Health and nutritional benefits of soybeans

Soybean is an excellent source of high-quality protein, low in saturated fat, and free of cholesterol. In addition, soybean contains a high dietary fiber, the second largest component, and it has been reported to reduce the risk of colon cancer and other diseases (Anderson et al., 1999 Mateos-Aparicio et al., 2008). Soybean, with its 40 protein, is richer than any other food crop or even livestock. It is also made up of 20 oil, and it contains all the eight essential amino acids, making it the...

Proteins

Sorghum grain protein content is quite variable, ranging from approximately 7 to 16 with an average of approximately 11 (Serna-Saldivar and Rooney, 1995) (Table 12.1). The major sorghum grain proteins are prolamin storage proteins, as in virtually all other cereal grains, and are known as kafirins (Belton et al., 2006). Kafirins are classified into four major species based on differences in molecular weight, solubility, structure, and amino acid composition and sequence. These are the a-, b-,...

Antioxidant Properties And Sensory Profiles Of Breads Containing Bakery Flour

Enrichment of Egyptian Balady bread Part 1. Baking studies, physical and sensory evaluation of enrichment with decorticated cracked broad bean flour (Vicia faba L). Nahrung, 44, 418 421. Ade-Omowaye, B. I. O., Akinwande, B. A., Bolarinwa, I. F., & Adebiyi, A. O. (2008). Evaluation of tigernut (Cyperus esculentus) wheat composite flour and bread. African Journal of Food and Science, 2, 87 91. Anjum, F. M., Pasha, I., Ahmad, S., Khan, M. I., & Iqbal, Z. (2008)....

Potential health benefits from brewers spent grain

A number of studies suggest that BSG may have a role in the prevention of certain diseases. Odes et al. (1986) studied a role for BSG fiber in the treatment of constipated patients. Nineteen ambulatory patients with chronic, laxative-dependent constipation were treated with 20 25 g BSG fiber daily for 4 weeks. The following symptoms improved with treatment bowel movement frequency in 15 patients (79 ), flatulence in 12 (63 ), abdominal pain in 10 (53 ), stool consistency in 8 (42 ), and...

Human Clinical Trials

Many studies have reported beneficial effects of soy consumption on human health, but most of these investigations evaluated its effects in serum lipids. Human clinical trials have shown antiobesity and antidiabetic effects of soy protein and isoflavones (Table 45.1). Current information regarding the effect of soy on body composition and body fat distribution is very limited. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled 3-month trial and a cross-sectional study of postmenopausal women, a...

Characteristics Of Propionic Acid

The chemical compound propionic acid (systematically named propanoic acid) is a naturally occurring carboxylic acid with chemical formula CH3CH2COOH (structural formula shown in Figure 43.1). In its pure state, propionic acid is a colorless, corrosive liquid with a sharp, somewhat unpleasant, odor. The anion CH3CH2COO as well as the salts and esters of propionic acid are known as propionates (or propanoates). The physical properties of propionic acid are intermediate between those of the...

Application of brewers spent grain in bread making technology

BSG has been used as a cheap source of dietary fiber supplement in conventional dough (Finley and Hanamoto, 1980 Prentice and D'Appolonia, 1977 Stojceska and Ainsworth, 2008) and sourdough breads (Stojceska and Ainsworth, 2010). THE EFFECT OF BREWER'S SPENT GRAIN ON NUTRITION PROPERTIES The addition of BSG into bread dough formulations at the levels of 0 30 significantly (p < 0.001) increased the total dietary fiber level from 2.3 to 11.5 and fat level from 3.4 to 4.4 (Table 16.2) (Stojceska...

Technological Issues

The lower quality of bread due to SPI fortification is a serious problem. The increased firmness and smaller loaf volume may be primarily due to the reduced free water in dough and interference of the gluten network formation. Roccia et al. (2009) showed that adding more water to the dough attenuated the SPI-induced increase in maximum resistance, but the additional water had no effect on extensibility or area under the extension curve. Therefore, the problem of increased firmness in...

Reaction of phenolic compounds with nitrous acid producing nitric oxide

Saliva contains nitrate, which is reduced to nitrite by nitrate-reducing bacteria in the oral cavity. The nitrite produced is mixed with food in the oral cavity by mastication. The mixture of nitrite and food components is swallowed, transforming the nitrite in the mixture to nitrous acid (HNO2) (pKa 3.3) in the stomach. The transformation is possible because the pH of gastric juice is approximately 2. Because nitrous acid is a reactive component, phenolic compounds present in foods can react...

B

Properties of a fortified food, particularly color and taste (Hurrell et al., 2004). Ferrous sulfate is the most popular source of iron for the fortification of various foods however, other iron forms may exhibit higher bioavailability than ferrous sulfate and may present alternative choices (Lynch and Stoltzfus, 2003). Other iron compounds, such as iron gluconate or sodium iron (III) ethylenediaminetetraacetate (NaFeEDTA) (Hurrell et al., 2004), have been studied as well. The fortification of...

Processing and other uses

Apricot kernels can be obtained as a by-product from apricot processing plants. However, because of the lack of systematic collection and utilization of apricot kernels, this valuable product with a major industrial potential remains unexploited (Femenia et al., 1995). Both water and methanol extracts of sweet kernels have antioxidant potential. The highest percentage inhibition of lipid peroxidation (69 ) and total phenolic content (7.9 0.2 mg ml) has been reported in the methanol extract of...

Introduction

Chempedak (Artocarpus integer (Thunb.) Merr.) belongs to the Moraceae family. Chempedak is native to Southeast Asia and is widely distributed and cultivated in Indonesia, Peninsular Thailand, and Peninsular Malaysia, particularly in Perak and Kedah (Jansen, 1991). In Malaysia, a number of chempedak selections have been cloned, including the CH29 cultivar, which produces an attractive orange flesh, and CH26, CH27, and CH28, which are high-yielding cultivars (Jansen, 1991). Young chempedak fruits...

Products Made From Sorghum Flour Traditional products

Throughout Africa, the major sorghum food product is porridge. This is prepared by cooking sorghum flour with water. Porridges range in solids content from approximately 10 for a thin gruel to 30 for a stiff porridge of mashed potato-like consistency. Depending on regional tastes, the sorghum porridges may be cooked at neutral pH, acidified to pH < 4.0 by lactic acid fermentation or acidification with fruit juice, or alkaline (pH 8.2) due to cooking with wood ash. These treatments affect the...

Exploitation Of Brewers Spent Grain As A Source Of Dietary Fiber

There is a trend to find new sources of dietary fiber as functional ingredients. A number of researchers have studied the value of cereal by-products and their utilization. Brewing industries in the European Union produce approximately 3.4 million tons of brewer's spent grain (BSG) annually, of which UK brewers contribute more than 0.5 million tons. BSG represents up to 85 of the total residues from the brewing process, which amounts to approximately 20 kg hl beer. BSG is available at very low...

Characteristics of brewers spent grain

Brewers Spent Grain Generation

BSG is considered lignocellulosic material rich in hemicellulose (39 ), proteins (24 ), cellulose (14 ), lipids (6 ), and lignin (4 ) (Mussato et al., 2006). Pentose content (the sum of xylose and arabinose) of BSG has been found to vary between 21.0 and 27.3 dry weight for oven-dried samples (Santos et al., 2003). It represents an untapped resource for obtaining industrially important hydrocolloids, such as arabinoxylan and protein (Mandalari et al., 2005). Because of the potentially good...

Microbial Solubilization And Increased Bioavailability

Sourdough fermentation can both increase and decrease the levels of bioactive compounds depending on the nature of the molecules and the type of sourdough process. The presence of yeasts is reported to favor the formation of folates (Kariluoto et al, 2004) and thiamin. On the other hand, according to Liukkonen et al. (2003), the pH decrease due to lactate and acetate production can both increase the solubilization of bioactive compounds (e.g., phenolic compounds) and decrease the levels of some...

Effect Of Particle Size Of Elemental Iron Powders

Several countries utilized elemental iron powders in their wheat flour fortification programs because of their low reactivity and high stability (Hurrell, Bothwell, et al, 2002). There are considerable variations between the different types of elemental iron not only in particle size but also in dissolution rate and reactive surface (Hurrell, Bothwell, et al, 2002). There is a negative relationship between dissolution rates in 0.1 M HCl acid and the median particle size and a stronger positive...

Healthy Properties Of Sourdough Bread

Consumer interest in the health aspects of food continues to increase, and traditional food is quite often perceived as having nutritional properties that favor health and well-being. In the past decade, sourdough fermentation has been associated with the health-promoting properties of bread, and numerous beneficial effects have been reported (Figure 4.5). Protective compounds in bread have been identified, especially in wholemeal bread, which contains dietary fiber, minerals, vitamins, and...

The Science of Doughs and Bread Quality

Department of Food Science, Institute of Agrochemistry and Food Technology, Spanish Scientific Research Council, Valencia, Spain Nutritional Value of Cereals and the Impact of Milling 5 Bread Dough Modifications during the Bread Making Process 5 Biochemical Changes during Bread Making 8 Bread Quality Instrumental, Sensory, and Nutritional Quality 11 Conclusion 13 Summary Points 13 References 13 Cereals and cereal-based products have constituted the major component of the human diet throughout...

Bakery Products Bread

Chen, Rubenthaler, Leung, et al. (1988) prepared bread from hard wheat flour and partially replaced it with dry apple fiber and hydrated apple fiber (hydration 1 7 for 12 h). As the concentration of fiber increased, water absorption, mixing time, and bread weight increased, whereas the loaf volume decreased. The increase in water absorption was due to the strong water binding ability of fibers. On the other hand, the addition of hydrated apple fiber had a less deleterious effect on the bread...

Summary Points

Baking tests demonstrated that it was feasible to produce DHA u-3 fortified breads containing 25 or 50 mg DHA slice (32 g). Enriched breads had similar properties as those of the control. The flax oil bread contained the highest amount of linolenic acid but lacked the important long-chain EPA and DHA. The fish oil bread had adequate baking properties but lost flavor and overall acceptability during the last stages of storage. Consumption of three slices of bread enriched with algae oil can...

Patents associated with apricot kernel

A health care tea for patients with dry mouth and tongue, dry excrement, anorexia, disturbed sleep, etc. has been proportionally prepared from apricot kernel, yam, tuckahoe, lily bulb, and crystal sugar (Jinyi, 2006). A food for curing upper respiratory tract infection, acute and chronic bronchitis, asthma, pulmonary tuberculosis, etc. with a certain therapeutic effect was reported to be made by using sweet apricot kernel, peach kernel, and walnut kernel according to a mixing ratio of 1 1 2 3...

Health and nutritional benefits of breadfruit

Breadfruit is a staple food sought after because it is an inexpensive source of high energy. Compared to banana, cassava, plantain, taro, and sweet potato, it is a relatively good source of calcium (Monro et al., 1986). Potassium and phosphorus have been reported in relatively good quantities, although amounts may vary between cultivars. Compared to other tropical starchy foods, it is an acceptable source of vitamin C (20 mg 100 mg of pulp) and has good levels of iron, niacin, and riboflavin at...

Quality And Traits

Sun et al. (1999) reported on the nutritive composition of black-grained wheat 76 (BGW 76) and the common wheat, Jinchun 9. For example, their nutrient composition was as follows crude protein, 20.50 in BGW 76 and 12.90 in Jinchun 9 lipid, 1.60 in BGW 76 and Jinchun 9 carbohydrate, 62.10 in BGW 76 and 71.90 in Jinchun 9 crude fiber, 2.40 in BGW 76 and 2.10 in Jinchun 9 ash, 1.90 in BGW 76 and Jinchun 9 vitamin K, 11.47 mg kg in BGW 76 and 7.01 mg kg in Jinchun 9 calcium, 0.56 g kg in BGW 76 and...

Barley Fiberrich Fractions

Pure b-glucan isolates obtained via traditional extraction procedures described previously are not suitable for commercial applications because the procedures are time-consuming and costly. The alternative sources of b-glucans are fractions obtained by dry grain fractionation such as milling, pearling, sieving, and or air classification. The nonuniform distribution of components within the barley kernel allows fractionation by physical means into products enriched in various constituents,...

Flour And Bread Fortification With Emmer

Some of the ancient wheats have a unique composition in secondary components, such as carotenoids and starch, which may play a role as functional food ingredients. Emmer is particularly appreciated for its content of resistant starch, fiber, carotenoids, and antioxidant compounds (D'Antuono et al., 1998 Galterio et al., 2003 Serpen et al., 2008). Although emmer flour does produce a satisfactory loaf of bread, the quality is not as good as that of bread made with common wheat. Galterio et al....

Commercial Examples

Omega-3 bread, which is formulated to improve heart health, was launched in the United States by George Weston Bakeries. Grains & More Double Omega bread claimed to contain 25 mg of n-3 EPA DHA per slice. Other examples include Cali-Wraps, which are n-3-enriched tortilla wraps, and whole grain flax bread in Canada. In Australia, Up Omega-3 bread, under George Weston's TipTop brand, contains encapsulated fish oil. Weston's Arnold brand (Horsham, PA) formulates its Smart & Healthy Omega-3...

References

D. (2007). Hydrocolloids in gluten-free breads A review. International Journal of Food Science and Nutrition, 59, 11 23. Baixauli, R., Sanz, T., Salvador, A., & Fiszman, S. M. (2008). Muffins with resistant starch Baking performance in relation to the rheological properties of the batter. Journal of Cereal Science, 47, 502 509. Bengoechea, C., Puppo, M. C., Romero, A., Cordobes, F., & Guerrero, A. (2008). Linear and non-linear viscoelas-ticity of emulsions...

Effects Of Propionate On Appetite And Metabolism

Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) that is, acetic, propionic, and butyric acids are the main energy source for ruminants, generally accounting for 50 75 of digested energy. They are produced from the microbial fermentation of food in the rumen and are known to control feed intake. Propionic acid, which is a major SCFA produced in the rumen when the ration contains more cereals than forage, is responsible for a feeding-induced regulation behavior in ruminants and its absorption results in a...

Cereal Grains And Milling Fractions

The content of the acrylamide precursors (i.e., free asparagine and reducing sugars) varies with plant species cultivar and growing conditions, but data on cereal raw materials are rather limited. The content of asparagine is higher in whole grain rye flour than in whole grain wheat and oat flours (Mustafa et al., 2007) (Figure 30.2). In wheat flour, the content has been reported to vary between 0.1 and 0.7 mg kg (Claus et al., 2006). Selection of flour with low content may therefore offer a...

Overall processing steps

Mature macadamia nuts consist of 69 by weight of outer green husk or pericarp (2 4 mm thick) and inner brown shell or testa (2 or 3 mm thick) covering the remaining 31 of round kernel (Axtell and Fairman, 1992 Munro and Garg, 2008). After harvesting, dehusking should be done within 24 h to retard respiratory heat generation, microbial growth, and other biochemical reactions related to quality deterioration (Munro and Garg, 2008). The husk waste can be processed to mulch. The resulting...

Composition Of Bread Substituted With Chempedak Seed Flour

Wheat flour in bread was partially substituted with chempedak seed flour at different levels (0, 10, 20, and 30 ) with addition of maltodextrin (DE15) and a-amylase. The chemical composition of the bread is shown in Table 33.2. An increase in chempedak seed flour substitution level significantly increased (p < 0.05) the moisture content due to the water TABLE 33.2 Mean Values for Proximate Composition of Bread Substituted with Different Levels of CSF (g 100 g Dry Bread 1 (Control) Bread 2 (10...

Possible Applications Of Macadamia Flour In Baked Goods Nutritional aspects

Due to their high protein and dietary fiber contents, low-fat or defatted macadamia flours may be applied as additional protein and dietary fiber sources in food products, including baked goods. However, the limited amount of lysine is a crucial problem in utilizing macadamia flours as potential sources of proteins. Fortification of lysine content may be obtained by using the combination of macadamia flours with other types of lysine-rich flours, such as other tree nut flours and soy flours....

Improvement of insulin resistance

Buckwheat contains D-chiro-inositol (Figure 13.3), which can lower the concentration of blood glucose in streptozotocin-diabetic rats (Kawa, Taylor, et al., 2003) and type 2 diabetic mice (KK-Ay) (Yao et al., 2008). D-chiro-Inositol can be incorporated into mammalian cells as the free form and exists in cells as inositol phosphates and inositol phospholipids. Women with polycystic ovary syndrome have insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia, and these symptoms are considered to be due to the...

Carotenoids Of Sweet Potato Ipomoea Batatas Lam Carotenoids in roots and flour

All-E-b-carotene is the major carotenoid of sweet potatoes. The orange-fleshed varieties of sweet potato (OFSP) have this carotenoid almost exclusively and in considerable amounts. Structures of carotenoids demonstrated to be important to human health. Although there are many different carotenoids (approximately 100) in food, p-carotene, a-carotene, p-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, lutein, and zeaxanthin are major food carotenoids. They are also the carotenoids commonly encountered in human plasma...

Sweet Potato Pigments And Their Physiological Functions

Different varieties of sweet potato storage roots have a variety of flesh colors, such as white, yellow, orange, and purple. The light flesh color is mainly formed by carotenoids such as b-carotene (Kimura et al, 2006) and luteochrome (de Almeida et al, 1986). Maoka et al. (2007) analyzed the carotenoids of the yellow-fleshed sweet potato variety Benimasari. The results showed that the total carotenoid content of freeze-dried sweet potato flesh was 3.1 mg 100 g. Seven kinds of known carotenoids...

Adverse Effects Of Soy Protein Fortification On Rheological Properties Of Dough And Bread Quality

The addition of SPI and purified b-conglycinin to foods can increase soy protein consumption and help achieve a physiologically beneficial intake. Fortification of bread with soy protein has a long history due to the relatively high amounts of lysine and valine in soy, which are the limiting amino acids of wheat proteins. Although the nutritive value of the bread rises with the percentage of SPI (Mizrahi et al, 1967), SPI reduces bread quality. SPI-containing bread was judged to be firmer,...

Cerealbased Food Fortification With Okra Flour

Cereal-based foods are widely utilized in many developing nations as dietary staples for adults and weaning foods for infants. In Africa, cereal-based foods account for up to 77 of total caloric consumption. The major cereal-based foods in these regions are derived mainly from maize, sorghum, millet, rice, or wheat. Although cornmeal with okra is a frequently used staple food in Cameroon (Kana Sop et al., 2008), other fermented cereal-based foods such as liquid porridge, including ogi, mahewu,...

Bread Fortification With Okra Flour

In Egypt, the nutritive value of bread produced using composite flour that contained maize was increased by supplementing it with okra flour. The resulting bread was satisfactory and comparable to wheat-based bread because okra contains sticky gluten. Although bitter taste was observed after the consumption of bread that was produced from composite flour that included fenugreek seeds as supplement, which restricted its use because of consumer acceptability constraints, there are no such...

Focaccia Italian Flat Fatty Bread

Antonella Pasqualone, Debora Delcuratolo, Tommaso Gomes PROGESA Department, Section of Food Science and Technology, University of Bari, Bari, Italy List of Abbreviations 48 Origins of Focaccia 48 Types of Focaccia Produced in the Italian Regions 48 Focaccia Novese (Novi-Style Focaccia) 49 Lombardy 49 Focaccia Genovese (Genoan-Style Focaccia) 49 Focaccia di Recco (Recco-Style Focaccia) 50 Focaccia di Voltri (Voltri-Style Focaccia) 50 Sardenaira 50 Emilia-Romagna 50 Gnocco Ingrassato 50 Stria 50...

BARLEY bGlucan Isolates In Bread Products

In an attempt to specifically assess the role of b-glucans during various stages of the bread making process, several baking studies using isolated and purified polymers from barley grain were conducted. Extraction of b-glucans from barley usually involves several steps, including inactivation of endogenous enzymes in the grain, extractions of grain with water or alkali solutions, removal of contaminating protein and starch from extracts, precipitation of b-glucans from the purified solutions...

Cereal and legume flours

The most used sources of proteins for supplementation of bread are flours of cereals other than wheat and legumes. Chavan and Kadam 1993 and Friedman 1996 reported the nutritional enrichment of bakery products by supplementation with non-wheat cereal and legume flours and the nutritional value of proteins from different food sources, respectively. Several non-wheat cereal flours are used for substitution of a portion of wheat flour to improve the protein content in breads. The non-wheat cereals...

Phytochemical quality and antinutritional factors of composite baked goods

Phytochemicals are non-nutritive plant chemicals that exert protective or disease-preventing effects. They have been associated with protection from and or treatment of chronic diseases such as heart disease, cancer, hypertension, diabetes, and other medical conditions. The range of phytochemicals found in grains is very broad and includes various phenolic compounds, phytosterols, alkaloids, and saponins. Phenolic compounds, for instance, through their antioxidant activity, are hypothesized to...

Rheological properties of composite doughs

For the preparation of baked goods, rheological properties of the dough are of importance. Wheat, the main ingredient in most baked foods, contains viscoelastic gluten, which confers specific rheological properties to the dough, and this in turn influences the final quality of the baked product. Therefore, it would be expected that during preparation of composite flours and doughs, partial replacement of wheat with another component that may be devoid of gluten would influence rheological...

Physical characteristics and sensory quality of composite baked goods

The physical characteristics of composite baked goods influence their sensory quality and acceptability by consumers. Of interest are characteristics such as crust and crumb color, loaf volume, loaf height, biscuit width, and spread factor. Generally, on incorporation of a legume, the composite baked product tends to become darker as a result of Maillard reactions due to the relatively higher levels of lysine. Composite breads also tend to have lower volume and height and denser, more compact...

South Indian Parotta An Unleavened Flat Bread

Dasappa Indrani, Gandham Venkateswara Rao Flour Milling, Baking and Confectionery Technology Department, Central Food Technological Research Institute, Mysore, Karnataka, India List of Abbreviations 27 Introduction 28 Ingredients and Processing Conditions 28 Quality Characteristics of South Indian Parotta 28 Parotta Ingredients and Rheological Characteristics 28 Chemical and rheological characteristics 30 Additives 30 Oxidizing agents 30 Reducing agents 31 Dry gluten 31 Enzymes 32 a-Amylase 32...

Antioxidant Properties

Purple wheat flour bread PWB and two bread controls, whole wheat meal bread WWB and white flour bread WFB , were prepared according to the method described by Gelinas and McKinnon 2006 , and their antioxidant properties were evaluated. Their 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl free radical DPPH scavenging activity and kinetics are shown in Table 6.1 and Figure 6.1, respectively. Purple wheat bread PWB had the highest DPPH scavenging activity 47.58 at 60 min compared to wholemeal bread WWB 34.06 and...

Banana flour

Traditionally, bananas are used to prepare regional food products and dishes and sometimes to produce vinegar and spirits. Some varieties or cultivars are used in small rural communities as special diets and for traditional medicine. For example, they may be used for infants, elderly people, and patients with stomach problems antidiarrheal and intestinal disorders , gout, and arthritis. In some countries of South America e.g., Colombia and Ecuador , precooked banana flour is used to produce an...

Nutritional Values Of Chempedak Seed And Chempedak Seed Flour

Chempedak seed and chempedak seed flour consist of valuable nutrients such as carbohydrates, protein, dietary fiber, and resistant starch. Chempedak seed flour shows potential application as a value-added ingredient in various food products. Chemical compositions of chempedak seed and chempedak seed flour are presented in Table 33.1. The amount of protein and ash content in chempedak seed flour is significantly lower p lt 0.05 than that of chempedak seed due to the hydrothermal process employed...

Studies On The Use Of Composite Flours Of Wheat Soybeans Plantains And Tigernut In Breads

Efforts have been made to promote the use of composite flours, in which flour from locally grown crops and high-protein seeds replace a portion of wheat flour for use in bread, thereby reducing costs and producing nutritionally enhanced bread Giami et al., 2004 Mepba et al., 2007 . Although there currently is a substantial effort to improve composite bread technology, such breads still require at least 70 wheat flour to be able to rise Olaoye et al., 2006 . Soybean, because of its excellent...