and meet physical requirements for chewing and swallowing, the foods may be produced with an extra degree of safety for these especially sensitive groups. Recently, Enterobacter sakazakii was recognized as a potential pathogen in powdered infant formula for infants under 2 months old (WHO, 2004). Processors...

Toxoplasmosis a foodborne disease without outbreaks

In 1998, the CDC convened a national workshop on toxoplasmosis (Lopez et al., 2000), which included many of the world's experts on the pathogen. In their findings, they reported an estimated 750 people died in the United States per year from toxoplasmosis, and about 50 of these were caused by eating contaminated meat. This made toxoplasmosis the third leading cause of foodborne deaths in the United States (after listeriosis and salmonellosis). The deaths have probably decreased since that time,...

Parasites that remain in the lumen of the intestine

Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichuria Ascaris lumbricoides and T. trichuria are two chronic intestinal soil-transmitted nematodes endemic in developing countries. Both reside within the lumen of the human intestine as adult parasites, although A. lumbricoides migrates through tissues in the body prior to settling again in the intestine. A. lumbricoides 'the large roundworm' is one of the most prevalent intestinal nematode parasites infecting almost a quarter of the world's population...

Future consumer trends

In the United States, there has been a trend away from at-home meal preparation and consumption toward meals eaten out of the home, or more recently, meals prepared away from home and consumed in home (Collins, 1997). The USDA Economic Research Service predicts that consumer spending in full-service restaurants will increase by 18 by 2020 and by 6 in the fast-food market (Stewart et al., 2004). Changes in demographics will drive the increase to fullservice vendors because of the trend toward...

Separation and specialization of crop and livestock agricultures and concentration of animal production on less land

As discussed in Chapter 3, the trend in the past 40 years has been for crop and livestock agricultures to separate. Farmers previously grew crops that were fed to their own or their neighbors' livestock. The livestock, in turn, produced manure and waste products that fertilized subsequent crop production on the same farm or neighboring cropland. The trend has been away from dual production farms and towards specialization in one type of agriculture. Farmers who specialize in crop production...

Food safety risks

(Changes in the bundle of global foodborne disease hazards) Consumption changes driven by changes in countries' per capita income levels are the most important factors explaining historical changes in the composition of global food trade. Evidence of this was verified by simulating the individual contribution of household income, changes in factors of production, policy, and transportation costs on the changing composition of food trade from 1980 to 1995 (Coyle et al, 2001 Gehlhar and Coyle,...

Introduction epidemiology of parasitic diseases

Food and water are essential elements for life. Unfortunately, they can also be the transmission vehicle for most intestinal protozoan and helminth parasitic disease throughout the world. These diseases can range from intestinal disturbances to infections in one's liver, lungs, muscle tissues, and brain (see Tables 16.1 and 16.2). Accurate prevalence data for parasitic infections worldwide are unknown owing to the lack of reporting however, some groups of organisms have estimated prevalences,...

References and further reading

ADAMS M R and MOSS M O (2000), Food Microbiology, 2nd edition, Royal Society of Chemistry. AKIRA S and TAKEDA K (2004), Toll-like receptor signaling, Nature Rev Immunol, 4, 499511. ANDREWS S C, ROBINSON A K and RODRIGUEZ-QUINONES F (2003), Bacterial iron homeostasis, FEMS Microbiol Rev, 27, 215-237. ASAHARA T, TAKAHASI M, NOMOT K, TAKAYAMA H, ONOUE M, MOROTOMI M, TANAKA R, YOKOKURA T and YAMASHITA N (2003), Assessment of safety of Lactobacillus strains based on resistance to host innate defense...

Cytopathic effect CPE

The development of morphologic changes related to CPE in an infected cell is the subject of numerous reviews.185'205'289 The secondary effects of viral gene expression replication on host cell macromolecular structures and or metabolism can ultimately lead to CPE by effecting changes in cell morphology such as cell rounding' cell lysis' syncytium formation' and inclusion body formation. The induction of CPE in cultured cells may or may not have a direct mechanistic relationship to the...

Virus binding and cell surface receptors

Once within the host, viruses gain entry into the target cell population by the interaction between the viral capsid and receptors and co-receptors on the cell surface.90,318 Receptors and co-receptors involved in virus binding are listed for selected enteric viruses in Table 15.2. Many of these cell receptors participate in cell-specific functions such as signal transduction (e.g. DAF CD55, integrins), cell-to-cell interactions (e.g. HBGAs, JAM), receptor-mediated uptake of nutrients metabolic...

Personal hygiene practices of consumers

Personal hygiene includes cleanliness of the hands, hair, clothing, and body in general. Hand washing is most frequently the sentinel behavior for assessment of personal hygiene in consumer food safety studies. From a Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) perspective, the critical control point for ensuring the safety of foods that are prepared to be served without heating is personal hygiene. Controlling the transfer of pathogens from the hands to food is important for almost all...

Consumer preferences and public health

The twentieth century saw dramatic changes in the way food was consumed. In the early years of the twentieth century, meals were primarily prepared at home from locally produced raw ingredients. Many items were seasonal. The processed food industry changed all that - consumers could enjoy seasonal fruits and vegetables year round as a result of the widespread availability of canned and frozen items and the development of improved transportation and refrigeration. Food markets changed also, from...

Using surveillance data to characterize and analyze risk factors for foodborne illness

Moore, NCSU, USA, R. Morales, USDA, USA and A. Vicari, Pan American Health Organization, USA Over the past decade, intensified public health efforts have reduced the incidence of foodborne illness in the United States. Nevertheless, with ever-changing food industry practices, consumer eating habits, and sociodemographic patterns, new pathogenic agents emerge and known agents take on new importance. In this chapter, we will discuss the role that epidemiological...

The role of HACCP in the production of safe food

HACCP is a systematic framework for identifying hazards of concern in a product, determining the points critical to control the hazard during production, applying appropriate controls, and documenting delivery of the control parameters. The successful application of HACCP depends on understanding the hazards e.g. a pathogen , the sources of contamination, and the effects of processing steps on the hazard. HACCP was developed by the Pillsbury Company, the US Army Natick Laboratories and the...