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Alternative Medicine Complementary Medicine and Integrative Medicine

The terms alternative medicine and alternative therapies refer to those medical practices that are not considered to be conventional medicine, as practiced in the United States. Other cultures, however, may use one or more of these approaches regularly, and, in fact, many have done so for thousands of years. Most people in the United States who use alternative medicine do so to complement conventional approaches. For example, in addition to using anti-inflammatory drugs to ease muscle pain, they may also use massage, chiropractic, and or osteopathic manipulation. This practice of complementing conventional medicine with alternative approaches has given rise to the term complementary medicine. Presently, alternative medicine is most commonly referred to as complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). As conventional medical practitioners become familiar with alternative approaches, these approaches are being integrated into conventional medicine, which is giving rise to integrative...

Alternative Medicine Foundation

The Alternative Medicine Foundation, located in Bethesda, Maryland, is a nonprofit organization committed to providing health practitio ners and consumers with reliable information about the safety and effectiveness of alternative medicine therapies. It publishes the Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine, a peer-reviewed journal, and maintains the unique HerbMed database that summarizes evidence on the efficacy of herbal therapies (see the HerbMed entry in Chapter 9).

The Center for Alternative Medicine Evaluation and Research in Arthritis CAMERA

In 1999, the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) awarded a 7.8 million grant to the University of Maryland to establish a center for alternative medicine research in arthritis and related disorders. The Center for Alternative Medicine Evaluation and Research in Arthritis (CAMERA) is housed within the Complementary Medicine Program (CMP). Though the focus is currently on investigating the use of acupuncture, future projects involve studies with botanicals, including traditional Chinese herbal formulas. CAMERA produces the Complementary and Alternative Medicine Pain Database (CAMPAIN) (see the corresponding entry in Chapter 13).

Enhancing the Accountability of Alternative Medicine Report

The Milbank Memorial Fund is an endowed national foundation that supports nonpartisan analysis and study of, and research on, significant issues in health policy. This report, published in January 1998, deals with the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in the United States today, with a focus on how to increase the accountability of CAM practitioners. It covers the major types of CAM practice with information on regulation and reimbursement.

Complementary and Alternative Medicine Pain Therapies

Complementary and alternative medicine therapies may help with pain, and many are focused on relieving this symptom. As noted in Chapter 6, CAM is a reasonable option if the risks are minimal and the cost is not prohibitive. Many of the CAM treatments that have been shown to be helpful in cancer patients are offered at hospitals and centers that have oncology clinics. For example, acupuncture and massage are

Complementary Or Alternative Medicine

In discussing the use of CAM therapies by patients with life-threatening conditions such as AIDS or cancer, it is useful first to clarify the distinction between complementary medicine and alternative medicine. The terms complementary medicine and alternative medicine are often used interchangeably, but there are important distinctions. Alternative therapies are just that, and these are usually promoted as being valid treatment options apart from those offered by conventional medicine, indicating that either treatment approach might be effective. Complementary, however, suggests the use of therapies that can be used alongside mainstream medical treatments. Ginger (Zingiber officinale), for example, is often advocated as being beneficial for reducing nausea and vomiting. It is currently being investigated for the relief of postoperative and chemotherapy-induced nausea.1,2

Alternative Medicine Research Mailing List

This list was created to promote discussion and collaboration in the emerging field of alternative medicine research. Pertinent topics include new findings, methodological issues, announcements of upcoming research conferences and seminars, and requests for information or collaboration regarding proposed studies. To subscribe to the list, send an e-mail message to < majordomo Virginia.edu> . In

The Richard and Hinda Rosenthal Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine

The Richard and Hinda Rosenthal Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine was established in 1993 by Columbia University's College of Physicians and Surgeons. In addition to promoting and conducting research into alternative and complementary therapies, it provides comprehensive information on alternative and complementary health care practices. The center's Web site provides information on a wide range of resources for researchers, health care practitioners, and the public. Physicians and medical students will find valuable information about residency and fellowship programs The Rosenthal Center was awarded a grant from the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) to develop a New Center for CAM Research in Aging and Women's Health (see the corresponding entry in this chapter). It has also established a Cancer Information Center to make available reliable information on CAM cancer therapies.

Alternative Medicine

A lternative and complementary medicine (CAM) are two different but interrelated approaches to health. Alternative medicine refers to those therapeutic practices, systems, and products that are employed instead of conventional or allopathic medical means, while complementary medicine refers to those practices used in conjunction with allopathic (medical) treatment. Conventional or allopathic medicine is practiced by MDs (doctors of medicine) or DOs (doctors of osteopathy) and their allied health professionals. Ayurveda, acupuncture, and homeopathy fall into the category of alternative medicine, as they are based on systems of medicine radically different to the allopathic approach. Yoga and meditation, for example, would be characterized as complementary therapies in that many hospitals and medical centers incorporate them into their treatment programs. and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM), diets such as the Atkins, Zone and Ornish diets fall into the category of CAM, though they form...

Herbal Information And The Internet

Educating health professionals and consumers to assess the quality of health-related information found on Web sites has now become something of a priority. This particularly applies to herbal medicine and other areas of alternative medicine because of the current lack of established authoritative resources. Furthermore, it should be remembered that the World Wide Web is only one section of the Internet access to much valuable data on the use of herbs exists also in the more informal milieus of electronic mailing lists or newsgroup postings, where information is often anecdotal and difficult to evaluate.

Modern Health Science

The survey done by the American Medical Association on the use of alternative medicine toward the end of the twentieth century clearly indicated that American people were shifting their expectation and trust to alternative medicine because the annual medical expenditure on complementary and alternative medicine was even greater than that spent on family medicine (9,10). The most influential research institute in the United States, the National Institutes of Health, first held a consensus conference on acupuncture in which the efficacy of acupuncture as a means of pain control was endorsed and recommended then a special section, the National Center for Complementary Alternative Medicine (NCCAM), with a reasonable budget, was established (11,12). There was political endorsement by the White House Commission, followed by the establishment of different regional CAM centers with given specific assignments such as aging problems, women's health, or arthritis. There is sufficient evidence to...

Ivcan The Two Systems Of Health Care Coexist

Acceptance of the value of science is universal. The reliance on science and technology as essential requirements for normal daily activities is a fact of modern life. Patients have the freedom to choose an appropriate format of treatment they prefer. Their choice is subjective and personal while at the same time they are influenced by obvious cultural, social, and economic forces. We have good evidence to confirm that today's patients have an inclination toward accepting both scientific and alternative medicine. If modern scientific practitioners take this inclination as something that arises out of superstition or cultural stubbornness or assumes that the patients are just the victims of advertising, they would not be keen to try to learn something from the alternative stream, not to speak about utilizing the alternative stream (13). Nevertheless, with the increasing demand for alternative care among patients, there coexists an increasing curiosity among the modern practitioners who...

Problems Expected In An Integrated Setting A Adverse Effects of Herbal Preparations

While alternative medicine is finding more users and health food and related preparations are gaining a bigger market, adverse effects occurring after their consumption have been making headlines ever since. Thus antirheumatoid herbal preparations were found to be nephrotoxic in the Netherlands, and many mortalities have been reported in Japan, China, and Singapore after ingestion of slimming preparations. Expectedly, disasters could be related to the illegal, intentional mixing of dangerous drugs or real, unintentional contaminations. However, the lack of full awareness of adverse effects and a deficiency of records of adverse effects with herbal consumptions are real problems experienced by those who try to selectively use herbal preparations or formulae to solve difficult problems in day-to-day practice.

Presentday Cultivation And Usage

A concoction of seeds in hot water is used as a carminative, antiseptic, diuretic and digestive, and as a folk remedy for insomnia and constipation (Bisset, 1994). Several therapeutic effects, including for digestive disorders, gynecological problems and dyspnea, as well as anticonvulsant and anti-asthma effects were described for the seeds of Pimpinella anisum L. in ancient medical books (Aboabrahim, 1970). Aniseeds possess expectorant, antispasmodic, carminative, and parasiticidal properties. In traditional medicine, the drug is used internally for bronchial catarrh, pertussis, spasmodic cough, and flatulent colic, and externally for pediculosis and scabies. Furthermore, it is used as an estrogenic agent. It increases milk secretion, and promotes menstruation (Barnes et al., 2002) (Figure 20.2).

Selecting a CAM Modality

Why Patients Use Alternative Medicine Results of a National Study. Journal of the American Medical Association 279 1548-1553. Eisenberg, David M. Davis, Roger B. Ettner, Susan L. Appel, Scott Wilkey, Sonja Van Rompay, Maria Kessler, Ronald C. (1998). Trends in Alternative Medicine Use in the United States, 1990-1997 Results of a Follow-Up National Survey. National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine. < http www.nccam. nih.gov>

Traditional versus Nontraditional Medicine

To make educated choices about treatment options, it is helpful to understand what it means when a treatment is considered to be mainstream medicine versus complementary or alternative medicine. (Chapter 6 more fully explores nontraditional therapies.) Traditional medicine is based on research that has demonstrated, usually in more than one study conducted in different geographic regions by different scientists, that a particular treatment is beneficial. The process is arduous, requiring a great deal of peer review from the medical and scientific community, for a treatment (whether it is a drug or a surgery or some other intervention) to be approved and accepted by medical doctors. The Food and Drug Administration, a government agency, plays a significant role in the approval of new medications. This thorough process does not mean that the treatment has no side effects or risks. Rather, it shows that the remedy's potential to help is greater than the potential harmful effects. We know...

Understanding Complementary or Alternative Treatments

Alternative treatments include a wide variety of remedies, supplements, and techniques commonly thought to be outside the scope of conventional medicine and used instead of conventional therapies. Today, however, more and more major hospitals are establishing centers for alternative medicine and allowing many alternative treatments to be used in conjunction with traditional medicine. Consequently, the distinction between conventional and alternative medicine is becoming blurred, and complementary and alternative medicine (or CAM) is gaining in popularity.

The Appeal Of Alternative Treatments

Recent surveys have shown that over 50 percent of people with MS utilize some form of alternative medicine in addition to the conventional medicine recommended by their physicians. The reasons given were to improve quality of life and to enhance overall health and sense of well-being. These patients were not looking for a cure. Respondents report both positive and negative experiences with alternative treatments. But because MS is a disease in which symptoms commonly go into remission spontaneously, it is difficult to determine whether any treatment, traditional or alternative, is responsible for a remission.

Universityaffiliated Nonprofit And Other Research Institutions

The previous chapter was primarily devoted to those organizations and associations working within what can be regarded as the traditional herbal movement. In the United States, this movement has largely operated on the fringes of mainstream Western medicine. Historically, allopathic physicians in the United States have vigorously fought CAM practices, denouncing them as quackery and attacking them for being unscientific.1 (Throughout this book, I prefer to use the term Complementary and Alternative Medicine, or CAM, to refer to what is generally called alternative medicine. See the glossary for a definition of CAM and allopathy.) However, whatever the views of allopathic physicians, a sizable section of the American public is turning to CAM practitioners. This has forced mainstream health organizations and medicine to reexamine CAM therapies, assessing their effectiveness and trying to determine how best to incorporate them into the routine practice of medicine. A recent article...

Advice from the Experts

At any juncture in your treatment or recovery, it is a wise idea to check in with a registered dietitian who specializes in oncology. She or he can offer invaluable tips based on your diagnosis, the treatment you have undergone, your current diet and weight, and other factors that are individual to you. Many people without any legitimate training or credentials offer nutrition advice. When seeking advice from a professional, you need to ask whether the person is a Registered Dietitian (RD) or a Licensed Dietitian (LD or LDN), or both. Registered and Licensed Dietitians have completed required coursework, passed a professional qualifying examination, and maintain registration via regular yearly studies verified by the American Dietetic Association and the state they live in. Other good sources of information on diet and nutrition are the National Cancer Institute and the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine, which are both listed in the Appendix. The book Eating...

Considering Alternative Remedies and Treatments

Illions of people rely on alternative remedies and treatments to help them with their chronic ailments, and patients with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) are even more frequent users of alternative therapies. A study of 13,792 patients with fibromyalgia (reported in a 2007 issue of Arthritis & Rheumatism) revealed that 56 percent had used some form of alternative medicine, compared to 21 percent of the 41,427 people in the control group who didn't have fibromyalgia. So, if you've tried one or more forms of alternative medicine to ease your symptoms of FMS, you're definitely not alone For further information on alternative medicine, go to the Web site of the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine at http nccam.nih.gov. You can read more on such topics as acupuncture, dietary supplements, herbs, and other choices.

University of Arizona Program in Integrative Medicine

Many medical institutions in the United States, including medical schools, are beginning to approach CAM through what is known as integrative medicine. Integrative medicine seeks to combine the best of both traditional Western medicine and nontraditional alternative medicine approaches and techniques to address the biological, psychological, social, and spiritual aspects of health and illness.

Complementary and Alternative Therapies

Many persons with FM turn to providers of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). CAM providers are consistently ranked highly by FM patients. Unfortunately, the studies on the efficacy of CAM therapies in FM are somewhat inconsistent. Nonetheless, many patients experience relief from alternative medicines, and CAM treatments can be considered additionally helpful in restoring hope and confidence for the future this outcome should not be

Evidencebased Medicine

The current trend toward EMB has ramifications for complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) remedies and techniques. Critics of CAM insist that an evidence-based medicine approach be used to establish that these therapies actually work. Federal agencies such as the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) and the Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS) are thus spending large sums of money to conduct clinical trials for herbal therapies, and corporate sponsorship of research is on the rise. The Cochrane Collaboration, serving as a major resource for EMB, has even established a special complementary medicine group to locate and analyze clinical trail data for CAM therapies (see entry in this chapter).

Regulatorypolicy Issues

Free access to alternative therapies that have been clearly mandated by the public. Perhaps an appropriate approach would be to classify natural products with established pharmacological actions and acceptable evidence of safety and efficacy as neither food nor drugs, but as a third category of ''traditional or alternative medicines,'' with regulatory requirements that are intermediate between drugs and nutritional supplements. This approach could be modeled after alternative medicine regulatory frameworks in other countries such as Germany and Japan, where herbal medicines are commonly prescribed and used.

Good Housekeeping Magazine

Good Housekeeping is known for providing a quality seal to consumer products, ranging from dishwashers to clothing, and has recently ventured into the area of complementary and alternative medicine. The Good Housekeeping Seal of Approval has been alerting American consumers as to product quality for almost a century. Companies are allowed to put the seal on their products following a review by the Good Housekeeping Institute. It is customary for the magazine to test products before accepting advertising, and it now requires di

Read The Label Carefully And Dont Believe Everything You Hear

Many people assume that physicians are automatically against anything they did not prescribe. Literature on alternative medicine may even contain a statement such as Doctors are not going to give you this because it will cure you. Then you will not have to go back and they will not make any money. Nothing could be further from the truth. If peanut butter from the supermarket cured arthritis, I'd be thrilled to send my patients straight to the checkout counter. In the sections that follow, I discuss vitamin and mineral supplementation, alternative diets, dietary supplements, and herbal cures. Some I favor others I oppose.

The Literature On

Government-funded centers, such as the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) and the Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS), have begun to tackle some of the problems mentioned by producing new online information resources specifically designed for retrieving CAM information, such as the IBIDS database and CAM on PubMed. Other organizations, such as the Southwest School of Botanical Medicine, have made available elec

Alternative Treatments

In May 2008, medical journalist Susan Aldridge reported, A survey within Europe reveals that one cancer patient in three is using some kind of complementary or alternative medicine. The number in the United States is even higher, and users tend to be younger, to be female and to have cancer of the bone, brain, pancreas or liver in other words, those cancers with a poorer prognosis.27

Cancer NetPhysician Data Query PDQ

Go to the Treatment section for its Complementary and Alternative Medicine Summaries document for mistletoe (Viscum album L.). This CAM information summary provides an overview of the use of mistletoe as a treatment for cancer, including a history of mistletoe research, results of clinical trials, and possible side effects of mistletoe use.

Ethical Considerations for Care

Finally, when traditional medical wisdom fails, some patients may turn to alternative medicine. There are many questionable products on the market that make extraordinary health claims, and caution is required. These products are often overpriced and marketed with misleading claims, and should therefore be considered carefully before use. see also Food Safety Immune System Malnutrition.

Bastyr University AIDS Research Center BUARC

BUARC was established in 1994 under a cooperative grant from NIH's National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease (NIAID) and the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM). Its mission is not only to screen and evaluate CAM therapies but to provide consultation and support to the medical and research community in the scientific evaluation of CAM therapies. A pilot grant program is currently funding studies on a number of botanical extracts, including Chinese herbs and licorice root (Glycyr-rhiza glabra).

Defining Alternative Therapies

There is also considerable confusion about whether to classify the numerous therapies available as alternative or conventional. For instance, chiropractics, often labeled as alternative, has gained wider acceptance among Western society such that it is frequently considered to be conventional by many Western laypersons and has always been viewed as such by most European societies. In fact, what is typically viewed as alternative by Western society is often accepted as mainstream therapy by non-Western societies. The frame of reference or culture may determine whether a particular therapy is defined as conventional or alternative. In 1995, the Office of Alternative Medicine in an effort to alleviate some of this confusion came up with the following definition

Trail Russell Thacker 181277 Physician writer educator

Thacker was a friend of Sylvester Graham whose Graham flour he advocated, and was a pioneer and advocate of alternative medicine and gymnastics (Nissenbaum 1980). He believed that allopathic drugs made people weaker and that rest, vegetarian diet, and exercise, combined with treatments like massage and hydro-therapy (water cure) were the proper means of achieving and maintaining health (Pioneers of the North American Natural Health Movement). Diet was at the center of his concern. As with most of the early nineteenth-century reformers in the age of the evangelical movement's millennialist message, he advocated diet reform in order to reform society as well as the individual. Thus, in his Hydropathic Cook-Book (1863), he condemned the diet suggested by Catharine Beecher as the wine and brandy she commends in her cakes, and pies, and pudding sauces are better calculated to make men drunkards, than to render them wise in choosing (Trall i863 ix). His views match those of other health and...

The Need For Evidencebased Research

Many users of CAM fail to question the potential harm or benefit of such therapies. There is a tendency of laypersons and many alternative medicine practitioners to view anything labeled as alternative, natural, or holistic as safe. This is a false assumption and should not be made regarding any therapy. There is nothing natural about chelating minerals out of or injecting glutathione or acupuncture needles into a person's body. Conventional medicine demands that its prescribed treatments be carefully scrutinized by evidence-based research, mostly in the form of randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials. These trials scientifically examine both the short and long-term adverse events and potential efficacy of the treatment and also determine detailed guidelines and standards for prescribing a particular therapy. A large discrepancy exists between the popularity of CAM and the concern or interest among its many users and prescribers for good evidence-based research....

Main uses in food processing and medicine 1441 General

There are various reports on the traditional medicinal uses European oregano has as a carminative, diaphoretic, expectorant, emmenagogue, stimulant, stomachic and tonic. In addition, it has been used as a folk remedy against colic, coughs, headaches, nervousness, toothaches and irregular menstrual cycles. Turkish villagers have traditionally used kekik water, the aromatic water obtained after removing essential oil from the distillate of oregano herbs, which has in recent years become a commercial commodity (Baser, 2002 Kintzios, 2002a). Although the monograph documentation of O. vulgare was submitted to the German Ministry of Health, the staff responsible for phytotherapeutic medicinal domain -Commission E - evaluated Origani vulgaris herba negatively (Banz. No. 122 from 6th July 1988), because of lack of scientific proof for a number of indication areas (Blumenthal, 1998). Nevertheless, many of the studies confirmed benefits of oregano for human health and its use for the treatment...

Linda A Jacobs Jane Alavi Angela DeMichele Steven Palmer Carrie Stricker and David Vaughn

In 2001 the LAF provided funding to support the development of an adult cancer survivorship program at the Abramson Cancer Center of the University of Pennsylvania. As a dedicated cancer survivorship program embedded within an NCI-designated Cancer Center, the LAF LWAC Program is the first adult cancer survivorship program in a specialty care setting. Dr. Anna Meadows of The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, acquired the funding through a grant proposal to the LAF, and Linda Jacobs, PhD, RN was recruited to direct the development and all aspects of the program. The multidisciplinary composition of the LAF LWAC Program team has expanded over time and the director's leadership remains the central organizing element. Members of the team include the director of the program, an oncology advanced practice nurse who is a doctoral student studying the late effects of cancer treatment on older breast cancer patients, a behavioral scientist, a medical oncologist who specializes in urologic...

Applications To Health Promotion And Disease Prevention

Other uses as folk remedies are for the treatment of liver disorders (antihepatotoxic activity), hepatitis, laryngitis, bronchitis, and gonorrhoea (Okojie et al., 2009). Iwu (1993) has also reported the antidiabetic potential of GK seed. Some studies have shown that GK seed extract exhibits a dilatory effect on the alveolar ducts and sacs, and alveoli, thus improving respiratory activity (see Okojie et al., 2009, for a review). The extract also enhances the functionality of the gall bladder, indicating that it has detoxification and cleansing properties. Other therapeutic uses are in the management of tuberculosis and diarrhea, and the treatment of measles and mumps in children.

Types of CAM Modalities

The National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine divides the various CAM modalities into five categories (1) alternative medical systems, (2) mind-body interventions, (3) biologically-based treatments, (4) manipulative and body-based methods, and (5) energy therapies. These modalities include a wide variety of approaches, from acupuncture to nutrition to meditation to chiropractic. SOURCE National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine

Manufacturers Of Herbal Medicines And Natural Supplements In Australia And New Zealand

Mosby's Medical, Nursing and Allied Health Dictionary, 6th edn. Philadelphia Mosby, 2003. Ernst E et al. The Desktop Guide to Complementary and Alternative Medicine An Evidence-based Approach. St Louis Mosby, 2001. Fetrow CW, Avila JR. Professionals Handbook of Complementary and Alternative Medicines. Springhouse Corp, USA, 1999.

Combined Health Information Database CHID

CHID is a bibliographic database produced by federal health-related agencies, including the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), the Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, the Department of Veterans Affairs, and the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM). The database provides bibliographic citations for major health journals, books, reports, pamphlets, audiovisuals, hard-to-find information resources, and health education promotion programs. At present, CHID covers seventeen topics, in seventeen subfiles, including a Complementary and Alter

Internet Resources of Herbal Medicine

Alternative Medicine Connection www.arxc.com Alternative Medicine Home Page, from the University of Pittsburg For WHO Herbal Monographs under Development, see entry for Alternative Medicine Home Page from the University of Pittsburg. Alternative Medicine, University of Texas National Centre for Complimentary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) Thorne Research Alternative Medicine Review

Italian cypress cupressus sempervirens l cupressaceae

Note that the RSV says cedar, the KJV says ash. Perhaps this is not so amazing there are many supra-specific and suprageneric terms in the United States, such as scrub oaks and conifer, respectively. The latter embraces more kinds of gymnosperms than Zohary's berosh. The cypress was an important biblical timber tree, used by the Egyptians for coffins in olden times, and in Greece more recently. The doors of St. Peter's in Rome and the gates of Constantinople, made of cypress, both survived more than 1000 years. Its timbers were used for house building, ship building (even the ark), and musical instruments. David and all the house of Israel played on musical instruments made of cypress (BIB). Oil of cypress is a valuable perfume ingredient, providing ambergris- and ladanum-like odors. The trees are often planted as ornamentals in cemeteries, gardens, and parks. The Island of Cyprus, where the tree was once worshipped, derives its name from the cypress. Regarded as antiseptic,...

Guide for Separating Food Folklore Facts from Fiction in Clinical Situations and A Practical Example

Review In clinical situations, it is also important for health professionals to review all the evidence surrounding the patient's professed food folk belief. A vital piece of information to consider is safety. Although many prescription drugs have side-effects, they are taken under the supervision of a physician, who can monitor adverse effects and take steps to control them. Because folk remedies are often self-administered, such safeguards are lacking. If there is evidence that the implementation of food folklore is likely to be hazardous to health, it must be discouraged. Folk remedies that are effective for one purpose but have negative side-effects must also be cautioned against.

And Other Medical Systems

Twenty-five years after Nixon's visit, the National Institutes of Health convened a panel of experts including physicians, scientists, and alternative medicine practitioners to review the research on acupuncture. In 1997, adhering to the panel's recommendations, the NIH released a consensus statement with the following conclusion I am highlighting acupuncture in this chapter because although there are literally thousands of useless treatments for which people shell out billions of dollars, there are also genuine pearls in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). Acupuncture is one of the pearls.

Traditional Medicine

In Ethiopia, 90 of the population uses traditional medicine for primary health care in Benin, India, and Rwanda, the figure is 70 . However in the West, concern about the effects of chemical medicines and a need for more personalized health care and greater access to information about health promote the use of complementary and alternative medicines. The United Nations health agency said 70 of people in Canada, 49 in France, and 42 in the United States had used alternative medicine at least once. The global market for traditional therapies is US 60 billion (RM 228 billion) a year (1).

The Register of Chinese Herbal Medicine United Kingdom

The Register of Chinese Herbal Medicine was set up in 1987 to regulate the practice of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) in the United Kingdom and to work with other organizations on issues relating to the practice and teaching of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies. This site has a collection of useful online articles, including such topics as the dispensing and prescribing of Chinese herbal medicines. It also provides information on the use of Western herbs in Chinese herbal medicine, a selection of formulas for herbal preparations, and abstracts of research articles from China.

Mitretek home page

Mitretek, Inc., is a nonprofit company seeking to promote accessible, affordable, quality health care by conducting and supporting appropriate research. Along with representatives of the general public, health care providers, and medical librarians, its Health Information Technology Institute (HITI) has developed a set of criteria for use in assessing the quality of health information on the Internet. These criteria are a useful aid in evaluating whether information is usable and credible. HITI participants include representatives from the American Medical Association (AMA), the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) (see entry for FTC in Chapter 11), the American Pharmaceutical Association (APhA), and the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) (see entry for NCCAM in Chapter 6).

Vhospital Service

Alternative medicine could be integrated into hospital service according to the planning of the administrator and the patients' need. Thus in China, every city, irrespective of its size, has integrated medicine or Chinese medicine hospitals, which give patient care consisting of both the modern scientific modality and traditional Chinese medicine. Even in other hospitals not labeled as such, it would be very easy to call in herbalists' support whenever required. Every hospital has its own Chinese Medicine Division ready to offer help.

Integrated Clinic

Once modern practitioners become more receptive to alternative medicine and once it is proven that Chinese herbal medicine is efficacious in treating certain difficult problems, integrated clinics could be started, no longer bearing only rehabilitation orientation but catered toward evidence-based clinical trials and evidence-based clinical service. Clients do not come for general care of all disease entities, but for specific problems that modern practitioners face. Such integrated clinics deal with special problems in allergy, viral infection, degenerative diseases, metabolic disorders, chronic pain, cancers, and other pathologies. Such clinics are run for both research and service. They cannot be solely research-oriented for obvious reasons of the high demand for clinical research and the cost involved. They cannot be solely service-oriented either because efficacy tests are still much desired. The compromise needs to be careful data collection and observation for all clients...

Viiiresearch

A few advocates of alternative medicine might claim that whatever modern medicine offers, the same could be achieved with alternative medicine (like herbal medicine) provided research and resources could be pumped in. Given the obvious successes of modern science, this approach of research with that amplitude of ambition is probably unnecessary.

Conclusion

In contrast to many other fields of traditional medicine (e.g., acupuncture), the use of herbal supplements fits nicely into the Western paradigm of scientific study. Public use of such supplements has uncovered the need for the design, funding, and performance of methodologically sound clinical trials. Through initiatives from the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine many popular herbs are being investigated. Clinical trials examining black cohosh for the treatment of menopausal symptoms, echinacea for the prevention and treatment of the common cold, and ginkgo biloba for the prevention of dementia are a few of the studies currently underway. Hopefully, results from such trials will help guide patients and clinicians toward judicious use of herbal supplements.

Notes Sea Orache

Zohary suggests that this difficult passage, like so many from Job, might have been better rendered as, They pick the leaves of the orache and the wormwood. The translation of maluah as orache, and not true mallow, is better because Job is alluding to the desert, where orache, also called salt bush (if not salt herb as in NWT), is common. It is a strong-growing bush or shrub, 5 feet or more tall, with gray foliage and inconspicuous flowers. One of the most common desert plants in salt flats, it is used as survival food and as a salt source. The closely related Atriplex rosea, which occurs in the biblical area as well, has been a folk remedy for such cancerous conditions as corns, hard lumps, and indurations (JLH). Smoke from burning seed is used to treat skin ailments and sores. Lebanese doctors are said to extract anodynes, emetics, hypnotics and purgatives from the plants. According to Boulos, the seeds are in small doses emetic, in large doses poisonous (BOU). Ashes of the plant...

Bloody show

Most pregnant women have heard of at least one folk remedy for starting labor. You may have heard that one of the following will help get labor going as your due date nears Is there any truth to any of these old wives' tales A few such folk remedies have some basis in science. Nipple stimulation can cause uterine contractions, similar to what happens when a baby breast-feeds right after birth. It's biologically plausible that sex might trigger contractions because semen contains substances similar to those used in labor-inducing medications. These facts don't mean that your health care provider will advise that you try either of these methods. In fact, he or she may advise against sex in your ninth month of pregnancy to avoid intrauterine infections, and nipple stimulation could stimulate contractions that are long and hard enough to harm the baby. Most folk remedies aren't based in science and simply don't work. Some are even ill-advised. For example, fasting really isn't good for...

Detoxification

Popular detoxification (detox) diets work under the assumption that people regularly and normally take in toxins from their environment. We worry about asbestos in insulation, lead in paint, and dioxins in tampons. The goal of detox dieting is to improve one's health by removing these accumulated toxins from the body, as they are the cause of ill health. The main idea is that by regulating food and water intake, and sometimes taking certain herbs and supplements, toxins are removed from the body, and it returns to its normal, healthy state. Religions and moral philosophies have detoxification diets as well. The focus in those diets is on moral reform, but the means of regulating food intake remains the same. Exponents of alternative medicine, such as Frank Ervolino, a doctor of naturopathic medicine, asserts that detoxing can prevent disease and lessen the effects of autoimmune diseases, such as arthritis . . . and chronic fatigue syndrome (Ervolino 2005 32). There are many people who...

Common Ginger

Traditional Medicinal Uses Ginger is the folk remedy for anaemia, nephritis, tuberculosis, and antidote to Arisaema and Pinellia. 8 Sialogogue when chewed, causes sneezing when inhaled and rubefacient when applied externally. Antidotal to mushroom poisoning, ginger peel is used for opacity of the cornea. The juice is used as a digestive stimulant and local application in ecchymoses. 8 Underground stem is used to treat stomach upset, nausea, vomiting, nose bleeds, rheumatism, coughs, blood in stools, to improve digestion, expel intestinal gas, and stimulate appetite. 9 The rhizomes are

Equisetum

Horsetail is one of the oldest of plants and a long-used folk remedy for the urinary system, cystitis, incontinence, bedwetting, and prostate problems. It is the leading source of plant silica, and so helps where this mineral is deficient, as shown by symptoms like brittle nails, thin hair, and allergies. Externally, it is good for rheumatism, chilblains, and skin problems, and helps wounds, joints, and sprains to heal.

Naturopathy

293 Alternative healing methods are those that within a particular medical culture which itself is subjected to a historical transformation process, are more or less strongly rejected at a certain point in time or over a longer period of time by the predominant medical orientation because they question parts or all of the therapy forms of the predominant medical orientation or because their aim is to achieve the immediate and fundamental change of the medical system. In this context alternative' also signifies that these therapies are carried by social movements or certain social groupings. The healer who propagates his own healing method with little success and hardly finds, negative or positive, public resonance beyond his limited circle of patients or sphere of action is in this sense not, or only to a limited extent, alternative. Quoted from Jutte (1996), p. 13. For the the conceptual history and definition of alternative medicine cf. now also Eckart and Jutte (2007), pp. 296-298.

General uses

Parsley, with its mystic aura being wrapped in folk tradition, is said to increase female libido, also help in promoting menstruation and ease the difficulties of childbirth (Review of Natural Products, 1991 Tyler, 1994). Parsley juice can be used in treating hives and other allergy symptoms it also inhibits the secretion of histamine. Parsley has also been used as a liver tonic and helped in the breaking up of kidney stones. The German Commission E has approved parsley as a preventive measure and also for treatment of kidney stones. The parsley root can be used as a laxative and also helps to eliminate bloating. It can reduce weight by reducing excess water gain. The root can be used to relieve flatulence and colic, due to its carminative action. Parsley is rich in such minerals as calcium, thiamin, riboflavin, potassium, iron and vitamins such as A, C and niacin (Review of Natural Products, 1991 Gruenwald, 1998 Blumenthal, 1998 Tyler, 1994, 1998 Marczal et al., 1977). Parsley can be...

Support groups

Poplack, MD. Principles and Practice of Pediatric Oncology. Philadelphia Lippincott-Raven, 2002. Chapter 46, Psychiatric and Psychosocial Support for the Child and Family. Chapter 47, The Other of Side of the Bed What Caregivers Can Learn from Listening to Patients and Their Families. Speigel, David, MD. Living Beyond Limits. New York Random House, 1993. Dr. Speigel devised the landmark study that showed that support groups for women with breast cancer not only lowered rates of depression, but significantly increased their life spans. This book is an excellent guide for coping with cancer, strengthening family relationships, controlling pain, dealing with doctors, and evaluating alternative medicine claims. This book is out of print, but may be available from your local library.

Cam And Hivaids

Many people with AIDS HIV use CAM therapies. A recent study reported that around 56 percent of people with AIDS HIV in Australia used some type of CAM therapy, often as a complementary treatment to alleviate side effects accompanying the use of antiretroviral drugs.4 Many studies are currently underway or being developed to assess the efficacy of CAM treatments in people with HIV AIDS. In September 1994, the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) awarded 840,000 to Bastyr University in Seattle to study CAM treatments for HIV AIDS (see the university's entry in this chapter). Herbs that have been used in the management of HIV disease include tea tree oil (for fungal infections), garlic (an extract called allicin for cryptosporidiosis), sage (for night sweats), slippery elm (for diarrhea), and echinacea (for HIV infection).

Where to Find Help

This government agency provides information on cancer research, diagnosis, and treatment. People with cancer, caregivers, and health care professionals can call the toll-free number for cancer-related information, including information about complementary and alternative medicine and nutrition in cancer care. Spanish-speaking staff and Spanish materials are available. Resources for Complementary and Alternative Medicine and Nutrition Alternative Medicine Foundation, Inc. The Alternative Medicine Foundation is a nonprofit organization that was formed in 1998. The goals of the foundation are to respond to the need for education and information about the integration of alternative and conventional medicine, to conserve the knowledge and practice of alternative medicine, to promote ways to blend ancient practice and modern science for the promotion of health, and to advance the development of alternatives to standard care. National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine...

Chemical Burns

A good way to remember how to treat these burns is not to put any substance on the burn that the patient would not put in an eye. If a first- or second-degree burn is smaller than a quarter on a child, the burn can be treated at home. Any burn on an infant, or any large burn, should be treated by a doctor. Butter, an old folk remedy, should never be placed on a burn, since the fat can hold in

British Library

In 1985, the British Library, owing to lack of coverage on Medline, commenced work on compiling the Allied and Alternative Medicine database (AMED), which was later changed to the Allied and Complementary Medicine Database. AMED was started to assist complementary medicine practitioners and paramedical staff locate articles that were relevant to their practice. At the time that the British Library started AMED in 1985, Medline was particularly poor in the areas of complementary medicine and allied health care. AMED now covers the areas of The Columbia University Project. In 1997, The Rosenthal Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Columbia University, New York, brought together seven database producers, which included AMED and NAPRALERT, as partners in the production of a comprehensive web resource on complementary and alternative medicine. The purpose of this partnership was to allow cross-searching of databases in addition to some full text resources including directory...