Make Your Own Fertilizer
Don't cook food to death. Avoid synthetic vitamins. Focus on quality ingredients in your food. I use whole food, cold processed supplements that I recommend to patients only after I survey their body signals and evaluate their food journal.
Well water was a source of life and an oasis in the old covenant. Water is life. Patches of green in Israel's wilderness are localized around wells. The ground water several thousand years ago did not have high concentrations of herbicides, pesticides, and fertilizers, as is the case today. Do you drink well water Did you ever drink well water as a child or at school
It is also time for global society to acknowledge that the use of an antimicrobial anywhere can increase resistance to antimicrobial agents anywhere else 57 . Antibiotic resistance certainly crosses all barriers. The use of antimicrobials in animals, agriculture, and humans contributes to the global pool of resistance genes in the environment. Common bacteria, including normal flora in humans and animals, contribute to antimicrobial resistance by serving as reservoirs of resistance genes transferable to pathogenic organisms. In the United States, the amount of antimicrobials administered to animals is comparable to that used in humans 58,59 . Much of this use is nontherapeutic, for purposes of growth promotion and disease prevention. Such use selects for resistant strains and is followed by dissemination in the environment and transmission to other animals and humans. Transfer of bacteria from food animals to humans is common through direct contact and undercooked meats. Use of fecal...
We have begun additional estimates to more closely relate P and PA in crop seeds grains fruits in relation to total production, fertilizer usage, and hectares farmed in different countries and continents. Because the lpa mutants have considerable potential to provide better nutrition, there is a need for many structural, compositional, nutritional, and agronomic aspects of these mutants to be better characterized. Development of additional lpa mutants is continuing, and these will require ongoing study. For example, whether or not these lpa mutants have altered levels of Mg, Ca, Fe, Zn, and other nutritionally significant elements needs to be ascertained, because trace element deficiencies are nutritionally very important issues.
A growing concern in the United States is the potential transfer of pathogens from animal agriculture to crops through the use of untreated animal waste or inadequately treated composted waste. In recent years, there have been a number of reports on USDA recalls of fresh vegetables owing to their contamination with pathogens from manure used as fertilizer (FDA, 1998 Cornell University, 2005).
Environmental fluctuations, growing locations, irrigation conditions, types of soils, various fertilizer applications, and year during which a cultivar or variety is grown influences phytate content of seeds and grains. Bassiri and Nahapetian 188 observed that wheat varieties grown under dry land conditions had lower concentrations of phytate compared with the ones grown under irrigated conditions. Nahapetian andBassiri 189 , Singh andReddy 59 , Miller etal. 190,191 , Feil and Fossati 192 ,andSimwembaetal. 55 reported variations in the phytate content of triticales, wheat, rye, oats, and pearl millet grown at different locations and in different years. A variation in phytate content of navy beans was observed by Proctor and Watts 193 as a result of variety and location effects. Griffiths and Thomas 194 reported that the phytate phosphorus content of broad beans, when calculated as a percent of total phosphorus, increased significantly from 39.5 to 57.7 for beans grown under greenhouse...
Plant seeds such as corn and soybean are major components of livestock feed, including diets of nonruminant animals such as swine and poultry. Phytate phosphorus is utilized inefficiently by monogastric animals, which can result in serious nutritional and environmental consequences. Diets of nonruminants must be supplemented with inorganic phosphate to meet animal growth requirements. Undigested phytate is excreted in manure, which typically is applied as fertilizer to agricultural fields. This practice can lead to elevated soil phosphorus levels in areas of intensive animal production and the potential for phosphorus runoff into lakes and streams. High phosphorus levels can decrease water quality due to eutrophication, because phosphorus is the limiting nutrient for aquatic plant growth 2 .
An alternative source of phytase and other industrial enzymes is the juice of transgenic plants. The ability to synthesize recombinant proteins in plant parts other than seeds takes advantage of the tremendous biomass produced by green plants. A forage crop such as alfalfa offers additional advantages in this role because it is a hardy, perennial, leguminous crop that requires no nitrogen fertilizer and has the potential for several harvests per year. A feasibility study
Ginkgo has long been cultivated in China. The medicinal uses of ginkgo can be traced back to the Chinese herbal database known as the Materia Medica, which was written about 2800 BC. The ginkgo leaves were used for brain disorders, circulatory disorders, and respiratory diseases as traditional Chinese medicine. Fallen leaves of ginkgo were used as insecticides and fertilizer. Ginkgo nuts were traditionally used for getting rid of coughs, sputum and fever, for stopping diarrhea and toothaches, for healing skin diseases and gonorrhea, and for reducing frequency of micturition (Hori & Hori, 1997). In Japan, ginkgo nuts have been eaten as a side dish since the Edo Period (1600 1867).
The significance of contamination of produce during growing and harvesting is unknown because once an outbreak occurs, it is often difficult to trace the product back to a definitive source of contamination (reviewed in Seymour and Appleton5 and Richards6). It is probable that virus contamination usually occurs during harvesting or during subsequent postharvest handling steps. Transmission is thought to occur mainly by surface contamination and not by uptake of viruses within damaged plant tissues during growth. Produce may become contaminated with human viral pathogens by coming into contact with inadequately treated sewage effluent, sewage sludge or human feces (as fertilizer) or otherwise contaminated irrigation water. Contamination may also occur through handling of produce by workers during harvesting.64 There is an increased risk of contamination from workers with inadequate sanitation facilities or hygiene practices. Some outbreaks have been linked to infected field...
The soil type and prior cropping history determine the suggested fertilization NPK ratio of 1-1-1 or 3-1-2. One application of N-P2O5-K2O at a rate of 120-120-120 lb per acre (2222-22 kg ha) for heavy textured soils should be sufficient. Usually one-third of the fertilizer is applied, which is followed by two side-dressings of NPK fertilizer and supplemented with N according to crop needs and cropping (Simon et al., 1984).
The big criticism of industrial plantations is their massive impact on the environment through excessive use of chemical fertilizers, pesticides, and herbicides. And if, in the long run, they deplete the soil, these plantations may be unsustainable. Companies are meeting these criticisms in a number of ways, such as adding leguminous species to plantations to improve soil fertility and keep down weeds, reducing the need for both fertilizers and herbicides
Agronomic factors also influence the seed oil content. It increases with increasing length of photoperiod and early planting dates (Arzumanova, 1963 Abdel-Rahman et al., 1980). Likewise, the seeds from plants with a short growing period tend to have higher oil content than those from plants with a medium to long growing cycle (Yermanos, 1978). Heavy application of nitrogen fertilizer reduces oil content of sesame seeds (Singh et al., 1960).
Anuradha m.n., farooqi a.a., vasundhara m., kathiresan c. and srinivasappa k.n. (2002), Effect of biofertilizers on the growth, yield and essential oil content in rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L). Proc. National Seminar, Strategies for Production and Export of Spices, 24-26 Oct., 2002, Indian Institute of Spices Research, Calicut, India.
We may never know which version of Jonah 4 6 is botanically more accurate. Castor can become a big shade tree bottle gourds trained on a trellis can cast shade. Zohary thinks that castor is most likely. The huge leaves of this plant are excellently adapted for producing ample shade when growing alongside a bower, booth, or hut or overhanging a bench. Castor bean is cultivated for the seeds, which yield a fast-drying, non-yellowing oil, used mainly in industry and medicines. Consistent with the classical writers, including Strabo, Pliny, and Theophrastrus, Copley et al. (2005) found castor oil among the lighting oils used in archaeological lamps from Egypt, along with animal, flaxseed, radish (or some crucifer), and sesame oils (X15912234). The oil was extensively used also by Hebrews, as one of the five oils sanctioned by rabbinical tradition. Oil used in coating fabrics and other protective coverings, in the manufacture of high-grade lubricants, transparent typewriter and printing...
Cals was the Danube, which drains much of the watersheds in 11 countries across central Europe, from Germany to Romania. The main culprits were agricultural runoff, urban and industrial wastewater, and, in the case of nitrogen compounds, atmospheric transport. At least half the increased nitrogen poured into the Black Sea resulted from modernized farming practices, including intensive use of fertilizers and the establishment of huge animal production facilities. These agricultural activities also contributed to the rise in the phosphorus effluent, but industrial and urban waste discharges laden with polyphosphate detergents
Separation and specialization of crop and livestock agricultures and concentration of animal production on less land
Even the geographic locations of these disparate activities have separated. Large regional feed and grain dealers substitute for the traditional link between crop and animal production. These dealers, in many developed nations, such as the United States and member nations of the European Union, often buy government-subsidized feedstock that is transported to locations advantageous to the marketing or production of the livestock commodity. There is little direct, short-term economic advantage to produce livestock and crops in the same geographic vicinity. The caloric or nutritional value of grass or feedstocks grown locally no longer constrains the production of livestock within an area. Where primarily feed crops are grown, chemical fertilizers have largely
Grain and legume crops have two main uses in human foods and in animal feeds. To be effective, estimations of the impacts of grain and legume phytic acid, and the development of strategies to deal with these impacts, probably need to take into consideration both of these major uses of staple crops. In the case of livestock production, the concerns over grain and legume phytic acid are relatively straightforward 1,2 . Nonruminants such as poultry, swine, and fish, excrete essentially all feed phytic acid they consume 3-5 . Excretion of this large fraction of grain total P can contribute to phosphorus (P) pollution and to the resulting eutrophication of surface waters. This is an important contemporary problem in Europe and the United States 6 . New, more stringent standards for P management in agricultural production are currently being put in place. The magnitude of phytic acid's role in this context is illustrated by the recent estimation that the amount of P synthesized into phytic...
Several by-products, such as the leaves, the hazelnut green leafy cover, the hazelnut hard shell, and hazelnut skin, are obtained through the harvesting, shelling hulling, cracking, and roasting processes, respectively. These by-products have a lower commercial value than hazelnut kernels. However, among these by-products, the hazelnut's hard shell is currently used for burning as a heat source, for mulching, and as a raw material for the production for furfural in the dye industry. Moreover, the hazelnut green leafy covers and tree leaves are sometimes used as organic fertilizers for hazelnut trees and other crops upon composting. Hazel leaves are also widely used in folk medicine, in the preparation of infusions for the treatment of hemorrhoids, varicose veins, phlebitis, and edema of the lower limbs, as consequence of its astringency, vasoprotective, and anti-edema properties (Valnet, 1992).
In hilly and heavily eroded areas of China where these diseases were endemic, the use of selenium-enriched fertilizers was not feasible as an intervention because of the huge geographical areas involved and hence the high cost. Instead, direct human supplementation of at-risk and affected populations was introduced during the 1970s using a 0.5 or 1.0 mg sodium selenite supplement (according to age) per person per week. In Shaanxi province, following supplementation, the prevalence of Keshan disease declined from 12 per 1000 to undetectable levels between 1976 and 1985, and in Heilongjiang province the prevalence of Kashin-Beck disease declined from 44 to 1 of the population between 1970 and 1986. An alternative approach to intervention, by selenium enrichment of crop and grassland fertilizers, was introduced in the 1970s in Finland. Here, there was no overt evidence of selenium deficiency in the human population, but Se deficiency disease had occurred, and had been successfully...
Anthropogenic sources of manganese are predominantly from the manufacturing of steel, alloys, and iron products. Manganese is widely used as an oxidizing agent, as a component of fertilizers and fungicides, and in dry cell batteries. Methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT) improves combustion in boilers and motors and can substitute for lead in gasoline as an antiknock agent. Concentrations of manganese in groundwater normally range between 1 and 100 mgl-1, with most values being below 10 mgl 1 Typical airborne levels of manganese (in the absence of excessive pollution) range from 10 to 70ngm 3.
Organic food, is grown with a number of restrictions. For example, organic farmers in the meat industry give no antibiotics or growth hormones to the animals. Organic food also is prepared without conventional pesticides, fertilizers, or ionizing radiation. The National Organic Program is a federal law that requires all organic food products to meet the same standards and be certified under the same certification process. Along with this program, the USDA has developed strict labeling rules to help consumers know the specific content of the organic food they buy. The USDA organic seal means that at least 95 percent of the product is organic.
Spreading untreated abattoir- and or farm wastes (manure, slurry) containing enteric pathogens as fertilizers on agricultural land (Pepperell et al., 2005 Hutchison, Walters, Avery, & Moore, 2004). Therefore, inappropriate land management can mediate infections and or re-infections of animals with enteric pathogens.
GoD-made food and drink does not need a nutrition label. What is found in nature is organic (without man-made herbicides, pesticides, and synthetic hormones, fertilizers) and has all the complex nutrients to be properly processed in the body. I recently read an interesting title for White Oil. This product has had essentially all the color and nutrients stripped away.
Dairy farms are becoming larger with continuing consolidation and concentration in specific locations (Lakshminarayan et al., 1994). Nearly 50 of dairy production occurred under contract in 1998. From 1950 to 1987, the number of farms reporting milk cows declined by roughly 94 , with the average number of cows per farm increasing from fewer than 6 to 50. Regional trends suggest a shift of dairy production from the Midwest and Northeast to the West and the southern regions of the United States to take advantage of more favorable climate that contributes to lower financial outlays. The high cost of transporting dairy waste to where it can be used in crop production partly explains the transformation of manure from a valued commodity as fertilizer to a waste with little or negative value (Manale and Narrod, 1994). Operations have concentrated within certain regions, generally clustering around feed granaries or slaughterhouses to reduce transportation costs. In contrast to the...
Selenium content of foods depends on the extent of its presence in soil whether directly as plant food or indirectly as animal products when selenium levels are derived from feed. Sulfur content in commercial fertilizers inhibits plant absorption of the mineral. Refining, processing, and cooking of foods reduce selenium levels. High doses are toxic and no more than 300 mcg a day are recommended. Zinc content of foods depends on soil content. Chemical fertilizers impair its absorption into
People who are constantly exposed to carcinogens in their workplaces are at an increased risk for cancer. The more frequent the exposure and the higher the level of exposure, the greater the risk. Manufacturers and farmers who handle fertilizers and pesticides may be at risk. Truck drivers and tollbooth workers on busy highways are exposed to high levels of diesel exhaust. People who work as dry cleaners or furniture finishers handle solvents and other materials that are carcinogenic. So do people who work in laboratories and chemical factories.
Plan ahead and shop early for your plants. Buy seeds and grow seedlings for planting after all signs of frost. Leaf lettuce is easy to grow and it produces for several months during the late spring and early summer. Choose different types of yellow and green beans that you can freeze in the fall. Be aware of the different varieties of vine and bush plants. Give yourself enough room for growing cucumbers and tomatoes. Cone-shaped screens that limit spread are great for tight spaces. My suggestion decide what you want to grow, then find an organic source of plants and seeds. For fertilizer, I have a source for aged manure. There is always someone who has animal fertilizer. Organic mixtures are readily available today as well.
Between 1950 and 1984, world grain output rose an astonishing 260 percent, thanks to a combination of improved varieties, irrigation, artificial fertilizers, and chemical pest control. During the same period, the number of people on the planet almost doubled. Today, world population growth adds about 90 million new mouths to feed every year, while land degradation, pest resistance, pollution, and climate changes have slowed or leveled growth in crop production. In the early 1990s, world grain production per capita began to decline for the first time since the Second World War. There are many who believe that biotechnology may now be the only way to reverse this problematic new trend and maintain food supplies (Figure 4.1).
Another factor is the fact that Russian comfrey has been promoted for its benefits as a fertilizer and in making compost, especially for organic gardeners. It is wonderful for this purpose, but the problem from a medicinal point of view is that this is now the comfrey that most people have growing in their gardens.
Sprouted rhizomes collected from the vigorously growing mother plants are used as planting material. About 80 000 propagules are required for one hectare of land. The planting time is June-July. The rhizome bits are planted in about 6 cm deep furrows with a spacing of 30 cm between the rows and 35 cm between the plants. Application of farmyard manure or compost, 8-10 tonnes hectare supplemented with organic fertilizer is needed for good growth. For satisfactory cultivation and yield application of 100 kg ha nitrogen is recommended (Tiwari et al., 2000 Kumar et al., 2000).
The crop is propagated either through seeds or through root divisions. It prefers a well-drained, fertile soil. The seeds are sown outdoors during spring in a seedbed. The roots are divided in spring or autumn and planted. Mature plants require wider space, as they are large and bulky. Deep, rich moist soil and full sun or partial shade are required for better growth. The plants need to be cut back during summer to get a continuous supply of tender leaves. Fertilization with balanced organic fertilizer is required in spring and mulching is done in summer. Young flower stalks are removed to keep the foliage fresh for longer.
The mean nutrient uptake of the crop is 22.8 kg N, 28 kg P2O5 and 36.9 kg K2O per hectare. Application of 50-75 kg N, 60 kg P2O5 and 50-75 kg K2O is found to be beneficial for increased rhizome and oil yields. Application of farmyard manure at 30 tonnes ha is superior to the application of nutrients through inorganic form of fertilizers and it increased the yield by 60 . A well-managed plantation yields about 4-6 tonnes of fresh rhizomes per hectare. The dry recovery varies from 23 to 28 . Leaf rot disease may occur during the rainy season and can be controlled by trenching the beds with 1 Bordeaux mixture.
Expanding global demand for echinacea threatens to result in unsustainable levels of wild harvest, and significant habitat destruction contributes to these concerns. Worries about the presence of undesirable agricultural residues such as herbicides, fertilizers, heavy metals, and pesticides also must be dealt with. This suggests that cultivation under carefully controlled conditions should be investigated to produce sustainable quantities of safe material of high potency, yields, and purity. Cultivation is, in fact, easy from seeds, and the perennial nature of the plant suggests that this should be economical.
The propagation is both vegetative (through bulbs) or through seeds. In vegetative propagation bulbs that are three or four years old and of 3-4 cm diameter are used About 2.5 x 105-3 x 105 bulbs are needed for a hectare (Munshi et al., 1989). When seed is used, 1-1.5 kg seeds ha is sown in the first year, and in the second year re-seeding at the rate of 200 g ha is practised to maintain the required population. Sowing is in September-October in rows spaced at 15-20 cm, in raised beds. Germination takes place after the winter in April. During the growing period, growth and development of aerial shoot and underground tubers takes place, and in the ensuing winter the aerial portion dies out and the tubers remain dormant in the soil (Panwar 2000). A fertilizer dose of 20-25 kg farmyard manure (FYM), 60 kg of nitrogen, 30 kg of phosphorus and 30 kg potash per hectare is recommended for good yield (Panwar et al., 1993, Panwar, 2000). Irrigation is recommended at peak flowering and seed...
The Green Revolution (GR) refers to the use of high-yield variety (HYV) seeds, which were invented by the crop geneticist Norman Borlaugh. HYVs are normally used as a part of a technological package that also includes biochemical inputs such as water, fertilizers, and pesticides, and often mechanical inputs. The GR, which started in the 1960s, is the last of the four agricultural revolutions in the world. It has been used in more than one hundred poor countries and has made possible a revolutionary increase in food production. The origin of the Green Revolution can be traced to the early twentieth century and the Malthusian fear that world food production would eventually fail to feed the growing population. This would result in a red revolution by the hungry. The implications of the GR for agrarian change, and especially for smaller farmers and laborers, have been widely debated.
The key principles used by organic farming systems are not to use chemo-synthetic mineral fertilizers and to minimize the use of permitted external fertility inputs, crop protection products and energy use - 'external' meaning that they are not produced on the farm as a group of collaborating farm businesses. Chemo-synthetic mineral fertilizers such as nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers are not permitted and this prohibition has resulted from a range of considerations. Most importantly, such fertilizers are thought to substitute for natural mechanisms of nutrient acquisition by plants. Clover and other legumes have traditionally been used to enrich agricultural soils with nitrogen. Legume plants have the unique ability to form symbiotic relationships with a specific group of soil bacteria called rhizobium. The symbiotic relationship between the legume plant and the rhizobium bacterium is extremely close in that the bacterium is taken up by the plant and 'housed' in a separate plant...
Lavandula angustifolia is mainly propagated by seed, sown in spring or autumn, depending on the severity of the winters in the region (Weiss, 1997). Sowing can be directly into fields but more often is in nursery beds, where the plants remain for about a year. Clonal plants are made via cuttings. Healthy mother plants are cut down near ground level and the branches can be stored for months before preparing the cuttings of 10-15 cm with one or two branchlets. These are also planted in a nursery, usually in the spring, for a year. Green cuttings can be used but these require tender care, growth hormones and misting. The plants are planted out in rows 1.5 m apart with 0.4-0.4 m between rows giving 10 000 plants per ha for L. angustifolia and about half for the hybrids (Weiss, 1997). Husbandry has now improved the lavender crops (Lis-Balchin, 2002c) and include fertilizers, often as ash
Uniformity is another difficult area. Strictly speaking, since herbs are agricultural products, uniformity should start with the sites of agricultural production. The sites of production have different weather conditions, different soil contents, and different methods of plantation. At the moment, maybe more than 50 of popular Chinese herbs are produced on special farms in China. However, these farms are scattered over different provinces in China, which have widely different climatic and soil environments. Good agricultural practice demands that environmental and nurturing procedures be uniformly ensured. Procedures include soil care, watering, fertilizers, pest prevention, and harvests. When such procedures are not uniform and there are no means to ensure a common practice, good agricultural practice is not possible.