Application of brewers spent grain in bread making technology

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BSG has been used as a cheap source of dietary fiber supplement in conventional dough (Finley and Hanamoto, 1980; Prentice and D'Appolonia, 1977; Stojceska and Ainsworth, 2008) and sourdough breads (Stojceska and Ainsworth, 2010).

THE EFFECT OF BREWER'S SPENT GRAIN ON NUTRITION PROPERTIES

The addition of BSG into bread dough formulations at the levels of 0—30% significantly (p < 0.001) increased the total dietary fiber level from 2.3 to 11.5% and fat level from 3.4 to 4.4% (Table 16.2) (Stojceska and Ainsworth, 2008). Protein content varied between 10.7 and 11% and was not related to the addition of BSG.

THE EFFECT OF BREWER'S SPENT GRAIN ON FARINOGRAPH PARAMETERS AND WATER ABSORPTION

Table 16.2 presents farinograph parameters and water absorption of BSG supplemented breads. Water absorption increased with fiber addition, varying between 58 and 61% at a fixed dough consistency of 700 BU. Dough development time (3.5—18 min) and dough stability (6.5—18 min) increased, whereas degree of softening (5—25 BU) decreased, as the level of fiber increased.

THE EFFECT OF BREWER'S SPENT GRAIN ON LOAF VOLUME, TEXTURE, AND SHELF LIFE

The loaf volume, texture, and shelf life (Table 16.3) were also affected by the addition of BSG, probably as a result of an increased level of arabinoxylans, the main polymers in BSG. Similar results for BSG breads were reported by Finley and Hanamoto (1980) and Prentice and D'Appolonia (1977). The specific loaf volume of BSG breads containing different amounts of fiber varied between 2.06 and 3.22 ml/g, with a significant correlation between fiber content and resulting loaf volume of r = —0.8 (p < 0.0001). The greatest loaf volume reduction was detected at 30% BSG addition. The shelf life of the breads containing different amounts (0—30%) of BSG and different enzymes was tested at 1, 2, 5, and 8 days. Fiber addition significantly (p < 0.001) increased crumb firmness in samples containing 20 and 30% BSG, whereas no significant difference was found with 10% addition. This significant difference was observed at each day of storage with the 20 and 30% BSG samples. Biliaderis et al. (1995) reported that the molecular weight of arabinoxylans significantly increased the firmness of crumb but the amount of arabinoxylans significantly decreased in wheat flour breads over 7 days of storage. This could be explained by the fact that cereal brans consist of different

TABLE 16.2 Nutritional Analyses, Water Absorption, and Farinograph Characteristics of BSG Breads

BSG (%)

0

10

20

30

Fiber (%)

2.3a

6.3b

9.7°

11.5d

Protein (%)

11.0a

10.7°

11.4d

10.9a

Fat (%)

3.4a

3.4a

3.8b

4.4°

Water absorption (%)

58.0a

61.0b

60.5b°

60.0°

Dough development time (min)

3.5a

7.0b

13.0°

18.0d

Stability (min)

6.5a

9.5b

10.0b

18.0°

Degree of softening (BU)

25.0a

15.0b

20.0°

5.0d

Source: Adapted from Stojceska and Ainsworth (2008).

aDifferent letters in the same row indicate statistically significant values (p = 0.05).

Source: Adapted from Stojceska and Ainsworth (2008).

aDifferent letters in the same row indicate statistically significant values (p = 0.05).

TABLE 16.3 Loaf Volume and Texture Information of BSG Breads

Hardness (N)

Enzymes

BSG (%)

Specific Loaf Volume (ml/g)

Day 1

Day 2

Day 3

Day 4

No enzymes

0

3.2

15.1

15.9

21.2

45.6

10

2.7

20.7

18.6

26.1

44.3

20

2.2

33.6

30.9

39.3

77.0

30

2.1

38.5

32.6

37.6

80.2

ME

0

3.4

17.1

21.3

24.4

55.1

10

2.5

26.5

18.1

26.2

44.3

20

2.3

34.3

33.2

31.4

70.0

30

2.4

30.5

30.3

33.3

59.1

LE

0

3.5

11.4

11.9

19.0

34.6

10

3.9

5.3

5.5

8.4

26.1

20

2.8

18.9

16.9

21.8

35.9

30

2.5

19.6

16.7

20.7

44.1

PE

0

4.0

12.3

11.9

20.5

39.1

10

3.7

13.8

13.1

21.8

38.2

20

2.7

28.9

28.5

37.8

67.7

30

2.7

22.1

22.7

32.1

63.5

PE + CL

0

3.9

10.6

11.6

19.2

43.6

10

3.7

13.9

12.4

19.2

45.9

20

3.1

12.4

13.3

20.8

47.4

30

2.4

30.9

22.9

33.7

53.2

CL, Celluclast; LE, Lipapan Extra; ME, Maxlife 85; PE, Pentopan Mono. Source: Adapted from Stojceska and Ainsworth (2008).

CL, Celluclast; LE, Lipapan Extra; ME, Maxlife 85; PE, Pentopan Mono. Source: Adapted from Stojceska and Ainsworth (2008).

tissues and thus the actual fine structures of isolated arabinoxylans are very diverse (Mandalari etal, 2005).

IMPROVING THE QUALITY OF BREWER'S SPENT GRAIN BREADS BY USING ENZYMES

In a study by Stojceska and Ainsworth (2008), the texture of BSG breads was improved by the addition of the enzymes Maxlife 85 (ME) (Danisco Ingredients, Denmark), Lipopan Extra (LE), Pentopan Mono (PE), and Celluclast (CL) (Novozymes, Denmark).

The addition of ME into the bread formulations with specific loaf volume ranged between 2.4 and 3.4 ml/g, resulting in a significant (p < 0.001) decrease as the amount of fiber increased. There was no significant difference compared to the control samples containing different amounts of fiber. Specific loaf volume of samples containing the enzymes LE (2.4—3.9 ml/g), PE (2.7—4 ml/g), and Pentopan Mono and Celluclast (PCE) (2.4—3.9 ml/g) behaved in a similar way, with significantly (p < 0.0001) lower specific loaf volume at 20 and 30% of BSG. No significant difference in specific loaf volume was found among these samples at different fiber levels except at 10% BSG, where LE was significantly (p < 0.001) higher than PE and PCE samples. Comparing these samples (LE, PE, and PCE) with their equivalent of control samples and ME samples, all of them showed significantly (p < 0.0001) higher specific loaf volume.

ME breads showed a significant (p < 0.001) increase in hardness as fiber increased, whereas no significant difference was found compared with their equivalent control sample. The same trend was observed during each day of storage. LE showed no significant difference in crumb firmness at 0 and 10% BSG, whereas a significant (p < 0.0001) difference was observed at 20 and 30% BSG. Compared with the equivalent control samples, LE gave significantly (p < 0.0001) lower crumb firmness at all levels of BSG (0—30%) for each day of storage. PE

showed a significant (p < 0.0001) increase in crumb firmness as the amount of BSG increased up to 20%, but it decreased at 30% BSG. Compared with the equivalent control samples, the only significant (p < 0.001) decrease in crumb firmness was detected at 30% BSG. Again, this was apparent during each day of storage. PCE showed a significant difference in hardness (p < 0.0001) at all levels of dietary fiber. Compared with its equivalent control samples, the only difference was found at 20 and 30% BSG. Bread containing LE, PE, and PCE showed a clear tendency toward a softer crumb and a reduced rate of staling compared with the control samples and samples containing ME. PE showed significantly (p < 0.0001) increased hardness during storage compared with LE and PE at 20% BSG. In this study, the best results in terms of crumb firmness were obtained with LE, with a significant (p < 0.001) delay in staling compared with the equivalent control samples (Stojceska and Ainsworth, 2008).

IMPROVING THE QUALITY OF BREWER'S SPENT GRAIN BREADS WITH A COMBINATION OF SOURDOUGH AND ENZYMES

The work of Stojceska and Ainsworth (2008) was extended by forming sourdough and a combination of enzymes (Stojceska and Ainsworth, 2010). The specific loaf volume of sourdough breads was not different from that of conventional breads (Stojceska and Ainsworth, 2008). The combination of sourdough and different enzymes improved the texture and shelf life of BSG breads, resulting in lower crumb hardness and delay in staling. Compared to conventional BSG breads (Stojceska and Ainsworth, 2008), sourdough extended shelf life, which was more pronounced with a combination of enzymes. The best results were obtained with a combination of LE and PE with ME and PE with CL, which is probably the result of redistribution of water from pentosan to the gluten phase, reduced starch retrogradation rate, and degradation of cell wall components leading to altered water distribution between starch and protein (Katina et al., 2006).

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