Listeriosis in pregnancy a risk to the woman and her newborn child

Listeria monocytogenes is a small Gram-positive bacillus that can be found in soil, decaying vegetation, and stool of mammals (Lorber, 2000). It is an infrequent cause of illness, but when it occurs, it can cause severe disease, including bacteremia and meningoencephalitis. Listeriosis tends to occur in pregnant women, their developing fetus or newborn child, and people with underlying illnesses. Active surveillance for listeriosis was performed for about 2 years from 1989 to 1990 in several...

Acquired immunity to foodborne pathogens

9.4.1 Antigen presentation and development of cytolytic CD8+ memory T cells in the GI tract It is clear that dendritic cells migrate from the intestine to the mesenteric lymph nodes in response to chemotactic signals (Kobayashi et al., 2004). In turn, signals produced by dendritic cells directly influence the migration of naive T cells to the GI tract by inducing T cell expression of the mucosal integrin a4 37 (Mora et al., 2003). In addition, T cells expressing the chemokine receptor CCR9 home...

Introduction evolutionary parasitology

Evolutionary parasitology studies evolutionary processes at intraspecific and interspecific levels in both parasite and host species. At the intraspecific level, it focuses in particular on changes in virulence, resistance against the host's defense mechanisms and against human therapeutic interventions, changes in life-history parameters arising from coevolutionary struggle with the host species, development of host specificity and development of resistance, tolerance and life-history...

References

Food-related illness and death in the United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1999 5(5) 607-625. 2. CARTER MJ. Enterically infecting viruses pathogenicity, transmission and significance for food and waterborne infection. Journal of Applied Microbiology. 2005 98(6) 1354-1380. 3. FIORE AE. Hepatitis A transmitted by food. Clinical Infectious Diseases. Mar 1 2004 38(5) 705-715. 4. RZEZUTKA A, COOK N. Survival of human enteric viruses in the environment and...

The role of foodborne disease outbreaks in changing production and manufacturing processes

Unfortunately, in many instances it is an outbreak of foodborne illness that first alerts us to production and manufacturing processes that may be inadequate to control a foodborne pathogen. This can result in changes to the production or manufacturing process for specific products. Illnesses from E. coli 0157 H7 in sausages In 1994 an outbreak of illnesses due to E. coli 0157 H7 was attributed to dry-cured salami, a product produced by fermentation and drying (CDC, 1995a). USDA Food Safety and...

Food contamination during preparation

RTE foods are the main cause of foodborne illness. RTE foods are often contaminated by food handlers. Food handlers play an important role in transmission of foodborne viruses a recent review suggested they were the most common source of viral contamination of food.73 Food handlers generally cause single strain outbreaks. Food handlers may themselves be infected and contaminate food or may be uninfected but have contaminated hands (e.g. contact with sick relatives, working with contaminated...

Case study 143 Gastroenteritis at a university in Texas USA

In March 1998, the Texas Department of Health received a call reporting gastrointestinal illness in a student and his roommate at a university.176,177 Subsequent calls to local health facilities revealed 23 ill students at a local hospital and 20 ill students at the student health center in the previous day. Over several days, 125 students sought treatment at either health facility, and 65 were interviewed and reported vomiting (91 ), diarrhea (85 ), headache (66 ), myalgias (49 ), bloody...

Vaccine delivery and future research

One of the major goals of future research into mucosal immune responses is the development of oral vaccines that are capable of stimulating lasting systemic immunity as well as local mucosal immune responses. Such vaccines must stimulate active immunity rather than immunological tolerance and the immune responses induced must be appropriate for control of the target pathogen. Currently a limited number of oral vaccines are approved for human use these include the oral polio vaccine, a...

Parasite evasion strategies

Several basic evasion strategies can in general be distinguished, used by different parasite groups to a varying extent and in different specific forms. The principle of this strategy consists of the parasite's multiplying as fast as possible after having penetrated the host organism, to produce the maximum number of propagules and infect the maximum number of other host population members before the host builds a sufficiently effective immune response to eliminate the parasite. If the immunity...

Historical perspective on food processing Roman sausage to canning to space food

Early humans were hunters and gatherers. Getting food was a daily process, and food spoilage and foodborne illnesses must have been common. Agricultural production of grains and animal husbandry followed the hunting gathering stage, although hunting and gathering remained common means of obtaining food. Early forms of preservation such as salting, drying, smoking and fermenting were practiced long before people understood why they worked, and were likely discovered by accident. Although food...

Maximization of basic reproduction rate by optimization of virulence

The basic growth constant R0, or the average number of hosts infected by one infected host in a naive host population, is a critical parameter that determines biological fitness of members of a parasite species. This also largely determines the direction in which the microevolution of a parasite species will progress. In the course of microevolutionary processes, phenotypic properties increasing the R0 under given circumstances become fixed, while properties decreasing the R0 disappear. The...

Mass production of food

But does mass production of food increase or decrease the risk of infectious foodborne disease The answer is not clear cut and data are insufficient to reach an answer to which all can agree. Some claim that modern production methods that result in mass production of foods can lead to reduced costs and production efficiency but also can increase the chance of accidental contamination of foods and amplify their consequences (Morse, 1995). Claiming that the chance of accidental contamination is...

Foods for special uses

Food processors are aware of the special needs of consumers such as infants, the elderly final.doc), and immunocompromised patients. In addition to providing foods that are highly nutritious and meet physical requirements for chewing and swallowing, the foods may be produced with an extra degree of safety for these especially sensitive groups. Recently, Enterobacter sakazakii was recognized as a potential pathogen in powdered infant formula for infants under 2 months old (WHO, 2004). Processors...

Toxoplasmosis a foodborne disease without outbreaks

In 1998, the CDC convened a national workshop on toxoplasmosis (Lopez et al., 2000), which included many of the world's experts on the pathogen. In their findings, they reported an estimated 750 people died in the United States per year from toxoplasmosis, and about 50 of these were caused by eating contaminated meat. This made toxoplasmosis the third leading cause of foodborne deaths in the United States (after listeriosis and salmonellosis). The deaths have probably decreased since that time,...

Parasites that remain in the lumen of the intestine

Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichuria Ascaris lumbricoides and T. trichuria are two chronic intestinal soil-transmitted nematodes endemic in developing countries. Both reside within the lumen of the human intestine as adult parasites, although A. lumbricoides migrates through tissues in the body prior to settling again in the intestine. A. lumbricoides 'the large roundworm' is one of the most prevalent intestinal nematode parasites infecting almost a quarter of the world's population...

Future consumer trends

In the United States, there has been a trend away from at-home meal preparation and consumption toward meals eaten out of the home, or more recently, meals prepared away from home and consumed in home (Collins, 1997). The USDA Economic Research Service predicts that consumer spending in full-service restaurants will increase by 18 by 2020 and by 6 in the fast-food market (Stewart et al., 2004). Changes in demographics will drive the increase to fullservice vendors because of the trend toward...

Separation and specialization of crop and livestock agricultures and concentration of animal production on less land

As discussed in Chapter 3, the trend in the past 40 years has been for crop and livestock agricultures to separate. Farmers previously grew crops that were fed to their own or their neighbors' livestock. The livestock, in turn, produced manure and waste products that fertilized subsequent crop production on the same farm or neighboring cropland. The trend has been away from dual production farms and towards specialization in one type of agriculture. Farmers who specialize in crop production...

Food safety risks

(Changes in the bundle of global foodborne disease hazards) Consumption changes driven by changes in countries' per capita income levels are the most important factors explaining historical changes in the composition of global food trade. Evidence of this was verified by simulating the individual contribution of household income, changes in factors of production, policy, and transportation costs on the changing composition of food trade from 1980 to 1995 (Coyle et al, 2001 Gehlhar and Coyle,...

Introduction epidemiology of parasitic diseases

Food and water are essential elements for life. Unfortunately, they can also be the transmission vehicle for most intestinal protozoan and helminth parasitic disease throughout the world. These diseases can range from intestinal disturbances to infections in one's liver, lungs, muscle tissues, and brain (see Tables 16.1 and 16.2). Accurate prevalence data for parasitic infections worldwide are unknown owing to the lack of reporting however, some groups of organisms have estimated prevalences,...

References and further reading

ADAMS M R and MOSS M O (2000), Food Microbiology, 2nd edition, Royal Society of Chemistry. AKIRA S and TAKEDA K (2004), Toll-like receptor signaling, Nature Rev Immunol, 4, 499511. ANDREWS S C, ROBINSON A K and RODRIGUEZ-QUINONES F (2003), Bacterial iron homeostasis, FEMS Microbiol Rev, 27, 215-237. ASAHARA T, TAKAHASI M, NOMOT K, TAKAYAMA H, ONOUE M, MOROTOMI M, TANAKA R, YOKOKURA T and YAMASHITA N (2003), Assessment of safety of Lactobacillus strains based on resistance to host innate defense...

Cytopathic effect CPE

The development of morphologic changes related to CPE in an infected cell is the subject of numerous reviews.185'205'289 The secondary effects of viral gene expression replication on host cell macromolecular structures and or metabolism can ultimately lead to CPE by effecting changes in cell morphology such as cell rounding' cell lysis' syncytium formation' and inclusion body formation. The induction of CPE in cultured cells may or may not have a direct mechanistic relationship to the...

Virus binding and cell surface receptors

Once within the host, viruses gain entry into the target cell population by the interaction between the viral capsid and receptors and co-receptors on the cell surface.90,318 Receptors and co-receptors involved in virus binding are listed for selected enteric viruses in Table 15.2. Many of these cell receptors participate in cell-specific functions such as signal transduction (e.g. DAF CD55, integrins), cell-to-cell interactions (e.g. HBGAs, JAM), receptor-mediated uptake of nutrients metabolic...

Personal hygiene practices of consumers

Personal hygiene includes cleanliness of the hands, hair, clothing, and body in general. Hand washing is most frequently the sentinel behavior for assessment of personal hygiene in consumer food safety studies. From a Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) perspective, the critical control point for ensuring the safety of foods that are prepared to be served without heating is personal hygiene. Controlling the transfer of pathogens from the hands to food is important for almost all...

Consumer preferences and public health

The twentieth century saw dramatic changes in the way food was consumed. In the early years of the twentieth century, meals were primarily prepared at home from locally produced raw ingredients. Many items were seasonal. The processed food industry changed all that - consumers could enjoy seasonal fruits and vegetables year round as a result of the widespread availability of canned and frozen items and the development of improved transportation and refrigeration. Food markets changed also, from...

Using surveillance data to characterize and analyze risk factors for foodborne illness

Moore, NCSU, USA, R. Morales, USDA, USA and A. Vicari, Pan American Health Organization, USA Over the past decade, intensified public health efforts have reduced the incidence of foodborne illness in the United States. Nevertheless, with ever-changing food industry practices, consumer eating habits, and sociodemographic patterns, new pathogenic agents emerge and known agents take on new importance. In this chapter, we will discuss the role that epidemiological...

The role of HACCP in the production of safe food

HACCP is a systematic framework for identifying hazards of concern in a product, determining the points critical to control the hazard during production, applying appropriate controls, and documenting delivery of the control parameters. The successful application of HACCP depends on understanding the hazards e.g. a pathogen , the sources of contamination, and the effects of processing steps on the hazard. HACCP was developed by the Pillsbury Company, the US Army Natick Laboratories and the...