Lose Weight By Controlling The Fat Storage Hormone

The Beta Switch Weight Loss Program by Sue Heintze

Beta Switch Program is a proven, science-based, enjoyable weight loss program aimed at fighting stubborn fats in women. It was designed to specifically switches on the fat-burning power of stubborn female trouble spots, without restricting your favorite foods or doing excessive exercises. This is a System that allows women to achieve and experience freedom from obsessive-compulsive dieting, damaging workouts and negative body image. The plan was not created to be a quick fix. In fact, like every weight loss programs, it is hard; yet the easiest that can be. The system requires their full attention, being constant, and their discipline. For the period of its usage, they will have the opportunity to eat their favorite food without much fear. The only difference this time is that they will be eating it strategically. The methods employed in this book are natural ones that have been tested scientifically. The system comes with various bonuses- The Beta Switch Workout System, the 5-Day Tummy Tuck, Boost Your Body Image Report, Mind Over Matter: Win the Mental Game of Fat Loss and 1 full month in the exclusive Tight n' Toned club. Continue reading...

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Beta Switch Program Review

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All of the information that the author discovered has been compiled into a downloadable pdf so that purchasers of Beta Switch Program can begin putting the methods it teaches to use as soon as possible.

This ebook does what it says, and you can read all the claims at his official website. I highly recommend getting this book.

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High blood sugar and insulin can increase fat storage

To lose body fat more efficiently, your goal is to maintain steady blood sugar levels. Here's why The over-secretion of insulin activates fat storage enzymes and promotes the movement of triglycerides (fat) in the bloodstream into fat cells for storage. High insulin levels also inhibit enzymes that promote the breakdown of existing stored body fat. You can manage your blood sugar and insulin levels by choosing fewer simple carbohydrates, more complex carbohydrates, eating fiber and having your carbohydrates with lean proteins approximately every three hours.

Regulators of Lipolysis and Fat Storage

The processes of lipolysis and fat storage are regulated by hormonal factors, which either enhance or suppress the activities of HSL and LPL. Through the action of glucocorticoid receptors, glucocorticoids enhance LPL activity and promote abdominal deposition of fat. The density of glucocorticoid receptors is greater in the visceral abdominal depot than in the subcutaneous abdominal depot. Therefore, an increase in glucocorticoid secretion is associated with increases in abdominal fat deposition compared to other fat depots. Insulin favors fat storage by increasing LPL and decreasing HSL activity. Insulin has stronger antily-polytic effects in adipose located in the abdominal region compared to the femoral regions in both men and women. Paradoxically, insulin binding is stronger in the gluteal-femoral region than the abdominal region. Therefore, it has been hypothesized that insulin regulates lipolysis at the postreceptor level. Sex hormones, such as estrogen, testosterone, and...

Leptin ob Protein

For 40 years, scientists searched for a mechanism by which the brain could monitor body fat deposition in order to keep an animal's body weight constant. In 1994, a gene that controlled the expression of a protein produced by adipose tissue was identified. Circulating levels of this protein (the ob protein) could be measured in normal weight mice. However, in obese ob ob mice, which display marked overeating, this protein was absent due to a mutation of the ob gene. A series of studies demonstrated that the absence of this protein was responsible for over-consumption and obesity in the obese ob ob. As the ob protein reduces food intake and also increases metabolic energy expenditure, both of which would result in weight loss, it was named leptin from the Greek 'leptos' meaning thin. In general, circulating levels of leptin appear to reflect the current status of body fat deposition and increase with the level of adiposity demonstrating the responsiveness of endogenous leptin to weight...

Number of fat cells

You were born with a predetermined number of fat cells. Some people are born with more than others. The person born with more fat cells is at a disadvantage compared to someone with fewer fat cells. Fat cell number can increase throughout life but it cannot decrease (except through liposuction, which has many potential hazards). Fortunately, what can change is the size of the fat cells. Even someone with a large number of fat cells can shrink all of them, thereby becoming dramatically thinner and leaner.

Body Weight and Energy Balance

Substitution of nonalcohol calories by alcohol calories, which are 'wasted' during metabolism Alcohol metabolism decreases lipid metabolism, promotes fat storage multicenter studies, alcoholic hepatitis patients demonstrate universal evidence for protein calorie malnutrition, according to the physical findings of muscle wasting and edema, low levels of serum albumin and other visceral proteins, and decreased cell-mediated immunity, whereas their 6-month mortality is related in part to the severity of malnutrition. Anorexia is a major cause of weight loss in alcoholic liver disease, and may be caused by increased circulating levels of leptin. Furthermore, active alcoholic hepatitis contributes to increased resting energy expenditure as another cause of weight loss. On the other hand, resting energy expenditure is normal in stable alcoholic cirrhotics who are also typically underweight or malnourished in part due to preferential metabolism of endogenous fat stores. At the same time, the...

What Is Unique about This Book

The many kinds of hormones that affect fat storage and utilization. This book is one of the first to offer questionnaires to help you realize when your own hormones are working against you. It also discusses how the hormonal changes that occur with menopause and andropause can cause you to become overfat and tells you how exercise and nutrition can help rebalance these hormones.

Delia M Vzquez1 and Seymour Levine2

There is an important caveat in making the assumption that the reduced level of CORT following stress indicates a reduction in biological activity. CORT exists in the circulation in two forms, bound and unbound. The large majority of CORT in the adult is bound to cortisol-binding protein (CBG) and other plasma binding proteins. Only a small fraction exists in the free form, which is considered to be the biologically active form. Following stress, CBG is somewhat decreased, making more of the circulating CORT available as free CORT (Fleshner et al., 1995 Tannenbaum et al., 1997). Another aspect of the SHRP in rodents is the relative absence of CBG during the SHRP (Henning, 1978). Thus, although the absolute values of CORT, which normally include both bound and unbound hormone, are very low in the absence of CBG the actual fraction of CORT that is available in the free form for binding to corticosteroid receptors may actually be higher than is observed in the adult. There are few data...

Caregiver Differences

While the aforementioned studies examined parents and children together, it is important to also examine the effects of parents' behaviors on children's capacities to regulate emotion on their own. Here, the level of parents' autonomy supportiveness versus controllingness in their interactions with their children becomes especially relevant. While not proposing such a model, several studies have examined parent behaviors that can be related to an autonomy support to control continuum. Silverman and Ragusa (1990) found that mothers who were more active in a parent-child compliance task had children who performed more poorly on an independent delay task, even controlling for performance on the compliance tasks. Nachmias, Gunnar, Manglesdorf, Parritz, and Buss (1996) examined the strategies that mothers used to help their wary children deal with a mildly fear-inducing stimulus. Mothers who forced their children to focus on a novel event had children with higher postsession cortisol...

Learn the Difference between Male and Female Fat Patterns

For a variety of reasons, including hormones and metabolic processes that affect fat storage in particular areas of the body, when men and women first begin to gain weight, they do not store it in the same place. A typical overweight man looks like an apple. He carries his weight above the waist, resulting in the classic bulging abdomen, also known as the beer belly. A typical overweight woman carries her fat below the waist in the hips and the buttocks, resulting in a pear-shaped silhouette.

Stress In Sports And Exercise

Physical training involves repeating a set of exercises with increasing intensity over an extended period. Selye2 noticed that exposure to a particular stressor can increase the body's ability to cope with that stressor in the future through a process of physiologic adaptation. The increase in ability and performance with training shows how the body adapts to the required effort. Selye also recognized that severe and extended exposure to any stressor could ultimately exceed the ability of the system to cope. Runners who habitually train more than 45 miles a week at moderate to high intensity are known to have chronically elevated cortisol levels and negative mood states.3 Full recovery from overtraining stress may take months of abstinence from the particular exercise.

Initiation and Stimulation of Eating Mechanisms Underpinning Hunger

Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is probably the most studied appetite stimulatory peptide. NPY is found throughout the CNS and in particular abundance in the PVN of the hypothalamus. Hypothalamic NPY neurons that are implicated in appetite regulation project from the ARC to the PVN. Infusing NPY directly into the CNS or increasing release of NPY within the PVN promotes meal initiation and produces an immediate and marked increase in food intake, delaying the onset of satiety. The hyperpha-gic effects of NPY appear to be mediated by both NPY Y1 and Y5 receptors. Endogenous NPY is sensitive to a variety of peripherally generated signals. It is stimulated by the gut factor ghrelin, but inhibited by the pancreatic hormone amylin, the adiposity signal leptin, and the satiety neurotrans-mitter serotonin (5-HT). Like NPY, galanin-induced hyperphagia has been well documented. Early studies demonstrated that direct infusion of galanin into the hypothalamus of rodents stimulated feeding behavior....

Integration of Episodic and Tonic Signals within the CNS

Within these sites numerous neurochemicals (first neurotransmitters and then neuropeptides) have been identified as potent inhibitors and stimulators of feeding behavior. 5-HT has been implicated as a critical CNS satiety factor in the short-term regulation of food intake. Specifically, the 5-HT system appears to be sensitive to meal-generated satiety factors such as CCK, enterostatin, and ingested macronutrients. Moreover, 5-HT drugs appear to enhance satiety, suppress CNS NPY release, and inhibit hunger. 5-HT appears to mediate the effects of episodic meal-generated satiety on appetite. The second CNS system to be involved is that of the melanocortins, which appear integral in the action of circulating leptin on intake and (like 5-HT) its agonists also inhibit NPY functioning. Thus, the melanocortins may mediate the effects of tonic energy status on appetite. The melanocortins are one of the inhibitory systems through which the tonic adiposity...

Susceptibility to Mood Enhancement by Diet

Nevertheless, recent research provides some further support for beneficial effects of carbohydrate-rich protein-poor meals on mood and emotion in some people. When participants were divided into high and low stress-prone groups, as defined by a questionnaire, carbohydrate-rich protein-poor meals prior to a stressful task were found to block task-induced depressive feelings and the release of the glucocorticoid stress hormone cortisol, but only in the high stress-prone group. This finding was replicated using high- and low-tryptophan-containing proteins (a-lactalbumin and casein, respectively). It was argued that, because stress increases 5-HT activity, the poor response to stress of the sensitive group might indicate a deficit in 5-HT synthesis that is improved by this dietary intervention. There is another link between macronutrient intake, stress, and mood. Chronic dysfunction of the stress-sensitive hormone cortisol and its controlling hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis is...

Exercise Can Be a Positive or Negative Stressor

With negative emotion, the musculoskeletal system is less balanced. If an event is interpreted as a negative stressor, more of the stress hormone cortisol is produced as a response. Higher levels and longer secretion of cortisol can change brain wiring, hamper physical performance, and harm health.

Genomic Actions of Retinoic Acid

At pharmacological levels, retinoic acid enhances the expression of uncoupling protein 1 (thermogenin) in brown adipose tissue and decreases the expression of leptin in white adipose tissue, suggesting that it may have an effect on energy homeostasis, but it is not known whether or not the effects are relevant at physiological levels (Kumaretal., 1999 Villarroyaetal., 1999). Retinoic acid also induces synthesis of glucokinase in pancreatic f -islet cells. Increased metabolism of glucose as a result of glucokinase activity is responsible for initiating insulin secretion in response to a rise in blood glucose concentration, and retinoic acid increases the secretion of insulin by pancreatic islets in culture (Cabrera-Valladares et al., 1999).

The subcutaneous layer

The subcutaneous layer contains the same collagen and elastin fibres as the dermis and contains the major arteries and veins which supply the skin and form a network throughout the dermis. The fat cells contained within this layer help to insulate the body by reducing heat loss.

How low should you go

It's impossible for body fat levels to drop to zero since some fat is located internally and is necessary for normal body functioning. This is called essential fat. Essential fat is necessary for energy storage, protection of internal organs, and insulation against heat loss. Essential fat is found in the nerves, brain, bone marrow, liver, heart, and in nearly all the other glands and organs of the body. In women, this fat also includes sex-related fat deposits including the breast tissue and uterus. Essential body fat is 2-3 for men and 7-8 for women.

Plasma Vitamin D Binding Protein GcGlobulin

The plasma binding protein has a higher affinity for calcidiol and 24-hydroxycalcidiol than for calcitriol or cholecalciferol. The plasma concentration of Gc-globulin is about 6 mmol per L - considerably higher than the concentrations of other hormone binding proteins, such as thyroxine binding globulin (300 mol per L), cortisol binding globulin (800 mol per L), or sex hormone binding globulin (40 mol per L in males and 80 mol per L in females) and far in excess of circulating vitamin D. As a result of this, whereas the other hormone binding globulins are about 50 saturated under normal conditions, the vitamin D binding protein is only about 2 saturated. This means that changes in the circulating concentration of the protein are unlikely to have any significant effect on the small proportion of vitamin D metabolites that is free, rather than protein-bound. Again, unlike other hormone binding globulins, the plasma concentration of Gc-globulin is not affected by vitamin D status or...

Glycyrrhizic Acid Glycyrrhizin

The triterpenoid glycyrrhizin is anti-inflammatory and is metabolised to the aglycone glycyrrhizic acid, which inhibits 11-h-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, involved in corticosteroid metabolism. The aglycone inhibited N-acetyltransferase activity in human colon tumor cell lines, and inhibited the formation of DNA adducts (118). Although glycyrrhizin did not directly induce apoptosis, it enhanced Fas-mediated apoptotic body formation and DNA fragmentation in T-cell lines (119). The action of licorice root, the main source of glycyrrhizin, on cancer has been reviewed (71).

Lack of Restorative Sleep and the Possible Roles of Substance P and HPA Axis

In the 1990s, researchers proposed that exposure to stressful conditions could alter the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, a major part of the neuroendocrine system that controls reactions to stress and regulates many body processes. Variations in HPA function are characterized by high levels of cortisol, which in turn is associated with the development of widespread pain. When cortisol excretion levels were measured in one research study, with a sample of forty-seven women diagnosed with FM compared to a control sample of fifty-eight healthy women of similar age, it was confirmed the women with FM excreted significantly lower cortisol levels than the healthy women. Other data in FM have demonstrated a blunted cortisol response to the stress of high-intensity exercise. Most recently, a lack of normal daily cortisol variation has been identified in FM. Another hypothesis suggests that reduced sleep leads to reduced production of human growth hormone (HGH)...

Use of Immunotherapy in Conventional Cancer Medicine

Interferons (IFNs) have been the most extensively studied cytokines in cancer treatment. As a group, interferons affect a wide array of immunological functions. They mediate antiviral and antimicrobial activity, stimulate or inhibit leukocyte proliferation, suppress onco-genes, enhance tumor antigen expression, suppress angiogenesis, and augment the activity of NK cells, T lymphocytes, and macrophages. Interferons and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) also increase the burning of body fat stores, possibly to release energy reserves from fat cells for the immune system to use. In this capacity, they play a role in the development of cachexia (tissue wasting disease). Although this is a drawback to their use, interferons still produce an anticancer effect at tolerable doses.

Tea Weight Control and Thermogenesis

Black, green, and oolong teas, perhaps because of their limited caffeine content, have been found to increase thermogenesis, to inhibit lipases, and to control body weight and body fat (Table 12 see also Table 9) (87,145-151). The relevant mechanism may be an effect on fat cell synthesis and the endocrine system, modulated by leptin. Green tea and caffeine increased physical activity and lowered body fat in mice. Also, tea, especially epigallo-

Central and nutritional control of adaptive thermogenesis

Signals involved in the long-term regulation of energy balance that convey information to the brain about the size of body fat stores (the so-called 'adiposity signals'), besides affecting food intake, modulate energy expenditure through effects on the activity of the SNS and the pituitary-thyroid axis, and also through direct effects on the oxidative and thermo-genic capacity activity of peripheral tissues. This is the case for leptin, the paradigm of the adiposity signal, which suppresses appetite, and enhances energy expenditure and fat oxidation in peripheral tissues (reviewed in reference 45). In human obesity, leptin deficiency is rare, but leptin resistance is common.

Conclusion Let your results dictate your approach

Some people are born with the propensity to become fatter than others. There are naturally skinny ectomorphs and naturally fatter endormorphs. Some individuals are given more fat cells by heredity, some fewer. But the set point is affected by environment and behavior as well as heredity. You can vary your set point considerably depending on what and how you eat, as well as what kind and how much exercise you do.

Evidence Considered For Estimating The Average Requirement For Carbohydrate

Overall, the key to the metabolic adaptation to extended starvation is the rise in circulating nonesterified fatty acid concentrations and the large increase in ketoacid production. The glycerol released from the hydrolysis of triacylglycerols stored in fat cells becomes a significant source of substrate for gluconeogenesis, but the conversion of amino acids derived from protein catabolism into glucose is also an important source. Interestingly, in people who consumed a protein-free diet, total nitrogen excretion was reported to be in the range of 2.5 to 3.5 g d (35 to 50 mg kg), or the equivalent of 16 to 22 g of catabolized protein in a 70-kg man (Raguso et al., 1999). Thus, it is similar to that in starving individuals (3.7 g d) (Owen et al., 1998). Overall, this represents the minimal amount of protein oxidized through gluconeogenic pathways (Du Bois, 1928). This amount of protein is considerably less than the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) of 0.8 g kg d for adults with a...

Stress Can Make You

Stress has become a condition in which we accept a short-term level of heightened performance at the expense of long-term health. Whether physical or emotional, stress has many negative effects on the body. One of them is the accumulation of a hormone called cortisol. When faced with a stressful situation, the body produces an adrenaline rush that releases fat and glucose as an energy source to help deal with the stressor. Once the crisis subsides, cortisol becomes active and stimulates the appetite so that we can replenish our fat stores. Since most of us don't reach for an apple or a chicken breast when we feel hungry, the release of cortisol usually leads to grabbing a quick carbohydrate snack such as a slice of pizza, a donut, a candy bar, or some type of high-carbohydrate fast food. Unfortunately, living with a high level of daily stress causes the body to produce a consistently high level of cortisol, leading to a vicious cycle of stress, frequent overeating, and fat gain.

Underlying Factors Glucocorticoids

Maternal glucocorticoids can also influence birth weight of the offspring. Under normal conditions, fetal exposure to glucocorticoids is relatively low due to the presence of placental 11 3-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 (11 HSD2), an enzyme that acts as a placental barrier by inactivating maternal glu-cocorticoids before they cross into the fetal environment. Maternal glucocorticoid treatment during pregnancy or inhibition of the placental 11 3HSD2 can therefore increase the amount of active gluco-corticoid crossing the placenta. Excess glucocorti-coid exposure has also been implicated in disturbing the normal growth and development of the fetus with consequential effects on the overall health of the adult offspring. There does, however, appear to be a critical window of sensitivity where the developing fetus is particularly sensitive to glu-cocorticoids. Glucocorticoid overexposure in the 3rd trimester is known to cause reductions in birth weight. Studies in rats have established...

Maternal Total Food Intake

Despite the observed significant reduction in birth weight, adult rats exposed to maternal undernutri-tion (30 of ad libitum intake) whilst in utero have been shown to develop obesity. Compared to the control offspring, the feed-restricted offspring appear to have been inappropriately programed and display hyperphagia and elevated food consumption as a consequence of in utero exposure to an adverse maternal diet. The underlying mechanisms leading to the hyperphagia in these offspring remains to be determined. However, the involvement of leptin resistance has been implied as these offspring also display hyperleptinemia and have significantly elevated fat pad mass as adults.

Maternal Protein Consumption

Recently, evidence has been provided suggesting that taurine supplementation to the maternal low-protein diet may benefit the health outcomes of the rat offspring. Maternal taurine supplementation was found to restore and normalize the vascularization of the offspring's endocrine pancreas. Despite these findings, there is little evidence to suggest that a maternal high-protein intake has overall beneficial effects on the metabolic health of the offspring. Some human epidemiological studies and human trials involving high-protein dietary supplementation have in fact demonstrated that the consumption of a high-animal-protein, low-carbohydrate diet throughout late pregnancy can lead to metabolic disturbances in the offspring when they reach adulthood. It has been suggested that these high-protein diets stimulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and cause maternal cortisol levels to increase. As a result, the developing fetus is presented with the metabolic stress of being exposed...

Postnatal Growth and Later Risk of Disease

Postnatal growth is clearly related to prenatal growth. Some metabolic changes associated with prenatal nutritional sufficiency may affect postnatal physiology and behavior that, in turn, affect growth. In addition, there is intriguing evidence from animal studies that prenatal nutritional restriction alters appetite and induces hyperphagia, and also reduces physical activity in adult animals (see Figure 2). If true in humans, this would be an important pathway by which disease risk is affected. Suggestive evidence comes from human infants whose cord blood leptin levels at birth were inversely related to weight gain in the first 4 months of life, independent of birth weight. Leptin may relate to subsequent growth by affecting appetite and energy intake.

Hypothalamic Control of Hunger in Anorexia Nervosa

In normal individuals fasting and weight loss increase hunger by multiple mechanisms (decreased serum levels of leptin, insulin, and blood glucose and increased levels of ghrelin). At the level of the hypothalamus there is an increase in the potent orexigenic neuropeptide Y and other changes in neurotransmitters secondary to the fasting state. Some of these neurotransmitter changes may be the cause or a mechanism of anorexia nervosa, and for this reason they have received considerable attention in the past several years. It is important to understand that appetite control is a very complex hypothalamic function that involves many local and systemic neuropeptides, amines, and hormones.

Plant ingredients interfering with the sympathoadrenal system

An increase in the thermic effect of food in women by adrenergic amines extracted from Citrus aurantium has been described, but this acute response may not translate into a chronic effect or a clinically significant weight loss over time.167 Synephrine has lipolytic effects in human fat cells only at high doses, and octopamine does not have lipolytic effects in human adipocytes.168 The only randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial of Citrus aurantium for weight loss conducted so far tested a combination product with high levels of caffeine (in addition to energy restriction and physical exercise over 6 weeks) and did not find an effect superior to placebo on body weight loss reduction of body fat mass was higher in the treated group, but this effect cannot be attributed to Citrus aurantium alone (see references 169 and 170). In addition, concerns have been raised about the safety of products containing synephrine, since this compound increases blood pressure in humans and other...

Emotion and the Animal Brain

CS information coming from either the auditory THALAMUS or the cortex arrives in the lateral nucleus of the amygdala and is then distributed to the central nucleus by way of internal amygdala connections that have been elucidated in some detail (Pitkanen et al. 1997). The central nucleus, in turn, is involved in the control of the expression of conditioned responses through its projections to a variety of areas in the brainstem. These behavioral (e.g., freezing, escape, fighting back), autonomic (e.g. blood pressure, heart rate, sweating), and hormonal (adrenaline and cortisol released from the adrenal gland) responses mediated by the central nucleus are involuntary and occur more or less automatically in the presence of danger (though they are modulated somewhat by the situation).

The hypothalamicpituitary adrenal axis

Glucocorticoids hormones are the last step of the activation of the HPA axis. Afferent inputs to the hypothalamus induce the release of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) CRF reaches the pituitary via the hyphophyseal portal system and activates the release of ACTH in the bloodstream, which, in turn, triggers the secretion of glucocorticoids (Cortisol in humans and corticosterone in rodents) by the cortical part of the adrenal gland (for review, see McEwen et al., 1986). In humans, as in animals, the secretion

Activation of the hypothalamuspituitaryadrenal axis

Depression is often accompanied by hypercortisolemia. Associated findings include attenuation of the corticotropin response to the administration of corticotrophin-releasing factor and nonsuppression of cortisol secretion after dexamethasone administration. Hypercortisolemia in association with blunted growth and sex hormones promotes central obesity and contributes to increased insulin resistance and diabetes among depressed subjects 31 . The presence of hypercortisolemia in insulin resistance has been documented in some, but not all, studies. A small case-control study has shown some evidence for increased cortisol production in the metabolic syndrome as well 32 . Notably, a contributory role for cortisol metabolism in the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome has been postulated. Deregulation of 11 betahydroxysteroiddehydrogenase, an enzyme that converts cortisol into cortison (which cannot activate the glucocorticoid receptor), may result in excess cortisol exposure at the tissue...

Fatty Acid Unsaturation and the Essential Fatty Acids

As noted earlier, the most abundant fatty acids in humans include a saturated fatty acid (16 0) and a monounsaturated fatty acid (18 1n-9). Humans can readily insert a ds-double bond nine carbons from the carboxyl carbon atom of a fatty acid (A9) in a reaction catalyzed by stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD1 so-named because the preferred substrate is the CoA derivative of 18 0, stearic acid). Because SCD1 is involved in the synthesis of such an abundant fatty acid, 18 1, the importance of this enzyme in metabolism was initially overlooked. However, 18 1 produced by SCD1 appears to be directed specifically towards triacylglycerol synthesis. Mice in which the SCD1 gene is disrupted have decreased adiposity. Furthermore, genetically obese leptin-deficient (ob- ob-) mice in which the SCD1 gene is also disrupted have significantly reduced body weight compared with ob- ob- mice, leading to the hypothesis that leptin regulates the synthesis of SCD1. Interestingly, dietary 18 1 seems to be more...

Regulation of food intake role of neuropeptides

Leptin is a protein encoded by the gene LEP, and is a member of cytokine receptor family (Aleman et al. 2002). It is produced by adipocytes and acts on specific receptors in the hypothalamus (Brown et al. 2001). Leptin levels regulate a network of orexigenic and anorexigenic neuropeptides and are correlated with body fat mass (Brown et al. 2001). Neuropeptide Y (NPY) and ghrelin (an orexigenic signal from the gut to the brain, mostly expressed in neuroendocrine cells of the gastric fundus) (Pinkney and Williams 2002), are the most potent feeding stimuli. They are released with falling levels of leptin, in conjunction with other orexigenic peptides (orexin, endorphin dynorphine, and melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH)) (Inui 1999). Corticosteroids and medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) stimulate the release of NPY (Tisdale 2002). Conversely an increase in leptin generates the release of potent anorexigenic substances, such as neurotensin, melanocortin, colecistokinine,...

Digestion Absorption and Metabolism

Trans fatty acids occur mainly in positions 1 and 3 of triacylglycerols, the predominant lipids in adipose tissue. The concentration of trans fatty acids in adipose tissue is approximately proportional to long-term dietary intake, and determination of the concentrations in storage fat is one method used to estimate trans fatty acid intake. However, this is not entirely straightforward as variation has been reported in the composition of adipose tissue obtained from different sites and depths, and factors that influence adipose tissue turnover rates such as dieting and exercise are also complicating factors. Trans-18 1 isomers account for approximately 70 of the trans fatty acids found in adipose tissue, and trans-18 2 isomers (trans,trans, trans,cis, and cis,trans) account for about 20 .

Adaptogenic And Tonic Effects

Ginseng is used by many athletes to improve stamina and to facilitate rapid recovery from injuries. To examine the effects of ginseng supplements on hormonal status following acute resistance exercise, eight male college students were randomly given water (control group) or 20 g ginseng root extract treatment immediately after a standardised training exercise. Human growth hormone, testosterone, Cortisol, and insulin-like growth factor 1 levels were determined by radioimmunoassay. The responses of plasma hormones following ginseng consumption were not significant between the control and the ginseng groups during the 2-hour recovery period (YouI et al 2002).

Food stress and reward

The hypothalamus, especially the arcuate nucleus, is relatively accessible to circulating factors and receives inputs from other areas of the brain, including the tractus solitarius and the area postrema 79 . The hypothalamus receives signals that relate to total energy stores in fat and to immediate changes in energy availability, including insulin, leptin, and nutrients within the gut. Afferent signals from the gut to the brain are carried in vagal and splanchnic nerve pathways. The gut also releases several hormones that have incretin- (GLP-1, GIP), hunger- (Ghrelin), and satiety-stimulating (PYY, GLP-1, OXM) actions 79 . In addition, major afferent input originates from the adipose tissue. The adipocyte is now recognized as a bona fide endocrine cell. Adipocyte hormones such as adiponectin, resistin, and visfatin influence appetite, glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity, and vascular function, among other functions 80 . 59 Rosmond R, Bjorntorp P. Occupational status,...

Very low carbohydrate high fat high protein

The basic assumption of the very low carbohydrate approach is that carbohydrates cause fat storage because they increase insulin production. Insulin is portrayed as an evil fat-storing monster that makes everything you eat turn into fat. The objective of these programs is to control insulin by cutting out carbohydrates and this will supposedly cause rapid body fat loss.

Friedman Jeffrey 1954 MD PhD

F riedman led the team that discovered the obesity hormone, Leptin, by studying genetic mechanisms of weight regulation in mice. The fat mouse had been discovered at the Jackson Laboratory in Bar Harbor, Maine in the early 1950s. This mutant mouse was so huge that researchers assumed that it was pregnant, until it was discovered that it was a male mouse. Friedman was inspired by the work of Ethan Allen Sims, a physician at the University of Vermont College of Medicine who had been exploring the link between obesity and diabetes using male inmates at the Vermont state prison. Allen found that only very few inmates could easily put on weight, and these found it the most difficult to lose it. were already known to Friedman and his colleagues. The next step was to continue to narrow down where on the chromosome ob is by comparing it to other genes close to it (by making a genetic map, which gets increasingly specific). After this, they had a very small (comparatively) region of DNA which...

Eating more sugar while dropping the fat creates a whole new problem

When people began dropping the fat out of their diets, they created a whole new problem - their blood sugar and insulin levels went through the roof Without fat, there's nothing to slow the absorption of carbohydrates into the bloodstream. The result is a huge blood sugar and insulin spike. One of the secrets of fat loss is insulin management. A seesaw cycle of blood sugar and insulin ups and downs contributes to fat storage and a variety of diseases. Eating fat-free, high sugar food makes this up and down cycle worse and can eventually create a diabetes-like condition in the body.

Mineralocorticoid Effect

The GA constituent in licorice (and its metabolite 3-monoglucuronyl-glycyrrhetinic acid) inhibits the enzyme 11 HSD (Kato et al 1995), which catalyses the conversion of Cortisol into its inactive metabolite, cortisone. This results in delayed excretion and prolonged activity of Cortisol. Additionally, GL and GA bind to mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid receptors and may displace Cortisol from its carrier molecule, transcortin (Nissen 2003). Pseudohyperaldosteronism As Cortisol levels rise, they stimulate mineralocorticoid receptors in the distal renal tubule (Walker et al 1992). This creates pseudohyperaldosteronism, which has the same clinical features as primary aldosteronism, including sodium retention, fluid retention and oedema, hypertension, hypokalemia and metabolic alkalosis (Armanini et al 1996, Heldal & Midtvedt 2002, Kato et al 1995, vanUum et al 1998, Walker & Edwards 1994). A case report suggests that the symptoms occur despite low plasma levels of aldosterone...

Hormonal Response to Injury Infection and Cancer

Infection, cancer, or any injury to the body result in an increase in counterregulatory hormones as well as insulin concentration. As a result of cancer, sepsis, or injury, many patients develop the syndrome of insulin resistance even though they had no history of diabetes prior to cancer. In cancer patients, when the overall injury is smaller, many studies have failed to demonstrate an elevation in counterregula-tory hormones. Mild elevations in cortisol concentrations may contribute to the protein catabolism and increased gluconeogenesis. When serum insulin is measured with a sensitive assay, cancer patients demonstrate a small but significant elevation in serum insulin concentration. This is consistent with the observation that these patients have insulin resistance. Cancer patients, like diabetics, have a reduced glucose utilization and loss of the first-phase insulin The rise in serum cortisol as the host's response to the tumor is one of many factors that are responsible for the...

Fat across the Species Barrier

I n 1997, researchers presented a claim at the Experimental Biology meeting in New Orleans (a city known for food) that obesity could be caused in part by an infectious agent, adenovirus-36 (Ad-36). Nikhil Dhurandhar (then at Wayne State University, Detroit, Mich. and now at the Pennington Biomedical Research Center at Louisiana State University in Baton Rouge) and Richard Atkinson (Obetech, Richmond, Virg.) undertook to show that this increase in obesity is the type of pattern that might occur with a new infectious disease, as has been seen with the AIDS virus (Anon. Virus May Be Linked to Obesity 1997). Both were engaged in obesity research. Indeed, Atkinson was a founder of the American Obesity Association and an editor of the association's flagship journal. They speculated that Ad-36 makes animals fat by stimulating the growth and reproduction of adi-pocytes (fat cells), as well as by causing immature adi-pocytes to mature more quickly. Thus, they claimed that animals infected...

Memory Storage Modulation of

Emotionally exciting experiences induce the release of adrenal hormones, including the adrenal medullary hormone epinephrine (Adrenaline) and the adrenal cortex hormone corticosterone (in humans, cortisol). Experiments with animal and human subjects indicate that these hormones, as well as other hormones released by learning experiences, play an important role in regulating memory storage (Izquierdo and Diaz 1983 McGaugh and Gold 1989). Administration of epinephrine to rats or mice shortly after training enhances their long-term memory of the training (Gold, McCarty, and Sternberg 1982). b-adrenergic antagonists such as propranolol block the memory enhancement induced by epinephrine. Comparable findings have been obtained in studies with human subjects. The finding that b-adrenergic antagonists block the enhancing effects of emotional arousal on long-term memory formation in humans supports the hypothesis that b-adrenergic agonists,

Hormonal Control of Secretory Activation

The decrease in progesterone around parturition is generally agreed to be required for the onset of milk secretion. In humans, it is known that removal of the placenta, the source of progesterone, is necessary for the initiation of milk secretion. In swine, timing of the increase in milk lactose correlates closely with timing of the decrease in plasma progesterone at parturition. Exogenous progesterone prevents lactose and lipid synthesis in mammary glands of pregnant rats and sheep after removal of their ovaries, the source of progesterone in these species. Progesterone also suppresses -casein expression in the rat mammary gland during pregnancy and the decrease in progesterone levels is linked to increased -casein synthesis at parturition. Receptors for progesterone are not detected in lactating mammary tissues, which explains why progesterone does not inhibit established lactation. It is likely that the decline in progesterone is insufficient to activate secretion and that the...

Protein intake and gaining lean body weight

You need more calories to gain weight, but if you added all the extra calories in the form of fat or carbohydrate, you would probably find yourself quickly gaining body fat As bodybuilders know all too well, excess carbohydrates, especially in the presence of a calorie surplus, can easily cause fat storage. The same goes for dietary fats. A high calorie diet with 70 of the calories from carbohydrates might be okay for a long distance runner, but chances are, most people would get as smooth as a baby's butt

Protein intake and low carbohydrate dieting

Some people are very sensitive to carbohydrates. When they eat a lot of carbohydrates, their bodies overreact. There's an unusually large surge in their blood sugar and insulin levels, which may increase fat storage and inhibit enzymes that promote the breakdown of stored body fat. One solution to this problem is less carbohydrate and -you guessed it - more protein.

Detoxified for Health

There are many thoughts and hypothesis by Western medical thinkers as to the cause of breast lesions. Studying natural therapeutics for over 30 years, I must tell you from my experience that the three leading causes of unchecked elevated estrogen levels arise from 1) synthetic HRT (sourced from horse urine), 2) congested livers not capable of clearing estrogen, and 3) obesity. Eating high-fiber food and whole food B vitamins are absolutely necessary to combat high estrogen levels. An optimally functioning thyroid is needed to have proper bowel movements. Flax oil, rich in Omega 3 fat, promotes overall optimal hormonal function. A congested liver from consuming too much caffeine from coffee, tea, and chocolate can also lead to breast cysts.

The many types of carbohydrates

There are simple and complex carbohydrates, starchy and fibrous carbohydrates, refined and natural carbohydrates, high-glycemic and low-glycemic carbohydrates. Some of these carbohydrates are good and some are bad. The good carbohydrates are your friends they will supply you with energy and nutrients and help you get leaner and more muscular. The bad carbohydrates are your foes they have a greater potential for fat storage, they are nutritionally void and rob you of energy.

Nutrition Alcohol And Drugs

Cally leptin, a hormone secreted by fat tissue that affects the brain's appetite control centers. In some studies, mice given injections of leptin lost their appetites and, consequently, lost weight. The human response to leptin varies dramatically, and the relationship between plasma leptin levels and obesity in humans is not yet clear or confirmed. According to one study, mutations in the leptin gene are indeed responsible for obesity in both mice and humans, but these mutations are quite rare outside of the laboratory setting. Another study shows that leptin is a signal to the hypothalamus of peripheral fat deposits, but further studies are being conducted to determine if obese individuals have trouble with leptin access into the brain. Other researchers have found that lean, physically active men have lower levels of leptin than heavier, sedentary men (ages 47 to 83). Leptin research continues since solid findings could help in the treatment and prevention of obesity and diseases...

Calorie density of carbohydrates

In addition to choosing carbohydrates on the basis of whether they are refined or natural, another criteria you should use for carbohydrate selection is calorie density. Eating more calories than your body can handle at once is the primary cause of fat storage. Therefore, it makes sense that you should choose foods with a low calorie density if you want to lose fat.

Regulation of Meal Size by Satiety Peptides and Adiposity Signals

Adiposity signals such as leptin act in conjunction with satiety signals in the brain during digestion and their concentration is determined in relation to the degree of adiposity. Like CCK, the effect on meal consumption and body weight of their exogenous administration is dose dependent. Leptin is a peptide hormone produced predominantly by adipocytes, and it is also secreted by the epithelial cells of the stomach. The definitive role of leptin in digestive physiology is still being determined, but it is thought to play a part in limiting food intake in conjunction with CCK. It is when the adiposity signals interact with, and influence, the satiety signals originating from the gut that an attempt at controlling energy intake and meal size is made.

Mineral Tissue Analysis

I commonly see a deficiency of zinc in individuals who have low energy. Zinc is needed to make insulin, a factor needed for carbohydrate metabolism. Copper is often elevated in individuals with a low zinc level. When copper is elevated in females, I also see high estrogen levels with associated symptoms of PMS heavy menstrual flow and tender breast tissue.

Israel Liberzon1 Samir Khan2 and Elizabeth A Young3

The most extensively characterized neuroendocrine change associated with PTSD involves abnormalities in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. A wide variety of psychological and physiological stressors are known to produce acute activation of this axis (Herman and Cullinan, 1997) and termination of HPA activation is accomplished through a negative feedback system involving stimulation of glucocortiocoid receptors by Cortisol at the level of the hippocampus, hypothalamus, and or pituitary. PTSD patients are shown to have lower 24-h circulating levels of Cortisol in some studies (Mason et al., 1986 Yehuda et al., 1995b) although others have found no sustained baseline differences (Mason et al., 2002). Their HPA axis is also characterized by an enhanced negative feedback system. A number of studies have demonstrated increased suppression of plasma Cortisol in PTSD patients following administration of low doses of the glucocorticoid agonist dexamethasone (Yehuda et al., 1993...

Prenatal Stressor Induced Alterations to Microflora Development

To determine the impact of a prenatal stressor on microflora development, an acoustical startle stressor (i.e., 3 random 110 dB beeps over a 10 min period occurring 5 days per week) was used to evoke a stress response from pregnant rhesus monkeys either early (days 50-92) or late (days 105-147) in the 169 day gesta-tional period. These periods represent crucial time periods in nervous system and GI system development, thus making it likely that disruption of physiological homeostasis at these time points affects fetal development. This stressor resulted in a significant increase in cortisol in the pregnant mothers, but did not appear to significantly affect the number of miscarriages, gestational length, or birth weight (Bailey et al. 2004b). The stressor did, however, significantly affect the development of the intestinal microflora.

Toward a Mechanism of Stressor Induced Alterations in Microflora

It is tempting to speculate on the mechanisms through which the intestinal microflora could have been altered by stressful pregnancy conditions. For example, it is known that cortisol can affect many aspects of infant development, and many of the effects of prenatal stress on the immune system can be mimicked by administration of ACTH or the synthetic glucocorticoid, dexamethasone (Coe et al. 1996). And, others have found that giving corticosterone to pregnant rats significantly reduced the concentrations of total and Gram-negative aerobes and facultative anaerobes (Schiffrin et al. 1993). The mechanisms through which glucocorticoids might affect the microflora are not known, but fetal development of the gi tract is thought to be influenced by glucocorticoids. For example, maturation of the intestines occurs concomitantly with the prepartum surge in cortisol in pre-cocial species, such as pigs, sheep, and humans (Trahair and Sangild 1997). Moreover, very high levels of glucocorticoids...

Learn How to Exercise at the Right Level of Intensity

Our goal in this exercise program is not maximum effort but doing each type of exercise at a level of intensity, based on your gender, which will guarantee the greatest amount of fat loss and increased metabolic efficiency in the shortest amount of time. Because somewhat different hormonal responses occur during fat storage and fat metabolism in each gender, men and women tend to respond best to different exercise intensities. According to a study published by the IDEA Health and Fitness Source, women lose more fat by exercising at low to moderate levels of intensity while men seem to lose more fat by exercising at moderate to high levels of intensity. The reason is that women sustain a lower respiratory exchange rate (RER) than men during exercise at lower intensities. RER is the numeric index that indicates the amount of carbohydrates and fat used during exercise based on the ratio between the amount of carbon dioxide you produce in relationship to the amount of oxygen you consume....

Sequelae of Altered Metabolism in Visceral

Leptin is a hormone that is produced in the adipose cells and can act on the hunger center in the hypothalamus to reduce hunger and appetite and thereby lower food intake. Plasma leptin levels are correlated with body fat. Researchers have discovered a leptin receptor gene that is responsible for obesity due to the mutation or absence of the gene. This condition is extremely rare in humans. In general, in obese humans the leptin levels are elevated (hyperleptinemia). There is a progressive increase in plasma levels during puberty in girls due to the increase in body fat during this period and in response to the effect of estrogens. Circulating leptin levels tend to decrease in response to testosterone in boys, thus resulting in higher plasma leptin levels in women compared to men. Leptin levels are also affected by insulin and glucocorticoids.

Drugs For Dyskinesia Sarizotan

64 dyskinetic PD subjects, sarizotan, at doses ranging from 2 mg BID to 10 mg BID, prolonged the amount of on time without dyskinesia (55). PD symptoms were not worsened, as assessed by amount of off time or UPDRS scores, although some patients did report worsening of parkinsonism as an adverse event. Additional adverse events reported included sedation and nausea. Higher doses have been associated with suppression of the cortisol response to ACTH challenge, but this was not seen in PD. A large multicenter Phase III trial did not demonstrate a difference between sarizotan and placebo and consequently the development of this compound for PD has been abandoned (56).

Avoid fatproducing food combinations

Dallas Clouatre, author of Anti-Fat Nutrients, explains, When fat is eaten at the same time as simple carbohydrates, both the fat and the carbohydrates are pushed into fat storage. The 'bad' coupling of fats with carbohydrates slows down your metabolism and causes you to gain weight.

What are the causal relationships between fatigue and depression

There is considerable evidence to suggest that the correspondence between fatigue and depression in cancer patients may be due to their causal relationship to a third factor. Along these lines, attention has focused on certain cancers that are believed to cause depressive symptoms. Pancreatic cancer is one neoplasm that appears to display these characteristics. The prevalence of depression-related disorders among patients with pancreatic cancer is estimated to be as high as 71 (Green and Austin 1993). Moreover, numerous reports have documented the presence of depressive symptoms in patients before their pancreatic cancer was diagnosed (Joffe et al. 1986 Holland et al. 1986 Kelsen et al. 1995). Recent physiological findings provide further evidence of a causal link between pancreatic cancer and depression. Pancreatic tumours have been shown to secrete various neuropeptides and neurohormones, such as adrenocor-ticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol (Raddatz et al. 1998 Drake et al....

Biological Consequences

Cancer survivors, by virtue of persistent high levels of both physical and psychological stress, may also be susceptible to the adverse biological effects of elevated stress-related hormones, such as excessive cortisol secretion (e.g., ref. 52) and production of catecholamines such as adrenaline.53,54 Sustained increases in stress hormones can in turn have inhibitory effects on functional immunity.55 For example, elevated cortisol secretion can decrease antibody production, and inhibit natural killer (NK) cell activation,56-58 important aspects of immune functioning that may protect cancer survivors from disease recurrence and other infections. Not surprisingly, compromised immune and neuroendocrine function have been noted in cancer patients (e.g., refs. 59-63), features inimical to recovery from disease. In addition, elevated basal cortisol levels and blunted cortisol responses to acute stress tasks have been observed among some individuals with cancer,64-66 and have been associated...

Placental Buffering of Maternal Dietary Intake

Some of the maternal nutritional adaptations in pregnancy. For example, placentally derived leptin is a potent stimulator of lipolysis and there is evidence that the rate of export into the maternal circulation is controlled to allow the placenta to modulate its own substrate supply in response to the fetal demand for fats. The various homeostatic mechanisms within the placenta and their interaction with maternal physiological adaptations during pregnancy act to ensure a constant supply of substrate to the fetus, free of large diurnal fluctuations corresponding to the timing of maternal meals, and to protect the fetus against a transiently poor intake during critical periods of fetal growth. These adaptations help the mother to meet the full fetal requirement for nutrients such as LCPUFA and iron whilst consuming apparently poor diets.

Liposuction No Heart Saver

Liposuction can remove fat cells, but unlike diet and exercise may not cut your risk of heart disease and diabetes. Researchers removed roughly 20 pounds of mostly abdominal fat from l5 obese women (each had at least a 40-inch waist). But after 10 to 12 weeks, there was no change in their insulin resistance, blood sugar, blood pressure, cholesterol, C-reactive protein, or other risk factors for heart disease.53 Natural Prescription for Health If you're overweight, eat less and exercise more. Liposuction may shed pounds but not risk. It doesn't make you take in fewer calories than you burn. Another possibility Although it removes fat cells that are subcutaneous (just under the skin), liposuction doesn't shrink fat cells or remove the fat that's deeper in the abdomen, liver, and muscles.

Safety issues 1241 In animals

Fatty liver while the 9c,11t isomer had little or no effect (Clement et al., 2002 Degrace et al., 2003). While adipose tissue mass was shown to decrease after feeding CLA for 6 days, plasma levels of leptin and adiponectin decreased after 2 days of feeding, and hyperinsulinaemia developed on day 6 (Poirier et al., 2005). CLA was shown to alter the capacity of pancreatic islets to secrete insulin and the increase in insulin secretion was correlated to an increase in beta cell mass and number, leading to liver steatosis (Poirier et al., 2005). Degrace et al. (2003) demonstrated using C57BL 6J mice that the steatosis was not due to an alteration of the liver lipoprotein production. A three-fold decrease in plasma triacylglycerol and induction of mRNA expression of low-density lipoprotein receptors suggest an increase in the lipoprotein clearance at the level of liver. Further work also indicated that the steatosis was not due to impaired fatty acid oxidation as in fact in the liver,...

Your Hairs Are Counted

Hair tissue analysis reveals much about your current body health. Toxins and minerals are more concentrated in the hair. I see patterns and ratios that help me determine potential body dysfunction. High copper levels are often seen with low zinc. This pattern is common in females with high estrogen and men with prostate enlargement. Evaluating hair can assist in altering lifestyle patterns.

FAQ 8 How long should each workout last

Your weight training workouts should not last more than one hour. The optimal workout duration is probably even shorter around 45 minutes. Overly long workouts exhaust your nervous and endocrine system, decrease your levels of growth hormone and testosterone (anabolic hormones) and increase your level of cortisol (a catabolic hormone that breaks down muscle). If your workouts exceed 60 minutes, you should change your split routine, decrease your volume (number of sets, number of exercises) or decrease your rest intervals between sets. Most people can get excellent results with as little as 3045 minutes of weight training per session. If you add 30 minutes of cardio at the end, your total workout time for the session is 60 to 75 minutes.

Glossary of Terms

Body composition The ratio of lean body mass (structural and functional elements in cells, body water, muscle, bone, heart, liver, kidneys, etc.) to body fat (essential and storage) mass. Essential fat is necessary for normal physiological functioning (e.g., nerve conduction). Storage fat constitutes the body's fat reserves, the part that people try to lose.

Stress and the Endocrine System

Hypothalamus Hippocampus Crf

In nonstressful conditions, cortisol secretion is regulated within the hypothalamic-pituitary-adreno-cortical (HPAC) axis by classic negative feedback to the pituitary gland via the systemic circulation and to the hypothalamus and hippocampus by way of cerebrospinal fluid. During states of stress, regulation differs from the classic HPAC pattern in that the feedback mechanism is inhibited and the feedforward processes are enhanced (Fig. 2-6). Cortisol Cortisol acts upon two types of receptors min-eralocorticoid (type I) and glucocorticoid (type II). Type I receptors respond to low levels of cortisol, Figure 2-7 An oversimplified model of corticotropin-release factor (CRF) system. Open lines Part of the model indicates the classic feedback pathways of cortisol regulation in hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPAC) axis. CRF neurons found in different areas of the central nervous system and their communication with other parts of the central nervous system (CNS) manifest their...

Substance P NKi receptor antagonists

Substance Headache

Stress responses are triggered when the brain interprets psychological or environmental stimuli as being dangerous or threatening. Responses to stress involve activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the autonomic nervous system in order to deal with the threat. These are part of the 'fight or flight' defense reaction that is critical for survival and have distinctive physiological counterparts increased secretion of Cortisol, hyperventilation, increased blood pressure, and heart rate, increased blood flow to skeletal muscles, as well as vomiting, urination or defecation. Certain aversive situations, such as confrontation by a predator, are obvious life-threatening situations for which rapid, reflex escape responses have evolved that are not under voluntary control. A thalamic-amygdala emergency hotline activates the hypothalamus and brainstem to elicit an integrated fear or defense response (LeDoux, 1995 Fig. 1). Such hardwired protective mechanisms provide...

Parenchymal Pseudolesions

Hyperechoic Lobular Liver

Temic veins, such as the inferior vein of Saffey, supply this area in the absence of portal hypertension. Other common sites for the focal deposition of fat include subcapsular regions and the dorso-medial portion of the medial segment. When irregular fatty liver or multiple focal fat deposits are seen, they are typically distributed widely with no obvious relationship to vascular flow. In many cases fatty liver may be transient, appearing and disappearing comparatively rapidly. Moreover, it is often reversible with substance abstinence.

Hormones Used in Dieting

There are two main steroid hormones used by athletes cortisol, produced in the adrenal cortex, and testosterone, produced by the gonads. These two steroids have different functions and affect different parts of the body. Cortisol is produced by the body in times of stress and helps the body quickly create extra energy. In excess, cortisol stimulates glucose production, which is then converted to fat. There are products marketed to help reduce the amount of cortisol in the body, therefore, reducing the amount of glucose production, fat storage, and overeating. These products, such as Relacore and CortiSlim, are classified as herbal supplements and claim to balance cortisol in times of stress but have not been proven effective. Cortisol is used by people looking to lose weight. Testosterone, on the other hand, is carried through the blood to muscle tissue there the steroids stimulate protein synthesis and act to increase muscle size and strength. Finally, people may also use and abuse...

Central appetite regulation

The (appetite-promoting) NPY AgRP neurons are stimulated by ghrcltn (signaling an empty stomach) and inhibited by leptin (signaling fat-lilled adipose tissue), insulin (signaling plentiful carbohydrate supplies), and PYYi (signaling a filled distal intestine). They arc also inhibited by their own activ ity and by melanoeortin neuron input. The PYY J(( action is mediated by a type of NPY receptor, Y2R that responds to both intact NPY and fragments such as PYY 1(l. The (appetite-decreasing) melanoeortin neurons are inhibited by leptin and insulin, and by input from NPY' AgRP neurons. Melanoeortin is produced by post-translational processing (Pritchard et a ., 2002) of the much larger peptide proopiomelanocortin (POMC). which is also the precursor of alpha, beta. gamma-MSH (melanocyte stimulating hormone) and ACTH (adreno-cortieotrophic hormone). Neurotransmitters Several types of neurons that are intimately involved in the regulation of appetite (and also in thirst regulation) use...

Pharmacological Uses and Toxicity of Vitamin B6 Supplements

Impairment of glucose tolerance is common in pregnancy and may indeed be severe enough to be classified as gestational diabetes mellitus, which generally resolves at parturition, although in some subjects it may persist. High-estrogen oral contraceptives may also cause impaired glucose tolerance. This seems to be the result of increased tissue and blood concentrations of xanthurenic acid, because of the inhibition of kynureninase by estrogen metabolites. Xanthurenic acid forms a complex with insulin which has little or no hormonal activity. Vitamin B6 supplements may have a beneficial effect by activating apokynureninase or kynureni-nase that has been inactivated by undergoing transamination.

Glucocorticoid antagonists and depression

Hpa Dysfunction

Abstract Substantial evidence exists to indicate a prominent role for chronically elevated levels of Cortisol and a dysfunctional feedback system within the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in major depressive disorder. Chronically elevated Cortisol levels are strongly correlated with depression and normalization of Cortisol levels accompanies recovery failure to normalize predicts relapse or poor recovery. This dysfunction seems to especially link hyperactivity in the system to the role of glucocorticoid receptors. Studies using glucocorticoid synthesis inhibitors or glucocorticoid antagonists in both animals and man have indicated positive effects on the physiological, psychological and pharmacological changes evident in depression. The development of further specific modulators of the glucocorticoid receptors is to be welcomed, however other targets are evident within the HPA axis such as corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and vasopressin and may afford equally...

Inflammatory Mediators

The psychopathology associated with interferon treatment is hypothesized to be in part mediated by pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1, IL-6) induced by IFN-a.118 Animal data support a role for IFN-a in mediating behavioral changes. IFN-a has effects on intracerebral proinflammatory cytokine production and activation of corticotrophin releasing factor (CRF) production, leading to dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA). In humans, acute administration of IFN-a robustly activates the HPA axis via enhanced production of CRF.119 Additionally, it has been reported that those melanoma patients who develop major depression while undergoing IFN-a therapy have significantly higher responses of corticotropin and cortisol.120 These data, however, are inconsistent with data regarding pituitary-adrenal axis function in pSS. Johnson and colleagues121 assessed pituitary and adrenal function in eight pSS subjects with anxiety (seven out of eight) and depression (three out of...

Early morning fasted cardio A simple method to increase the fat burning effects of your cardio by up to 300

A common concern about doing cardio in the fasted state, especially if it's done with high intensity, is the possibility of losing muscle. After an overnight fast, glycogen, blood glucose and insulin are all low. This is an optimum environment for burning fat. Unfortunately, it may also be an optimum environment for burning muscle because carbohydrate fuel sources are low and levels of the catabolic stress hormone cortisol are high. It sounds like morning cardio might be a double-edged sword, but there are ways to avert muscle loss.

Reasons why you must eat lean proteins and complex carbohydrates together at every meal to maximize fat loss and muscle

5) The body's stores of muscle glycogen are very limited (Between 300 and 400 grams). Muscle glycogen is the primary source of energy for weight training. If your glycogen levels become severely depleted, your training will suffer. Advocates of very low carbohydrate, high protein, high fat diets claim that your body will learn to function on fat and protein and they make convincing scientific-sounding arguments to back up their position. However, if you were to ask any champion bodybuilder how a low carbohydrate diet affects their training, virtually all of them would tell you that it reduces their energy, lowers their intensity, and makes it difficult to get a pump. Even on carbohydrate-restricted programs it's important to get some carbohydrates or your workouts will suffer badly. If you cut out your carbohydrates completely or separate your protein and carbohydrate feedings in a food-combining diet, your glycogen stores will be compromised. You need a slow and moderate, but steady...

The Classic Female Fat Pattern

To better understand how a woman's body fat can become a risk for her, let's take a look at the physiological and hormonal processes involved in female fat storage. The classic female body type is the gynoid shape that is, fat storage below the waist in the hip and buttocks areas, causing a pear-shaped silhouette. Since weight below the waist presents less of a health risk than abdominal fat, an overweight woman actually has a lower risk than an overweight man for certain illnesses such as heart disease. An article in the British Medical Journal states, Recent studies have also shown that a preferential accumulation of body fat in the glutofemoral region hips and thighs , commonly found in premenopausal women and initially described by Vague a French physician under the term 'gynoid obesity' is not a major threat to cardiovascular health. In rare cases the appearance of the reverse fat pattern in women can be caused by Cushing's syndrome. Dr. Richard Milani, the vice chairperson of...

Transduction of the Liver

Leptin is a potent modulator of weight and food intake. Leptin deficient ob ob mice gain considerable weight ( 70 g) compared with lean littermates ( 28 g) at 8 to 12 weeks of age. Morsy et al. (62) compared HDAd with FGAd, with respect to safety and efficacy, for leptin gene therapy in ob ob mice. Intravenous injection of 1-2 X 1011 particles of a FG vector encoding murine leptin (Ad-leptin) into ob ob mice resulted in an increase in serum leptin levels for only the first 4 days, returning to baseline levels 10 days postinjection (Fig. 5A). Increased leptin levels were associated with transient weight loss of 25 followed by weight gain 2 weeks after treatment (Fig. 5B). In contrast, ob ob mice injected with an HDAd-encoding leptin (HD-leptin) resulted in about 2-fold higher serum levels of leptin up to 15 days postinjection (Fig. 5A). However, expression was transient and gradually returned to baseline levels 40 days postinjection. Rapid weight loss to levels approaching that of...

Glucocorticoid receptor antisense knock down

Transgene expression to the CNS, a neurofilament promoter was used. Thus, antisense expression impairs production of GR mRNA predominantly in neural tissue, however, ectopic expression occurs in the pituitary and several peripheral tissues. GR signaling is only partially impaired in transgenic mice as GR mRNA levels are reduced 50-70 in hypothalamus and only 30-55 in peripheral organs (Pepin et al, 1992), thus, it should be cautioned that changes seen here may be unique. At the onset, it appeared that this model may closely resemble clinical depression in humans, in terms of neuroendocrine function. Transgenic mice display decreased negative feedback efficacy to both corti-costerone and dexamethasone a tenfold higher dosage of dexamethasone is required to suppress plasma ACTH and corticosterone levels (Stec et al, 1994 Barden et al, 1997). This resistance to the suppressive effects of dexamethasone is similar to human depression, where 60-70 of severe clinical cases are nonsuppressors...

Evidence Considered to Determine the Estimated Energy Requirement

In late gestation, the anti-insulinogenic and lipolytic effects of human chorionic somatomammotropin, prolactin, cortisol, and glucagon contribute to glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, decreased hepatic glycogen, and mobilization of adipose tissue (Kalkhoff et al., 1978). Although levels of serum prolactin, cortisol, glucagon, and fatty acids were elevated and serum glucose levels were lower in one study, a greater utilization of fatty acids was not observed during late pregnancy (Butte et al., 1999). On the contrary, higher mean respiratory quotients (RQs) were observed for BEE and TEE compared with the postpartum period. Higher basal RQs have been observed in pregnancy by several (Bronstein et al., 1995 Denne et al., 1991 Knuttgen and Emerson, 1974 van Raaij et al., 1989), but not all (Spaaij et al., 1994b) investigators. These observations are consistent with persistent glucose production in fasted pregnant women, despite lower fasting plasma glucose concentrations. After...

Leukemia and Lymphoma Society

Nits should not be confused with hair debris such as fat plugs or hair casts. Fat plugs are bright white irregularly shaped clumps of fat cells stuck to the hair shaft. Hair casts are long, thin cylinder-shaped segments of dandruff encircling the hair shaft they are easily dislodged.

HDAC Inhibitors in Models of Inflammatory Diseases 321 Models of Lupus Erythematosus

J Allergy Clin Immunol 103 11-24 Faggioni R, Jones-Carson J, Reed DA, Dinarello CA, Feingold KR, Grunfeld C, Fantuzzi G (2000) Leptin-deficient (ob ob) mice are protected from T cellmediated hepatotoxicity role of tumor necrosis factor alpha and IL-18. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97 2367-272 Fantuzzi G, Banda NK, Guthridge C, Vondracek A, Kim SH, Siegmund B, Azam T, Sennello JA, Dinarello CA, Arend WP (2003) Generation and characterization of mice transgenic for human IL-18-binding protein isoform a. J Leukoc Biol 74 889-896 Finnin MS, Donigian JR, Cohen A, Richon VM, Rifkind RA, Marks PA, Bres-low R, Pavletich NP (1999) Structures of a histone deacetylase homologue bound to the TSA and SAHA inhibitors. Nature 401 188-193 Fusunyan RD, Quinn JJ, Fujimoto M, MacDermott RP, Sanderson IR (1999) Butyrate switches the pattern of chemokine secretion by intestinal epithelial cells through histone acetylation. Mol Med 5 631-640 Gibson PR, Rosella O, Wilson AJ,...

What are macronutrient ratios

The second important point made by the Zone program was the idea of always combining a lean protein and complex carbohydrate food at every meal. This is probably one of the most important aspects of a nutrition program designed for improving body composition, because it helps to control the hormones responsible for fat storage and it provides a steady flow of amino acids from protein foods for muscle growth and maintenance.

Mri Image Of A Human Polycystic Liver

Benign hepatic tumors composed of fat cells include lipoma, and combined tumors such as an-giomyolipoma (fat and blood vessels), myelolipoma (fat and hematopoietic tissue) and an-giomyelolipoma 32 . signal intensity on both T1- and T2-weighted images 69 . Hepatocellular carcinomas containing fat deposits may have a similar appearance. The early phase of contrast-enhanced dynamic CT or MR imaging may be useful in discriminating between angiomyolipomas and HCC with fat, because the fatty areas of angiomyolipoma are well-vascularized and enhance early. Conversely, the areas of fatty changes in HCC are relatively avascu-lar, and enhancement is less obvious.

Recognizing Causative Factors of Undernutrition

Age-related physiological reduction in appetite, 'anorexia of aging,' is well documented. Several factors have been implicated in the genesis of this phenomenon. Evidence suggests that the decrease in lean body mass, energy expenditure, and metabolic rate that occurs with advancing age may partially account for the reduction of food intake in healthy older persons. Age-related reduction in olfactory and gustatory receptor sensitivity may compromise the hedonic qualities of meals, further reducing the desire to eat. Similarly, age-related alterations in hormonal and neurotransmitter-mediated function may also play a role in suppressing food intake. Animal studies suggest that aging results in a reduction in the opioid feeding drive and an increase in the satiating effect of cholecystokinin. This may lead to the ingestion of smaller meals and prolonged periods of satiety between meals. More recently ghrelin, a hunger-inducing peptide hormone, has been shown to decrease with age....

Candidate Diseases For Cutaneous Gene Therapy

Once it was established that epidermis-secreted proteins could reach the central circulation, genetically modified kera-tinocytes were used to test whether they could deliver transgene products into the bloodstream. Subsequent experiments using both in vivo and ex vivo approaches have been successful in delivering different polypeptides, such as growth hormone, erythropoietin (Epo), factor VIII and IX, leptin, and interleukin 10 (IL-10), to the circulation. In our laboratory, we have further enhanced the usefulness of the skin as a biore-actor by developing a bigenic gene switch system that allows focal induction of transgene expression via topical administration of an inducer (147). Therefore, because of its ability to deliver various polypeptides into the systemic circulation, its accessibility and abundant vascularization, added to the gene switch system development, the skin is a very attractive tissue to test gene therapy strategies for systemic conditions that respond to...

The CYP17 enzyme One active site two activities

CYP17 and androgen physiology. i. P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage (P450scc) ii. 3p-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, A45-isomerase iii. CYP17 (OHase) iv. CYP17 (lyase) v. 170-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase vi. 5a-Reduc-tase vii. Aromatase (CYP19). Figure 2. CYP17 and androgen physiology. i. P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage (P450scc) ii. 3p-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, A45-isomerase iii. CYP17 (OHase) iv. CYP17 (lyase) v. 170-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase vi. 5a-Reduc-tase vii. Aromatase (CYP19).

Adipose tissuederived proteins

Leptin Leptin was first characterized in 1994 (Zhang et al. 1994) and is one of the most important adipose tissue-derived hormones (Stanley et al. 2005). Leptin is the product of the ob gene which is predominantly expressed in adipocytes (Zhang et al. 1994), but also in gastric epithelium (Bado et al. 1998) and placenta (Masuzaki et al. 1997). The name 'leptin' has its roots in the Greek word 'leptos', meaning thin, and leptin was initially viewed as an adipocyte-derived signal that functions primarily to prevent obesity (Flier 2004). Indeed, the effects of leptin on energy homeostasis are well documented exogenous leptin administration, both centrally and peripherally reduces food intake and increases energy expenditure (Friedman and Halaas 1998 Rosenbaum and Leibel 1998 Kershaw and Flier 2004). Adipocytes secrete leptin, however, in direct proportion to adipocyte size, and the majority of obese animals and humans have increased plasma leptin instead of an absolute or relative leptin...

Understanding Your Metabolism

Fact 1 Fat Storage Is a Natural Survival Mechanism Since the fat cells of an overfat individual are more receptive to insulin than the muscle cells, this is where much of the remaining glucose eventually gets deposited. A vicious cycle is created, causing even more fat gain that is, the more overfat a person becomes, the more excess carbohydrates will be converted into fat storage.

The calorie bank analogy

Amount of calories you ingest, then you will make an energy deposit and your body fat balance will increase (excess calories go into fat storage). The exception to this rule is when you are on a high-intensity weight training program to gain lean body weight. In this case, a small part of the calorie surplus is directed into muscle growth. Even when you're training hard, if the calorie surplus is too large, the excess beyond what is needed for muscle growth will go straight into fat storage.

Why skipping meals is one of the cardinal sins of fat burning nutritionand how to eat more food and lose more fat at

If we add up those calories, it totals only 1600 for the entire day. In theory, at least according to the calorie calculations you did previously, you should be losing fat - quite rapidly if you're a man. So why aren't you It's because you're doing EVERYTHING possible to encourage your body to store fat You are going catabolic by leaving 18 hours between dinner and the next day's lunch. This causes muscle loss and metabolic downgrade. Because you've only eaten one meal during the day, you're famished and you eat too much at dinner. Even though you're in a 24-hour calorie deficit, this causes fat storage anyway because you've eaten more than you can handle at one sitting. By starving and stuffing, you've also set yourself up for serious cravings at night usually the wrong foods - like cookies or ice cream In the long run, this type of diet is a sure-fire way to slow down your metabolism, lose muscle and gain body fat. On the other hand, 2400 calories spread out into five or six small...

Dysregulation of CRF pathways in human disease states

Caused by prolonged activation of the HPA axis or long-term treatment with exogenous glucocorticoids results in Cushing's disease or syndrome (Nelson, 1989). Continued exposure to high levels of glucocorticoids eventually leads to metabolic dysfunction that may include muscle wasting, abnormal fat deposits, brittle bones, thin skin, hair loss, and hyperglycemia. In the central nervous system (CNS), dysregula-tion of the HPA system may be causally involved in the pathogenesis of stress-related affective disorders such as anorexia, anxiety and major melancholic depression (Nemeroff et al, 1984 Keck and Holsboer, 2001). Several of these disorders, particularly depression, are characterized by increased central CRF drive, as revealed from measurements of circulating Cortisol, CRF in cerebrospinal fluid, and CRF challenge tests (Gold et al, 1986). It has been postulated that an initial defect in glucorticoid negative feedback mechanisms ultimately leads to

The Spectrum of Bacterial Catecholamine Growth Induction

Shown is not surprisingly weighted towards species inhabiting the highly innervated gastrointestinal tract, catecholamines have a ubiquitous distribution throughout the mammalian body, and it is now clear that bacteria occupying a wide variety of locations might have similarly evolved the ability to sense changes in the stress hormone levels of their host. For example, in humans, exposure to chronic emotional stress is a significant risk factor in the development of periodontal disease, an inflammatory gum condition for which there is strong evidence of bacterial involvement. Stress hormones such as cortisol, epinephrine and norepinephrine have all been isolated from saliva and the fluid occupying the gingival crevicula, and are known to increase during stress. Using a serum-based medium and anaerobic culture conditions, Roberts and co-workers showed that norepinephrine and epineph-rine were recognised as stimulatory agents by oral bacteria implicated in causing periodontal disease...

Trusting your intuition

In the last chapter, I revealed how, after a long period of practically zero fat dieting, I took my results to a higher level with one small change to my diet - I added more fat. But it wasn't just any fat. Dr. Udo Erasmus, the world's 1 expert on dietary fats, says there are Fats that heal and Fats that kill. Adding the wrong kind of fats can increase your blood cholesterol, clog your arteries, increase fat storage and wreak total havoc in your body. Adding the right kind of fats can increase your energy, increase fat burning, increase muscle-building hormones, increase your strength, improve insulin function, improve your skin texture and strengthen your joints. With benefits like these, good fats sound like some kind of wonder drug, and in many respects, the effects are almost drug-like. Surprisingly, these miraculous benefits can be obtained simply by eating small amounts of foods or oils rich in the healthy good fats.

Tonic Signals The Moderating Effects of Energy Status

Appetite is not only derived from the daily flux of physiology associated with meals and eating behavior but also must respond to the long-term (tonic) energy status of the organism. Factors derived from the processes of energy storage and the status of the body's energy stores must also contribute to appetite and its expression (e.g., indicators of glucose metabolism and fat storage). Blood carries various substances (other than nutrients) generated in organs implicated in nutrient metabolism and energy storage such as the liver, the pancreas and in adipose tissue depots that reflect the body's energy status and that have been shown to have potent effects on food intake (insulin, glucagons, and leptin). The number of potentially active metabolites and by-products produced by energy metabolism of differing nutrients is vast providing a wide range of potential indicator substances.

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