Lose Weight By Controlling The Fat Storage Hormone

Trouble Spot Nutrition

Created by Janet Hradil, Trouble Spot Nutrition is a 3 Phase Hormonal Solution That Melts Away Trouble Spot Fat In Less Than 15 Minutes A Day. Leptin, cortisol, and testosterone all have an influence on our weight issues, but not many of us know it. Janet Hradil has created Trouble Spot Nutrition with the intent of teaching people how their hormones affect their weight loss efforts, and how nutrition can easily correct hormone issues and help fight fat faster than ever before. In each of your fat cells, there is an enzyme, 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-1 (Hsd), that takes inactive cortisone (a hormone) and turns it into cortisol, a fat storing compound. If you have high amounts of Hsd, you will have high amounts of fat storage. While Hsd is genetically determined, you can use nutrition to reduce levels and stop the unwanted fat storage, even on your trouble spots. Continue reading...

Trouble Spot Nutrition Summary

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Author: Janet Hradil
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My Trouble Spot Nutrition Review

Highly Recommended

All of the information that the author discovered has been compiled into a downloadable pdf so that purchasers of Trouble Spot Nutrition can begin putting the methods it teaches to use as soon as possible.

This ebook does what it says, and you can read all the claims at his official website. I highly recommend getting this book.

High blood sugar and insulin can increase fat storage

To lose body fat more efficiently, your goal is to maintain steady blood sugar levels. Here's why The over-secretion of insulin activates fat storage enzymes and promotes the movement of triglycerides (fat) in the bloodstream into fat cells for storage. High insulin levels also inhibit enzymes that promote the breakdown of existing stored body fat. You can manage your blood sugar and insulin levels by choosing fewer simple carbohydrates, more complex carbohydrates, eating fiber and having your carbohydrates with lean proteins approximately every three hours.

Regulators of Lipolysis and Fat Storage

The processes of lipolysis and fat storage are regulated by hormonal factors, which either enhance or suppress the activities of HSL and LPL. Through the action of glucocorticoid receptors, glucocorticoids enhance LPL activity and promote abdominal deposition of fat. The density of glucocorticoid receptors is greater in the visceral abdominal depot than in the subcutaneous abdominal depot. Therefore, an increase in glucocorticoid secretion is associated with increases in abdominal fat deposition compared to other fat depots. Insulin favors fat storage by increasing LPL and decreasing HSL activity. Insulin has stronger antily-polytic effects in adipose located in the abdominal region compared to the femoral regions in both men and women. Paradoxically, insulin binding is stronger in the gluteal-femoral region than the abdominal region. Therefore, it has been hypothesized that insulin regulates lipolysis at the postreceptor level. Sex hormones, such as estrogen, testosterone, and...

Leptin ob Protein

For 40 years, scientists searched for a mechanism by which the brain could monitor body fat deposition in order to keep an animal's body weight constant. In 1994, a gene that controlled the expression of a protein produced by adipose tissue was identified. Circulating levels of this protein (the ob protein) could be measured in normal weight mice. However, in obese ob ob mice, which display marked overeating, this protein was absent due to a mutation of the ob gene. A series of studies demonstrated that the absence of this protein was responsible for over-consumption and obesity in the obese ob ob. As the ob protein reduces food intake and also increases metabolic energy expenditure, both of which would result in weight loss, it was named leptin from the Greek 'leptos' meaning thin. In general, circulating levels of leptin appear to reflect the current status of body fat deposition and increase with the level of adiposity demonstrating the responsiveness of endogenous leptin to weight...

Friedman Jeffrey 1954 MD PhD

F riedman led the team that discovered the obesity hormone, Leptin, by studying genetic mechanisms of weight regulation in mice. The fat mouse had been discovered at the Jackson Laboratory in Bar Harbor, Maine in the early 1950s. This mutant mouse was so huge that researchers assumed that it was pregnant, until it was discovered that it was a male mouse. Friedman was inspired by the work of Ethan Allen Sims, a physician at the University of Vermont College of Medicine who had been exploring the link between obesity and diabetes using male inmates at the Vermont state prison. Allen found that only very few inmates could easily put on weight, and these found it the most difficult to lose it. were already known to Friedman and his colleagues. The next step was to continue to narrow down where on the chromosome ob is by comparing it to other genes close to it (by making a genetic map, which gets increasingly specific). After this, they had a very small (comparatively) region of DNA which...

Placental Buffering of Maternal Dietary Intake

Some of the maternal nutritional adaptations in pregnancy. For example, placentally derived leptin is a potent stimulator of lipolysis and there is evidence that the rate of export into the maternal circulation is controlled to allow the placenta to modulate its own substrate supply in response to the fetal demand for fats. The various homeostatic mechanisms within the placenta and their interaction with maternal physiological adaptations during pregnancy act to ensure a constant supply of substrate to the fetus, free of large diurnal fluctuations corresponding to the timing of maternal meals, and to protect the fetus against a transiently poor intake during critical periods of fetal growth. These adaptations help the mother to meet the full fetal requirement for nutrients such as LCPUFA and iron whilst consuming apparently poor diets.

Stress and the Endocrine System

Hypothalamus Hippocampus Crf

In nonstressful conditions, cortisol secretion is regulated within the hypothalamic-pituitary-adreno-cortical (HPAC) axis by classic negative feedback to the pituitary gland via the systemic circulation and to the hypothalamus and hippocampus by way of cerebrospinal fluid. During states of stress, regulation differs from the classic HPAC pattern in that the feedback mechanism is inhibited and the feedforward processes are enhanced (Fig. 2-6). Cortisol Cortisol acts upon two types of receptors min-eralocorticoid (type I) and glucocorticoid (type II). Type I receptors respond to low levels of cortisol, Figure 2-7 An oversimplified model of corticotropin-release factor (CRF) system. Open lines Part of the model indicates the classic feedback pathways of cortisol regulation in hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPAC) axis. CRF neurons found in different areas of the central nervous system and their communication with other parts of the central nervous system (CNS) manifest their...

Substance P NKi receptor antagonists

Substance Headache

Stress responses are triggered when the brain interprets psychological or environmental stimuli as being dangerous or threatening. Responses to stress involve activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the autonomic nervous system in order to deal with the threat. These are part of the 'fight or flight' defense reaction that is critical for survival and have distinctive physiological counterparts increased secretion of Cortisol, hyperventilation, increased blood pressure, and heart rate, increased blood flow to skeletal muscles, as well as vomiting, urination or defecation. Certain aversive situations, such as confrontation by a predator, are obvious life-threatening situations for which rapid, reflex escape responses have evolved that are not under voluntary control. A thalamic-amygdala emergency hotline activates the hypothalamus and brainstem to elicit an integrated fear or defense response (LeDoux, 1995 Fig. 1). Such hardwired protective mechanisms provide...

Parenchymal Pseudolesions

Focal Hypertrophy Liver

Temic veins, such as the inferior vein of Saffey, supply this area in the absence of portal hypertension. Other common sites for the focal deposition of fat include subcapsular regions and the dorso-medial portion of the medial segment. When irregular fatty liver or multiple focal fat deposits are seen, they are typically distributed widely with no obvious relationship to vascular flow. In many cases fatty liver may be transient, appearing and disappearing comparatively rapidly. Moreover, it is often reversible with substance abstinence.

Hormones Used in Dieting

There are two main steroid hormones used by athletes cortisol, produced in the adrenal cortex, and testosterone, produced by the gonads. These two steroids have different functions and affect different parts of the body. Cortisol is produced by the body in times of stress and helps the body quickly create extra energy. In excess, cortisol stimulates glucose production, which is then converted to fat. There are products marketed to help reduce the amount of cortisol in the body, therefore, reducing the amount of glucose production, fat storage, and overeating. These products, such as Relacore and CortiSlim, are classified as herbal supplements and claim to balance cortisol in times of stress but have not been proven effective. Cortisol is used by people looking to lose weight. Testosterone, on the other hand, is carried through the blood to muscle tissue there the steroids stimulate protein synthesis and act to increase muscle size and strength.

Central appetite regulation

The (appetite-promoting) NPY AgRP neurons are stimulated by ghrcltn (signaling an empty stomach) and inhibited by leptin (signaling fat-lilled adipose tissue), insulin (signaling plentiful carbohydrate supplies), and PYYi (signaling a filled distal intestine). They arc also inhibited by their own activ ity and by melanoeortin neuron input. The PYY J(( action is mediated by a type of NPY receptor, Y2R that responds to both intact NPY and fragments such as PYY 1(l. The (appetite-decreasing) melanoeortin neurons are inhibited by leptin and insulin, and by input from NPY' AgRP neurons. Melanoeortin is produced by post-translational processing (Pritchard et a ., 2002) of the much larger peptide proopiomelanocortin (POMC). which is also the precursor of alpha, beta. gamma-MSH (melanocyte stimulating hormone) and ACTH (adreno-cortieotrophic hormone). Neurotransmitters Several types of neurons that are intimately involved in the regulation of appetite (and also in thirst regulation) use...

Pharmacological Uses and Toxicity of Vitamin B6 Supplements

Impairment of glucose tolerance is common in pregnancy and may indeed be severe enough to be classified as gestational diabetes mellitus, which generally resolves at parturition, although in some subjects it may persist. High-estrogen oral contraceptives may also cause impaired glucose tolerance. This seems to be the result of increased tissue and blood concentrations of xanthurenic acid, because of the inhibition of kynureninase by estrogen metabolites. Xanthurenic acid forms a complex with insulin which has little or no hormonal activity. Vitamin B6 supplements may have a beneficial effect by activating apokynureninase or kynureni-nase that has been inactivated by undergoing transamination.

Glucocorticoid antagonists and depression

Hpa Dysfunction

Abstract Substantial evidence exists to indicate a prominent role for chronically elevated levels of Cortisol and a dysfunctional feedback system within the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in major depressive disorder. Chronically elevated Cortisol levels are strongly correlated with depression and normalization of Cortisol levels accompanies recovery failure to normalize predicts relapse or poor recovery. This dysfunction seems to especially link hyperactivity in the system to the role of glucocorticoid receptors. Studies using glucocorticoid synthesis inhibitors or glucocorticoid antagonists in both animals and man have indicated positive effects on the physiological, psychological and pharmacological changes evident in depression. The development of further specific modulators of the glucocorticoid receptors is to be welcomed, however other targets are evident within the HPA axis such as corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and vasopressin and may afford equally...

Inflammatory Mediators

The psychopathology associated with interferon treatment is hypothesized to be in part mediated by pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1, IL-6) induced by IFN-a.118 Animal data support a role for IFN-a in mediating behavioral changes. IFN-a has effects on intracerebral proinflammatory cytokine production and activation of corticotrophin releasing factor (CRF) production, leading to dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA). In humans, acute administration of IFN-a robustly activates the HPA axis via enhanced production of CRF.119 Additionally, it has been reported that those melanoma patients who develop major depression while undergoing IFN-a therapy have significantly higher responses of corticotropin and cortisol.120 These data, however, are inconsistent with data regarding pituitary-adrenal axis function in pSS. Johnson and colleagues121 assessed pituitary and adrenal function in eight pSS subjects with anxiety (seven out of eight) and depression (three out of...

Early morning fasted cardio A simple method to increase the fat burning effects of your cardio by up to 300

A common concern about doing cardio in the fasted state, especially if it's done with high intensity, is the possibility of losing muscle. After an overnight fast, glycogen, blood glucose and insulin are all low. This is an optimum environment for burning fat. Unfortunately, it may also be an optimum environment for burning muscle because carbohydrate fuel sources are low and levels of the catabolic stress hormone cortisol are high. It sounds like morning cardio might be a double-edged sword, but there are ways to avert muscle loss.

Reasons why you must eat lean proteins and complex carbohydrates together at every meal to maximize fat loss and muscle

5) The body's stores of muscle glycogen are very limited (Between 300 and 400 grams). Muscle glycogen is the primary source of energy for weight training. If your glycogen levels become severely depleted, your training will suffer. Advocates of very low carbohydrate, high protein, high fat diets claim that your body will learn to function on fat and protein and they make convincing scientific-sounding arguments to back up their position. However, if you were to ask any champion bodybuilder how a low carbohydrate diet affects their training, virtually all of them would tell you that it reduces their energy, lowers their intensity, and makes it difficult to get a pump. Even on carbohydrate-restricted programs it's important to get some carbohydrates or your workouts will suffer badly. If you cut out your carbohydrates completely or separate your protein and carbohydrate feedings in a food-combining diet, your glycogen stores will be compromised. You need a slow and moderate, but steady...

The Classic Female Fat Pattern

To better understand how a woman's body fat can become a risk for her, let's take a look at the physiological and hormonal processes involved in female fat storage. The classic female body type is the gynoid shape that is, fat storage below the waist in the hip and buttocks areas, causing a pear-shaped silhouette. Since weight below the waist presents less of a health risk than abdominal fat, an overweight woman actually has a lower risk than an overweight man for certain illnesses such as heart disease. An article in the British Medical Journal states, Recent studies have also shown that a preferential accumulation of body fat in the glutofemoral region hips and thighs , commonly found in premenopausal women and initially described by Vague a French physician under the term 'gynoid obesity' is not a major threat to cardiovascular health. In rare cases the appearance of the reverse fat pattern in women can be caused by Cushing's syndrome. Dr. Richard Milani, the vice chairperson of...

Transduction of the Liver

Leptin is a potent modulator of weight and food intake. Leptin deficient ob ob mice gain considerable weight ( 70 g) compared with lean littermates ( 28 g) at 8 to 12 weeks of age. Morsy et al. (62) compared HDAd with FGAd, with respect to safety and efficacy, for leptin gene therapy in ob ob mice. Intravenous injection of 1-2 X 1011 particles of a FG vector encoding murine leptin (Ad-leptin) into ob ob mice resulted in an increase in serum leptin levels for only the first 4 days, returning to baseline levels 10 days postinjection (Fig. 5A). Increased leptin levels were associated with transient weight loss of 25 followed by weight gain 2 weeks after treatment (Fig. 5B). In contrast, ob ob mice injected with an HDAd-encoding leptin (HD-leptin) resulted in about 2-fold higher serum levels of leptin up to 15 days postinjection (Fig. 5A). However, expression was transient and gradually returned to baseline levels 40 days postinjection. Rapid weight loss to levels approaching that of...

Glucocorticoid receptor antisense knock down

Transgene expression to the CNS, a neurofilament promoter was used. Thus, antisense expression impairs production of GR mRNA predominantly in neural tissue, however, ectopic expression occurs in the pituitary and several peripheral tissues. GR signaling is only partially impaired in transgenic mice as GR mRNA levels are reduced 50-70 in hypothalamus and only 30-55 in peripheral organs (Pepin et al, 1992), thus, it should be cautioned that changes seen here may be unique. At the onset, it appeared that this model may closely resemble clinical depression in humans, in terms of neuroendocrine function. Transgenic mice display decreased negative feedback efficacy to both corti-costerone and dexamethasone a tenfold higher dosage of dexamethasone is required to suppress plasma ACTH and corticosterone levels (Stec et al, 1994 Barden et al, 1997). This resistance to the suppressive effects of dexamethasone is similar to human depression, where 60-70 of severe clinical cases are nonsuppressors...

Evidence Considered to Determine the Estimated Energy Requirement

In late gestation, the anti-insulinogenic and lipolytic effects of human chorionic somatomammotropin, prolactin, cortisol, and glucagon contribute to glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, decreased hepatic glycogen, and mobilization of adipose tissue (Kalkhoff et al., 1978). Although levels of serum prolactin, cortisol, glucagon, and fatty acids were elevated and serum glucose levels were lower in one study, a greater utilization of fatty acids was not observed during late pregnancy (Butte et al., 1999). On the contrary, higher mean respiratory quotients (RQs) were observed for BEE and TEE compared with the postpartum period. Higher basal RQs have been observed in pregnancy by several (Bronstein et al., 1995 Denne et al., 1991 Knuttgen and Emerson, 1974 van Raaij et al., 1989), but not all (Spaaij et al., 1994b) investigators. These observations are consistent with persistent glucose production in fasted pregnant women, despite lower fasting plasma glucose concentrations. After...

HDAC Inhibitors in Models of Inflammatory Diseases 321 Models of Lupus Erythematosus

J Allergy Clin Immunol 103 11-24 Faggioni R, Jones-Carson J, Reed DA, Dinarello CA, Feingold KR, Grunfeld C, Fantuzzi G (2000) Leptin-deficient (ob ob) mice are protected from T cellmediated hepatotoxicity role of tumor necrosis factor alpha and IL-18. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97 2367-272 Fantuzzi G, Banda NK, Guthridge C, Vondracek A, Kim SH, Siegmund B, Azam T, Sennello JA, Dinarello CA, Arend WP (2003) Generation and characterization of mice transgenic for human IL-18-binding protein isoform a. J Leukoc Biol 74 889-896 Finnin MS, Donigian JR, Cohen A, Richon VM, Rifkind RA, Marks PA, Bres-low R, Pavletich NP (1999) Structures of a histone deacetylase homologue bound to the TSA and SAHA inhibitors. Nature 401 188-193 Fusunyan RD, Quinn JJ, Fujimoto M, MacDermott RP, Sanderson IR (1999) Butyrate switches the pattern of chemokine secretion by intestinal epithelial cells through histone acetylation. Mol Med 5 631-640 Gibson PR, Rosella O, Wilson AJ,...

What are macronutrient ratios

The second important point made by the Zone program was the idea of always combining a lean protein and complex carbohydrate food at every meal. This is probably one of the most important aspects of a nutrition program designed for improving body composition, because it helps to control the hormones responsible for fat storage and it provides a steady flow of amino acids from protein foods for muscle growth and maintenance.

Mri Image Of A Human Polycystic Liver

Thiamine Deficiency Cats

Signal intensity on both T1- and T2-weighted images 69 . Hepatocellular carcinomas containing fat deposits may have a similar appearance. The early phase of contrast-enhanced dynamic CT or MR imaging may be useful in discriminating between angiomyolipomas and HCC with fat, because the fatty areas of angiomyolipoma are well-vascularized and enhance early. Conversely, the areas of fatty changes in HCC are relatively avascu-lar, and enhancement is less obvious.

Recognizing Causative Factors of Undernutrition

Age-related physiological reduction in appetite, 'anorexia of aging,' is well documented. Several factors have been implicated in the genesis of this phenomenon. Evidence suggests that the decrease in lean body mass, energy expenditure, and metabolic rate that occurs with advancing age may partially account for the reduction of food intake in healthy older persons. Age-related reduction in olfactory and gustatory receptor sensitivity may compromise the hedonic qualities of meals, further reducing the desire to eat. Similarly, age-related alterations in hormonal and neurotransmitter-mediated function may also play a role in suppressing food intake. Animal studies suggest that aging results in a reduction in the opioid feeding drive and an increase in the satiating effect of cholecystokinin. This may lead to the ingestion of smaller meals and prolonged periods of satiety between meals. More recently ghrelin, a hunger-inducing peptide hormone, has been shown to decrease with age....

Candidate Diseases For Cutaneous Gene Therapy

Once it was established that epidermis-secreted proteins could reach the central circulation, genetically modified kera-tinocytes were used to test whether they could deliver transgene products into the bloodstream. Subsequent experiments using both in vivo and ex vivo approaches have been successful in delivering different polypeptides, such as growth hormone, erythropoietin (Epo), factor VIII and IX, leptin, and interleukin 10 (IL-10), to the circulation. In our laboratory, we have further enhanced the usefulness of the skin as a biore-actor by developing a bigenic gene switch system that allows focal induction of transgene expression via topical administration of an inducer (147). Therefore, because of its ability to deliver various polypeptides into the systemic circulation, its accessibility and abundant vascularization, added to the gene switch system development, the skin is a very attractive tissue to test gene therapy strategies for systemic conditions that respond to...

The CYP17 enzyme One active site two activities

CYP17 and androgen physiology. i. P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage (P450scc) ii. 3p-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, A45-isomerase iii. CYP17 (OHase) iv. CYP17 (lyase) v. 170-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase vi. 5a-Reduc-tase vii. Aromatase (CYP19). Figure 2. CYP17 and androgen physiology. i. P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage (P450scc) ii. 3p-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, A45-isomerase iii. CYP17 (OHase) iv. CYP17 (lyase) v. 170-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase vi. 5a-Reduc-tase vii. Aromatase (CYP19).

Adipose tissuederived proteins

Leptin Leptin was first characterized in 1994 (Zhang et al. 1994) and is one of the most important adipose tissue-derived hormones (Stanley et al. 2005). Leptin is the product of the ob gene which is predominantly expressed in adipocytes (Zhang et al. 1994), but also in gastric epithelium (Bado et al. 1998) and placenta (Masuzaki et al. 1997). The name 'leptin' has its roots in the Greek word 'leptos', meaning thin, and leptin was initially viewed as an adipocyte-derived signal that functions primarily to prevent obesity (Flier 2004). Indeed, the effects of leptin on energy homeostasis are well documented exogenous leptin administration, both centrally and peripherally reduces food intake and increases energy expenditure (Friedman and Halaas 1998 Rosenbaum and Leibel 1998 Kershaw and Flier 2004). Adipocytes secrete leptin, however, in direct proportion to adipocyte size, and the majority of obese animals and humans have increased plasma leptin instead of an absolute or relative leptin...

Understanding Your Metabolism

Fact 1 Fat Storage Is a Natural Survival Mechanism Since the fat cells of an overfat individual are more receptive to insulin than the muscle cells, this is where much of the remaining glucose eventually gets deposited. A vicious cycle is created, causing even more fat gain that is, the more overfat a person becomes, the more excess carbohydrates will be converted into fat storage.

The calorie bank analogy

Amount of calories you ingest, then you will make an energy deposit and your body fat balance will increase (excess calories go into fat storage). The exception to this rule is when you are on a high-intensity weight training program to gain lean body weight. In this case, a small part of the calorie surplus is directed into muscle growth. Even when you're training hard, if the calorie surplus is too large, the excess beyond what is needed for muscle growth will go straight into fat storage.

Why skipping meals is one of the cardinal sins of fat burning nutritionand how to eat more food and lose more fat at

If we add up those calories, it totals only 1600 for the entire day. In theory, at least according to the calorie calculations you did previously, you should be losing fat - quite rapidly if you're a man. So why aren't you It's because you're doing EVERYTHING possible to encourage your body to store fat You are going catabolic by leaving 18 hours between dinner and the next day's lunch. This causes muscle loss and metabolic downgrade. Because you've only eaten one meal during the day, you're famished and you eat too much at dinner. Even though you're in a 24-hour calorie deficit, this causes fat storage anyway because you've eaten more than you can handle at one sitting. By starving and stuffing, you've also set yourself up for serious cravings at night usually the wrong foods - like cookies or ice cream In the long run, this type of diet is a sure-fire way to slow down your metabolism, lose muscle and gain body fat. On the other hand, 2400 calories spread out into five or six small...

Dysregulation of CRF pathways in human disease states

Caused by prolonged activation of the HPA axis or long-term treatment with exogenous glucocorticoids results in Cushing's disease or syndrome (Nelson, 1989). Continued exposure to high levels of glucocorticoids eventually leads to metabolic dysfunction that may include muscle wasting, abnormal fat deposits, brittle bones, thin skin, hair loss, and hyperglycemia. In the central nervous system (CNS), dysregula-tion of the HPA system may be causally involved in the pathogenesis of stress-related affective disorders such as anorexia, anxiety and major melancholic depression (Nemeroff et al, 1984 Keck and Holsboer, 2001). Several of these disorders, particularly depression, are characterized by increased central CRF drive, as revealed from measurements of circulating Cortisol, CRF in cerebrospinal fluid, and CRF challenge tests (Gold et al, 1986). It has been postulated that an initial defect in glucorticoid negative feedback mechanisms ultimately leads to

The Spectrum of Bacterial Catecholamine Growth Induction

Shown is not surprisingly weighted towards species inhabiting the highly innervated gastrointestinal tract, catecholamines have a ubiquitous distribution throughout the mammalian body, and it is now clear that bacteria occupying a wide variety of locations might have similarly evolved the ability to sense changes in the stress hormone levels of their host. For example, in humans, exposure to chronic emotional stress is a significant risk factor in the development of periodontal disease, an inflammatory gum condition for which there is strong evidence of bacterial involvement. Stress hormones such as cortisol, epinephrine and norepinephrine have all been isolated from saliva and the fluid occupying the gingival crevicula, and are known to increase during stress. Using a serum-based medium and anaerobic culture conditions, Roberts and co-workers showed that norepinephrine and epineph-rine were recognised as stimulatory agents by oral bacteria implicated in causing periodontal disease...

Trusting your intuition

In the last chapter, I revealed how, after a long period of practically zero fat dieting, I took my results to a higher level with one small change to my diet - I added more fat. But it wasn't just any fat. Dr. Udo Erasmus, the world's 1 expert on dietary fats, says there are Fats that heal and Fats that kill. Adding the wrong kind of fats can increase your blood cholesterol, clog your arteries, increase fat storage and wreak total havoc in your body. Adding the right kind of fats can increase your energy, increase fat burning, increase muscle-building hormones, increase your strength, improve insulin function, improve your skin texture and strengthen your joints. With benefits like these, good fats sound like some kind of wonder drug, and in many respects, the effects are almost drug-like. Surprisingly, these miraculous benefits can be obtained simply by eating small amounts of foods or oils rich in the healthy good fats.

Tonic Signals The Moderating Effects of Energy Status

Appetite is not only derived from the daily flux of physiology associated with meals and eating behavior but also must respond to the long-term (tonic) energy status of the organism. Factors derived from the processes of energy storage and the status of the body's energy stores must also contribute to appetite and its expression (e.g., indicators of glucose metabolism and fat storage). Blood carries various substances (other than nutrients) generated in organs implicated in nutrient metabolism and energy storage such as the liver, the pancreas and in adipose tissue depots that reflect the body's energy status and that have been shown to have potent effects on food intake (insulin, glucagons, and leptin). The number of potentially active metabolites and by-products produced by energy metabolism of differing nutrients is vast providing a wide range of potential indicator substances.

Biological and Behavioral Influences

The regulation of energy balance and appetite in particular has been the subject of a large amount of research. Much of this work has been carried out in relation to obesity and whether this can be linked to a faulty mechanism or genetic defect of some kind. This work is reviewed in detail elsewhere in this encyclopedia, but a number of different mechanisms have been proposed whereby energy intake and balance might be regulated. These include the adaptive thermogenesis theory (now largely discounted, this proposed that energy expenditure was flexible in some individuals and increased to expend excessive energy intakes) nutrient-based models of feeding in which the energy and or nutrient composition of the diet is considered to lead to appetite suppression via complex gut-fill cues (e.g., the effect of carbohydrates on neurotransmitters and the central nervous system) and the glucostat, lipostat, and leptin theories, which are considered to operate via satiety effects. However,...

Pathophysiology of Uncontrolled Diabetes

Hyperosmotic Dehydration Symptoms

The pathophysiologic events that affect blood glucose levels in states of mild-to-moderate insulin deficiency are classified into two broad categories. First, the normal pathways for glucose clearance after a meal are ineffective second, body fuel stores are broken down with release of other substrates that lead to inappropriate synthesis of more glucose. These events are brought about by insulinopenia and often are further promoted by the relative abundance of the counterregulatory hormones, glucagon, catecholamines, and, to a lesser extent, cortisol and growth hormone. In addition, hyperglycemia further inhibits pancreatic fl cell insulin secretion, compounding the problem (''glucose toxicity'').

CRFoverexpressing transgenic mice CRFTg

CRF-OE2122 mice show a similar neuroendocrine profile to that of individuals with major depression. Increased CRF production in the CNS has been implicated in major depression and, like CRF-OE2122 mice, most patients exhibit elevated circulating Cortisol levels in the face of normal ACTH levels (Gold et al, 1986 Chrousos, 1998). In addition, CRF-OE2122 mice show a flattened diurnal rhythm of glucocorticoid secretion and fail to suppress corticosterone secretion in a dexamethasone suppression test (Carroll, 1982 Groenink et al, 2002). These findings suggest that negative feedback of the HPA axis is altered, possibly due to reduced glucocorticoid

Overtraining Syndrome

That cannot be restored by a few days of reduced training, total rest, or a carbohydrate-rich diet. These symptoms are collectively referred as overtraining syndrome, and it can last for weeks, months, or even years.13 When athletes are subjected to excessive training, they may eventually exceed their ability to cope with or adapt to the training stress. If the intensity is increased from session to session beyond the body's ability to adapt, and if full recovery is not allowed, the training becomes a source of long-term physical and psychologic stress. For example, runners who train more than 45 miles a week at moderate to high intensity are known to have chronically elevated cortisol levels and negative mood states.14

Why is Weight Loss Maintenance Difficult

Long-term weight loss maintenance may be difficult due to a combination of physiological, environmental, and psychological factors. Proposed physiological factors contributing to weight regain include reduced resting metabolic rate and insulin and leptin resistance. However, investigations examining metabolic factors in individuals who have lost weight have not been able to consistently document changes in physiological characteristics that would explain the tendency for weight regain to occur. Environmental

Very lowdensity lipoprotein VLDL

Sity, however, is still of greater risk than body fat storage locations or WHR. A WHR > 1.0 is in the danger zone, with risks of heart disease and other ailments connected with being overweight. For men, a ratio of .90 or less is considered safe, and for women .80 or less.

Macronutrients and Physical Activity Protein

Carbohydrate supplies about 45 of the energy in the typical Western diet this amounts to about 200300 g day-1 for the average sedentary individual, and is the amount that is necessary to get through normal daily activities. In an hour of hard exercise, up to 200 g of carbohydrate can be used, and sufficient carbohydrate must be supplied by the diet to replace the amount used. Replacement of the glycogen stores is an essential part of the recovery process after exercise if the muscle glycogen content is not replaced, the quality of training must be reduced, and the risks of illness and injury are increased. Low muscle glyco-gen levels are associated with an increased secretion of cortisol during exercise, with consequent negative implications for immune function.

Hormonal Responses To Overtraining

A physiologic imbalance of endocrine function has been recognized in athletes suffering from overtraining. Overtrained athletes often have higher-than-normal concentrations of urea in the blood, which is produced by increased protein catabolism. This is thought to be the mechanism responsible for loss of body weight in overtrained athletes. However, there are no conclusive data to confirm that higher levels of cortisol or epinephrine are related to long periods of overtraining. Serotonin is a major neu-rotransmitter that is believed to play an important role in overtraining syndrome. However, the concentration of serotonin in plasma does not match its concentration in the brain. Cytokines also play a significant role, inasmuch as the presence of circulating cytokines have been associated with trauma related to overtrained muscles, joints, and bones, as well as with infection.

Correlates Of Adjustment

There are relatively few investigations of the relations between personality attributes and adjustment in patients with AC, but preliminary evidence suggests that the dispositional traits of emotional expressiveness, low chronic anxiety, and optimism may predict psychological well-being. Emotional regulation styles typified by conscious suppression or lack of awareness of affect appear problematic for patients with AC. For example, high dispositional emotional control (i.e., suppression) was associated with greater mood disturbance in a study of 101 metastatic or recurrent breast cancer patients.55 Similarly, a study by Weihs and colleagues56 demonstrated that AC patients who are habitually unaware of their emotions report more negative mood states than those that are less repressive. In addition, the individuals in this sample who reported the most mood disturbance were those that were both emotionally constrained and dispositionally anxious, suggesting that...

Psychological Stress the Stress Response and the Impact on Immunity

Stress is an intrinsic part of life, and successfully adapting to stimuli that induce stress is necessary for the survival of an organism in its environment that is constantly changing. Although there is not a commonly used definition of stress, the concept of stress is often broken down into the challenge (called the stressor) and the behavioral and physiological responses to this challenge (called the stress response). A stressor is any stimulus that disrupts internal homeostasis, and can involve psychological, physical, or physiological stimuli. Initiation of the response to physiological and physical stressors is often subconscious and completely biological in nature. But, psychological stressors evoke an additional cognitive processing where the stressors must first be encoded as exceeding the organism's ability to cope with the demand. This cognitive processing sets into motion a coordinated behavioral and physiological response that is similar to the response to physiological...

Insulin response and sensitivity to carbohydrates

High concentrations of insulin in the bloodstream are lipogenic and anti-lipolytic. This means that when excessive insulin is present, you stop releasing fat from the adipose cells and you go into fat storage mode. This explains why one person can eat a diet high in bread, pasta, potatoes and other carbohydrates and lose body fat easily, while another person will gain body fat and feel terrible on the same diet.

Sexual Attraction Evolutionary Psychology of

The adult human form is an array of sex-specific, sex hormone-mediated secondary sexual traits that signal health. These traits apparently evolved for the reason that health signalers outreproduced less healthy individuals, because the most healthy were preferred mates. Men's and women's faces differ in the size of the lower face. Largeness in the lower face is attractive in men's faces, whereas small-ness is attractive in women's faces (Symons 1995 Thornhill and Gangestad 1996). High estrogen at puberty caps the growth of the adult female face. Testosterone facilitates the sex difference in muscle mass, body size, and athleticism, and largeness and athleticism are attractive in men. Estrogen facilitates the redistribution and increased deposition of fat on the bodies of females at adolescence, giving rise to the relatively small waist and large hips in women. Low waist-to-hip ratio in women connotes hormonal health, fertility, youth and relative freedom from a diversity of diseases...

How are MS attacks treated Why are there different drugs to treat attacks of MS

ACTH (or corticotrophin) is a hormone that is made in the brain and is stored in the pituitary gland, which is situated at the base of the brain. This hormone is normally released in miniscule amounts during the early hours of the morning to stimulate the adrenal glands' production of steroid hormones. Cortisol, the active form of cortisone, is one product of ACTH stimulation. Dr. Leo Alexander began using ACTH a half-century ago at Harvard Medical School. He showed in a series of studies that it speeded recovery from MS attacks. Later, a national study, published in 1970, proved that it did indeed significantly speed the recovery for patients with acute exacerbations of MS. glands secrete steroid hormones that are important in the body's response to stress. Cortisol the stored form of cortisol produced by the adrenal cortex.

Feed Your Humpty Dumpty Body Right

Refined food depletes cortisol, a hormone from the adrenals, which is required to shut off insulin when protein in the diet is low. When insulin stays elevated, your extra carbs are converted to fat around the belly in males and buttocks in females. Over time, with a breakdown of adrenal and pancreas function, exhaustion occurs. Once exhausted, the body no longer burns carbs effectively and therefore cannot provide fuel for the body. At that point, your body begins to rob muscle of nutrients. Arms begin to breakdown first resulting in skinny arms and legs. You end up with a Humpty Dumpty physique. It is best to then minimize refined carbs and sweet fruits and focus on more protein. Build up your natural body to maintain an A-1 spiritual body.

Summary Episodic and Tonic Factors in the Regulation of Appetite

Endogenous 5-HT and leptin represent two aspects of negative feedback integral to the appetite control system (see Figure 3). Both systems appear to inhibit NPY functioning, the effect of leptin being partly mediated by melanocortins and other excitatory and inhibitory neuropeptides. 5-HT mediates the effect of meal-derived satiety factors derived from pre- and postingestive processes (such as CCK and enterostatin relsease) and promotes meal termination, prolonging the intermeal interval. By such a mechanism the body deals with the daily physiological fluxes that result from meal intake ensuring an approximately appropriate daily energy intake. Circulating leptin accurately reflects the current status of the body's energy store. Leptin levels continually modify total daily and meal food intake to maintain a sufficient but not excessive level of energy deposition. Thus, 5-HT and leptin represent two classes of signals short-term episodic and long-term tonic feedback, respectively. The...

The Feeding Fasting Cycle Energy Requirements

Early small increase in catecholamines, glucagon, cortisol, growth hormone then slow decrease Decrease in insulin, leptin Increase in catecholamines, glucagon, cortisol, growth hormone Decrease in insulin, leptin Increase in catecholamines, glucagon, cortisol, growth hormone Decrease in insulin, leptin

Examining Pathways Between Pubertal Effects and Adjustment in Girls

A series of regression models were run to examine the potential mediated pathways from either hormonal levels or pubertal timing to depressive affect or aggression, controlling for age. Despite the hypothesis that estradiol would lead to emotional arousal which would lead to depression, there was no support for this pathway in the analyses. However, as seen in Figure 16.6, the effect of pubertal timing on depressive affect was mediated by emotional arousal. The fact that emotional arousal did not explain the estradiol effect on depressive affect as expected warranted further exploration. Because links between adrenal response (e.g., cortisol response) and psychosocial stress have been extensively noted, DHEAS levels (another indicator of adrenal response) were examined in association with early maturation. The interaction between hormonal arousal (the upper third of the distribution of DHEAS considered high hormonal arousal) and timing (early versus other) was predictive of depressive...

Potential Reasons for Ethnic Differences in Age of Pubertal Onset

A finding across three large-scale studies conducted in the 1980s and 1990s, the PROS study (Her-man-Giddens et al., 1997), NHANES III (Wu et al., 2002), and the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study (Morrison et al., 1994), is that African American girls begin breast and pubic hair development about a year earlier than White girls and begin menses about half a year earlier. The reasons for the earlier age of secondary sexual characteristic onset for African American girls are not clear. Possible factors to consider include differences in diet and weight, environmental hazards or environmental estrogens, or differences in contextual stress and cultural attitudes between ethnic groups (Graber, 2003). Physiological differences that have been hypothesized to play a role in timing of pubertal onset include lower insulin sensitivity (Arslanian, Suprasongsin, & Janosky, 1997) and higher serum leptin levels (Wong et al., 1998) in African American children...

Potential Explanations for the Decreasing Age of Pubertal Onset

Other hypotheses regarding the earlier onset of puberty focus on more intrinsic factors. For example, perinatal factors, such as birth weight, have been found to play a role in subsequent pubertal development. In one study, girls who were smaller at birth but had a rapid catch-up period of growth between birth and age 6 were earlier maturers (Persson et al., 1999). Mechanisms for this association are not clear, but it is likely that the prenatal environment may influence subsequent timing of onset of development, given that sex hormones are active prenatally in organizing the brain for subsequent pubertal development and reproductive functioning (Fechner, 2002). A more widely discussed hypothesis is that higher body fat is associated with earlier maturation. In general, overweight girls tend to mature earlier than girls of normal weight, and thin girls tend to mature later. Numerous studies have indicated that in the past thirty years, there is an increasing prevalence of obesity in...

Obesity Associated with Recognized Medical Condition

Single gene defect affecting leptin metabolism Congenital leptin deficiency Leptin receptor defect Prohormone convertase-1 defect Melanocortin-4 receptor defect Peroxisome proliferators activated receptor POMC deficiency Biemond's syndrome Alstrom's syndrome Bardet-Biedl syndrome Biemond's syndrome (some) Carpenter's syndrome Cohen's syndrome proportion of obese children. With the exception of very rare single gene defects in leptin metabolism, obesity is a secondary feature in these conditions and presentation is usually for some other aspect of the condition. Single gene defects affecting leptin are associated with progressive gross obesity from early life and may respond with dramatic fat loss with leptin treatment. Where obesity is only a part of a spectrum of abnormalities, common associated features are short stature, developmental delay, and craniofacial and other bony abnormalities.

Progesterone derivatives

The exact mechanism of action of these agents remains to be elucidated. It has been postulated that central appetite stimulation effect (probably mediated by NPY) (Engelson et al. 1999 McCarthy et al. 1994), reduction of serotonin and cytokine release (Mantovani et al. 1997, 1998), and a corticosteroid-like effect (Beller et al. 1997), suppressing baseline cortisol levels, suggest an impact on the HPA axis (Oster et al. 1994). MA inhibits secretion of LH and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) in males and females (Engelson et al. 1999) and reduces testosterone levels (Engelson et al. 1999 Venner et al. 1988). In vitro studies have identified that MA enhances the differentiation of pre-adipocyte mouse fibroblasts to adipocytes (Engelson et al. 1999) which suggests that MA increases not only cell size, but also cell number (Neuenschwander and Bruera 1998). Data are contradictory on the possible down-regulation of IL-6 levels by MA (Mantovani 2002 Jatoi et al. 2002). The effect of these...

Adipose Tissue Hormones

The adipose tissue secretes different hormones called adipocytokines. Their secretion seems to vary in relation to the amount of adipose tissue accumulated, although the exact mechanism is not known. During profound weight loss, as in anorexia nervosa, there is a marked decrease in the adipose tissue mass with the typical changes in adipocytokines secretion that occur in these circumstances. One of the most studied adipocytokine changes is decreased leptin secretion. Increased fat mass stores are accompanied by an increased leptin secretion decreased fat mass stores decrease leptin secretion. Low serum levels of leptin reaching the hypothalamus increase the activity of the 'hunger center,' in part by increasing the local activity of neuropeptide Y. Individuals with anorexia nervosa have very low levels of leptin in blood and cerebrospinal fluid, in relation to their decreased adipose tissue. This should cause an increase in hypothalamic neuropep-tide Y content and hunger, but this...

Pathophysiology of Stone Formation

Other conditions predisposing to gall bladder disease Insulin-resistant diabetes predisposes to cholelithiasis. A Swedish study showed that the prevalence of gall stones in Crohn's disease was twice that seen in the general population. Cirrhosis is another major risk factor for gall stones. The incidence of gall stone formation in cirrhosis is 10 times that seen in the general population. The incidence increases with the severity of cirrhosis, being worse in Child's class B and C disease and in patients with higher body mass index. High estrogen level and reduced hepatic synthesis and transport of bile salts are reasons for the increased risk in cirrhosis. The Physicians' Health Study showed that 30 minutes of endurance-type exercise five times per week prevents approximately one-third of cases of symptomatic gall stones in men. The Nurses' Health Study confirmed the same trend in women.

The significance of psychosocial stress

Other studies have linked sympathetic hyperresponsivity to the induction of myocardial ischemia during exercise and mental stress and to predictions of the future development of hypertension and progression of atherosclerosis 66-72 . Increased systemic vascular resistance during mental stress testing is the most significant hemodynamic factor associated with mental stress-induced myocardial ischemia and most likely is the result of peripheral endothelial dysfunction 73 . Inhibition of cortisol production has been shown to prevent mental stress-induced endothelial dysfunction and baroreflex impairment, again pointing to a significant role of the HPA axis 74 . Interestingly, endothelial dysfunction after mental stress has been shown in hypertensive subjects but not in patients who have hypercholesterolemia 75 . This finding is noteworthy because both hypertension and hypercholesterolemia are risk factors for atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease, and endothelial dysfunction is a...

Lipidlowering Activity

Depression is often associated with insulin resistance, owing to Cortisol overproduction (McCarty 1994). The reputed antidepressant effects of chromium may be explained by improvements in insulin sensitivity (Davidson et al 2003) and related increases in tryptophan availability and or noradrenaline release (McLeod & Golden 2000). Chromium has also been shown to lower the Cortisol response to challenge with 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan (5-HTP) and decrease the sensitivity of 5-HT2A receptors (Attenburrow et al 2002).

Hunger Physiological Determinants

Stomach distension and the detection of macro-nutrients such as fat or protein within the gut are all powerful satiety cues. They bring a meal to an end and for a time inhibit further consumption. Eventually, hunger again prevails and food intake follows. The flux between hunger and satiety is episodic and underpins the expression of our eating behavior throughout the day. However, it is not just the absence of episodic satiety cues (e.g., stomach distension and intestinal or absorbed nutrients) that influence the expression of hunger. Reduction in blood glucose levels or in levels of the circulating adipose tissue hormone leptin indicates a deficit in available energy and in energy reserves. Fluctuation of these factors indicates the metabolism and storage of the body's energy reserves. These are a tonic class of physiological signals that also influence the expression of appetite. Like episodic satiety signals, these tonic signals normally act on inhibitory mechanisms with the...

Virginia Uhley and KL Catherine

Hormone-binding globulin production is elevated levels of free estrogen in blood circulation. As a result, the risk for breast cancer is increased. Patients with metabolic syndrome or elevated levels of insulin and IGF-1 also have an increased risk for colon cancer.12,13 Other metabolic abnormalities observed in obesity as part of the metabolic syndrome include high levels of total cholesterol, low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglyceride, low levels of high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and hypertension.7 A low HDL-C has been shown to be associated with high levels of blood estrogen, leptin, and insulin, and thus may serve as a marker for breast cancer risks in postmenopausal women.14-16 (3) Other metabolic alterations. Obesity is characterized with elevated blood leptin levels.17,18 Leptin, the protein product of the ob gene, is secreted by adipose tissue and is directly correlated to total adipose tissue mass in the body.18 Leptin has been reported to be...

Skinfold measurements The Pinch an inch test

Skinfold testing is based on the fact that you store most of your body fat directly beneath your skin. These types of fat deposits are called subcutaneous fat. The remainder of your body's fat is located around organs (internal fat) and inside muscle tissue (intramuscular fat).

Absorption and Metabolism of Retinol and Retinoic Acid

A microsomal retinol dehydrogenase catalyzes the oxidation of CRBP-bound all-frans-retinol to retinaldehyde it also acts as a 3a-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. A similar enzyme catalyzes the oxidation of 9-cis- and 11-cis-retinol, but not all-frans-retinol again, it has 3a-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity. In the eye, the major product of this enzyme is 11-cis-retinaldehyde, whereas in other tissues it is 9-cis-retinaldehyde, which is then oxidized to 9-cis-retinoic acid (Section 2.3.2.1 Chen et al., 2000 Duester, 2000, 2001 Gamble et al., 2000 Napoli, 2001). Although there is known to be an isomerase in the eye for the formation of 11-cis-retinaldehyde as a

Neuroendocrine Effects of Alcohol

Alcohol activates the sympathetic nervous system, increasing circulating catecholamines from the adrenal medulla. Hypothalamic-pituitary stimulation results in increased circulating cortisol from the adrenal cortex and can, rarely, cause a pseudo-Cushing's syndrome with typical moon-shaped face, truncal obesity, and muscle weakness. Alcoholics with pseudo-Cushing's show many of the biochemical features of Cushing's syndrome, including failure to suppress cortisol with a 48-h low-dose dexamethasone suppression test. However, they may be distinguished by an insulin stress test. In pseudo-Cushing's, the cortisol rises in response to insulin-induced hypoglycemia, but in true Cushing's there is no response to hypoglycemia.

R 0CHrCh R Nch Cn ihjn

Recent views are that breast tissue is capable of synthesising oestrogens mainly from the action of a sulphatase on oestrone sulphate. The oestrone produced provides oestradiol by the action of a 17p-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. Inhibitors of steroid sulphatase are being developed as potential adjuvants to aromatase inhibitors to further deplete oestrogen levels. One of these compounds emate (8.113) is an irreversible inhibitor of the sulphatase.

Fructose Consumption Body Weight and Obesity

Data comparing the effects of ingesting fructose-and glucose-sweetened beverages with meals indicate that fructose ingestion results in smaller increases in blood glucose and insulin concentrations following the meals. In addition, circulating leptin concentrations are lower, and the normal suppressive effect of meal consumption on ghrelin concentrations is attenuated with fructose beverages. Glucose, insulin, leptin, and ghrelin are all involved in the long-term control of food intake and body weight regulation through the central nervous system. Since these key signals are absent or weakened with fructose consumption, chronic consumption of a diet high in fructose could contribute, along with dietary fat and inactivity, to increased energy intake, weight gain, and obesity.

Hepatic Glucose Metabolism

Gluconeogenesis is elevated in head and neck cancer patients and also in lung cancer patients. Gluconeogen-esis accounts for approximately 50 of the overall glucose production after an overnight fast. It was demonstrated that glucose carbon recycling was elevated in five of seven published studies. Glucose carbon recycling is an indicator of increased gluconeogenesis. The ability to measure gluconeogenesis was not possible in humans until recently, when a method using U-13C glucose and isotopomer analysis was developed. The Cori cycle is increased in cancer patients and has been estimated to account for 300 kcal of energy loss per day. In 70 of published studies, cancer patients have a significant elevation in the rate of gluconeogenesis compared to normal weight-matched controls. Gluconeo-genesis was directly related to the morning blood cortisol concentration in both the normal volunteers (r 0.913, p < 0.01) and the cancer patients (r 0.595, p < 0.05). In the septic host, the...

Carbohydrate type glycaemic response and weight control

Short- and long-term studies in humans and animals indicate that high-GI diets affect appetite and nutrient partitioning to promote fat storage. However, human studies showing reduced bodyweight after consumption of low-GI diets need to be interpreted with caution. The outcome can rarely be attributed solely to the GI, because interventions designed to modify the GI of a diet usually also modify other variables that influence bodyweight (e.g. fibre content, palatability, energy density). Pawlak et al. (2004) assigned rats and mice either to a low- or a high-GI diet. The carbohydrate portion of the low-GI diet consisted of 60 amylose 40 amylopectin starch, whereas the carbohydrate in the high-GI diet was 100 amylopectin starch. Other than this, the two diets were similar in nutrient and energy content. In both mice and rats, animals consuming the high-GI diet had more body fat and less lean body mass than those on the low-GI diet. The rats on the high-GI diet required less food to gain...

Physiological factors influencing food intake

Long-term food intake regulation is essential in food-weight management. The hormone leptin appears to be involved in long-term food intake regulation. Leptin is synthesized mainly by adipose tissue it acts through receptors present in afferent visceral nerves and the hypothalamic arcuate Plasma leptin concentrations correlate positively with total body fat stores (Sinha et al., 1996). An energy deficit of more than 24 h leads to decreases of plasma leptin concentration (Boden et al., 1996), whereas an energy surplus of more than 24 h results in increased leptin concentrations (Kolaczynski et al., 1996). Plasma leptin is negatively correlated with appetite and food intake when the energy balance is severely disturbed (Keim et al., 1998 Chin-Chance et al., 2000). When subjects are in energy balance, the relation between leptin concentrations and food intake and appetite is less clear (Karhunen et al., 1997 Joannic et al., 1998 Romon et al., 1999). Therefore, leptin seems to have a role...

Essentiality and Metabolic Functions of Chromium

Stresses that have been shown to alter Cr metabolism in humans are glucose loading, high simple sugar diets, lactation, infection, acute exercise, chronic exercise, and physical trauma. Urinary losses can be used as a measure of the response to stress since once Cr is mobilized in response to stress it is not reabsorbed by the kidney but is lost in the urine. The degree of stress as measured by the stress hormone, cortisol, is correlated with the amount of Cr lost in the urine.

Uses of Anthropometric Measurements

In adults and children, anthropometric measurements can be used to estimate body fat and lean body mass and assess their distribution and change over time. Body fat includes storage fat, found inter-and intra-muscularly, around the organs and gastrointestinal tract and subcutaneously, as well as lipids in bone marrow, central nervous tissue, mammary glands, and other organs. Normal-weight men and women have about 10 and 20 body fat, respectively. Lean body or fat-free mass is mostly water and protein with relatively small amounts of glyco-gen and minerals. Inadequate diets are associated with low body fat stores and reduced lean body mass in adults and growth failure of children. Consumption of food greater than requirements results

Neural Structures Critical to the Expression of Appetite

Substances crossing the blood-brain barrier entering the brain factors such as neurotransmit-ter precursors, leptin or insulin cross the blood-brain barrier and directly alter CNS neurochem-ical activity, particularly in key hypothalamic nuclei and associated limbic areas.

Hazard Identification

No signs of neurological damage have been reported in humans. For example, in adult males given a chemically defined diet in which glutamate was the only source of dispensable nitrogen for periods of 14 to 42 days, no changes in neurologic or hepatic function were detected (Bazzano et al., 1970). However, concern was raised by a report that a large dose of glutamate taken orally stimulated the secretion of prolactin and cortisol (Carlson et al., 1989). Earlier findings that rats injected with 1 g kg of glutamate showed stimulation in the secretion of luteinizing hormone and testosterone (Olney et al., 1976) were interpreted as indicating that the high concentration of glutamate had penetrated the neuroendocrine parts of the hypothalamus. Similarly, it was shown that the same dose of glutamate stimulated release of prolactin and inhibited the release of growth hormone (Terry et al., 1981). The data of Carlson and coworkers (1989) might therefore be interpreted to imply that the...

Considering How Fibromyalgia Relates to Womens Ages

By abdominal obesity (a body shape like an apple instead of a pear), high triglycerides, high blood pressure, low levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL, the good cholesterol), and high fasting glucose (blood sugar) levels. The researchers also found that higher urinary levels of norepinephrine and cortisol were associated with a risk for metabolic syndrome.

Abnormalities of Hormones and Other Circulating Factors

Syndrome, including abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, impaired glucose homeostasis, hypertension, and lipid abnormalities. These similarities led to the hypothesis that a dysregulation of the HPA axis in the form of functional hypercortisolism could potentially be a cause for abdominal obesity and its different metabolic consequences. High levels of emotional or physical stress are thought to increase cortisol secretion or turnover and thereby increase visceral obesity. Another potential mechanism involves the peripheral metabolism of cortisol. The enzyme 11- -hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, which converts steroid precursors to cortisol, is expressed in adipose tissue. With increasing obesity, more cortisol is derived from cortisone in adipose tissue due to the increased activity of this hormone. Urine studies in obesity also show an increase in the ratio of tetra-hydrocortisol to tetrahydrocortisone, indicating a relative increase in the pathways leading to cortisol formation....

Ovarian Cancer Chemoprevention in the General Population

Several investigations have evaluated lower doses of oral contraceptive formulations and its association with ovarian cancer risk. One of the investigations in the meta-analysis of Hankinson and associates5 included subjects who used lower doses of oral contraceptives. From 1980 to 1982, the Cancer and Steroid Hormone Study7 enrolled 546 women with ovarian cancer and 4228 controls. Use of oral contraceptives was associated with risk of ovarian cancer of 0.6 (95 CI, 0.5-0.7). A benefit was seen in women with as little as 3 to 6 months of contraceptive use and was independent of oral contraceptive formulation. Ness and colleagues8 reported findings from the Steroid Hormones and Reproductions (SHARE) Study Group. From 1994 to 1999, the investigation enrolled 767 women with ovarian cancer and 1367 community controls. Oral contraceptive use was associated with a 40 reduction in ovarian cancer risk. Both high-estrogen high-progestin pills and low-estrogen low progestin pills conferred an...

Hormonal Response to Injury Infection and Cancer

Infection, cancer, or any injury to the body result in an increase in counterregulatory hormones as well as insulin concentration. As a result of cancer, sepsis, or injury, many patients develop the syndrome of insulin resistance even though they had no history of diabetes prior to cancer. In cancer patients, when the overall injury is smaller, many studies have failed to demonstrate an elevation in counterregula-tory hormones. Mild elevations in cortisol concentrations may contribute to the protein catabolism and increased gluconeogenesis. When serum insulin is measured with a sensitive assay, cancer patients demonstrate a small but significant elevation in serum insulin concentration. This is consistent with the observation that these patients have insulin resistance. Cancer patients, like diabetics, have a reduced glucose utilization and loss of the first-phase insulin The rise in serum cortisol as the host's response to the tumor is one of many factors that are responsible for the...

What Is Unique about This Book

The many kinds of hormones that affect fat storage and utilization. This book is one of the first to offer questionnaires to help you realize when your own hormones are working against you. It also discusses how the hormonal changes that occur with menopause and andropause can cause you to become overfat and tells you how exercise and nutrition can help rebalance these hormones.

Lack of Restorative Sleep and the Possible Roles of Substance P and HPA Axis

In the 1990s, researchers proposed that exposure to stressful conditions could alter the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, a major part of the neuroendocrine system that controls reactions to stress and regulates many body processes. Variations in HPA function are characterized by high levels of cortisol, which in turn is associated with the development of widespread pain. When cortisol excretion levels were measured in one research study, with a sample of forty-seven women diagnosed with FM compared to a control sample of fifty-eight healthy women of similar age, it was confirmed the women with FM excreted significantly lower cortisol levels than the healthy women. Other data in FM have demonstrated a blunted cortisol response to the stress of high-intensity exercise. Most recently, a lack of normal daily cortisol variation has been identified in FM. Another hypothesis suggests that reduced sleep leads to reduced production of human growth hormone (HGH)...

Protein intake and low carbohydrate dieting

Some people are very sensitive to carbohydrates. When they eat a lot of carbohydrates, their bodies overreact. There's an unusually large surge in their blood sugar and insulin levels, which may increase fat storage and inhibit enzymes that promote the breakdown of stored body fat. One solution to this problem is less carbohydrate and -you guessed it - more protein.

Digestion Absorption and Metabolism

Trans fatty acids occur mainly in positions 1 and 3 of triacylglycerols, the predominant lipids in adipose tissue. The concentration of trans fatty acids in adipose tissue is approximately proportional to long-term dietary intake, and determination of the concentrations in storage fat is one method used to estimate trans fatty acid intake. However, this is not entirely straightforward as variation has been reported in the composition of adipose tissue obtained from different sites and depths, and factors that influence adipose tissue turnover rates such as dieting and exercise are also complicating factors. Trans-18 1 isomers account for approximately 70 of the trans fatty acids found in adipose tissue, and trans-18 2 isomers (trans,trans, trans,cis, and cis,trans) account for about 20 .

Exercise Can Be a Positive or Negative Stressor

With negative emotion, the musculoskeletal system is less balanced. If an event is interpreted as a negative stressor, more of the stress hormone cortisol is produced as a response. Higher levels and longer secretion of cortisol can change brain wiring, hamper physical performance, and harm health.

Body Weight and Energy Balance

Substitution of nonalcohol calories by alcohol calories, which are 'wasted' during metabolism Alcohol metabolism decreases lipid metabolism, promotes fat storage multicenter studies, alcoholic hepatitis patients demonstrate universal evidence for protein calorie malnutrition, according to the physical findings of muscle wasting and edema, low levels of serum albumin and other visceral proteins, and decreased cell-mediated immunity, whereas their 6-month mortality is related in part to the severity of malnutrition. Anorexia is a major cause of weight loss in alcoholic liver disease, and may be caused by increased circulating levels of leptin. Furthermore, active alcoholic hepatitis contributes to increased resting energy expenditure as another cause of weight loss. On the other hand, resting energy expenditure is normal in stable alcoholic cirrhotics who are also typically underweight or malnourished in part due to preferential metabolism of endogenous fat stores. At the same time, the...

Caregiver Differences

While the aforementioned studies examined parents and children together, it is important to also examine the effects of parents' behaviors on children's capacities to regulate emotion on their own. Here, the level of parents' autonomy supportiveness versus controllingness in their interactions with their children becomes especially relevant. While not proposing such a model, several studies have examined parent behaviors that can be related to an autonomy support to control continuum. Silverman and Ragusa (1990) found that mothers who were more active in a parent-child compliance task had children who performed more poorly on an independent delay task, even controlling for performance on the compliance tasks. Nachmias, Gunnar, Manglesdorf, Parritz, and Buss (1996) examined the strategies that mothers used to help their wary children deal with a mildly fear-inducing stimulus. Mothers who forced their children to focus on a novel event had children with higher postsession cortisol...

Very low carbohydrate high fat high protein

The basic assumption of the very low carbohydrate approach is that carbohydrates cause fat storage because they increase insulin production. Insulin is portrayed as an evil fat-storing monster that makes everything you eat turn into fat. The objective of these programs is to control insulin by cutting out carbohydrates and this will supposedly cause rapid body fat loss.

Safety issues 1241 In animals

Fatty liver while the 9c,11t isomer had little or no effect (Clement et al., 2002 Degrace et al., 2003). While adipose tissue mass was shown to decrease after feeding CLA for 6 days, plasma levels of leptin and adiponectin decreased after 2 days of feeding, and hyperinsulinaemia developed on day 6 (Poirier et al., 2005). CLA was shown to alter the capacity of pancreatic islets to secrete insulin and the increase in insulin secretion was correlated to an increase in beta cell mass and number, leading to liver steatosis (Poirier et al., 2005). Degrace et al. (2003) demonstrated using C57BL 6J mice that the steatosis was not due to an alteration of the liver lipoprotein production. A three-fold decrease in plasma triacylglycerol and induction of mRNA expression of low-density lipoprotein receptors suggest an increase in the lipoprotein clearance at the level of liver. Further work also indicated that the steatosis was not due to impaired fatty acid oxidation as in fact in the liver,...

Central and nutritional control of adaptive thermogenesis

Signals involved in the long-term regulation of energy balance that convey information to the brain about the size of body fat stores (the so-called 'adiposity signals'), besides affecting food intake, modulate energy expenditure through effects on the activity of the SNS and the pituitary-thyroid axis, and also through direct effects on the oxidative and thermo-genic capacity activity of peripheral tissues. This is the case for leptin, the paradigm of the adiposity signal, which suppresses appetite, and enhances energy expenditure and fat oxidation in peripheral tissues (reviewed in reference 45). In human obesity, leptin deficiency is rare, but leptin resistance is common.

Plasma Vitamin D Binding Protein GcGlobulin

The plasma binding protein has a higher affinity for calcidiol and 24-hydroxycalcidiol than for calcitriol or cholecalciferol. The plasma concentration of Gc-globulin is about 6 mmol per L - considerably higher than the concentrations of other hormone binding proteins, such as thyroxine binding globulin (300 mol per L), cortisol binding globulin (800 mol per L), or sex hormone binding globulin (40 mol per L in males and 80 mol per L in females) and far in excess of circulating vitamin D. As a result of this, whereas the other hormone binding globulins are about 50 saturated under normal conditions, the vitamin D binding protein is only about 2 saturated. This means that changes in the circulating concentration of the protein are unlikely to have any significant effect on the small proportion of vitamin D metabolites that is free, rather than protein-bound. Again, unlike other hormone binding globulins, the plasma concentration of Gc-globulin is not affected by vitamin D status or...

Genomic Actions of Retinoic Acid

At pharmacological levels, retinoic acid enhances the expression of uncoupling protein 1 (thermogenin) in brown adipose tissue and decreases the expression of leptin in white adipose tissue, suggesting that it may have an effect on energy homeostasis, but it is not known whether or not the effects are relevant at physiological levels (Kumaretal., 1999 Villarroyaetal., 1999). Retinoic acid also induces synthesis of glucokinase in pancreatic f -islet cells. Increased metabolism of glucose as a result of glucokinase activity is responsible for initiating insulin secretion in response to a rise in blood glucose concentration, and retinoic acid increases the secretion of insulin by pancreatic islets in culture (Cabrera-Valladares et al., 1999).

Glossary of Terms

Body composition The ratio of lean body mass (structural and functional elements in cells, body water, muscle, bone, heart, liver, kidneys, etc.) to body fat (essential and storage) mass. Essential fat is necessary for normal physiological functioning (e.g., nerve conduction). Storage fat constitutes the body's fat reserves, the part that people try to lose.

The hypothalamicpituitary adrenal axis

Glucocorticoids hormones are the last step of the activation of the HPA axis. Afferent inputs to the hypothalamus induce the release of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) CRF reaches the pituitary via the hyphophyseal portal system and activates the release of ACTH in the bloodstream, which, in turn, triggers the secretion of glucocorticoids (Cortisol in humans and corticosterone in rodents) by the cortical part of the adrenal gland (for review, see McEwen et al., 1986). In humans, as in animals, the secretion

Israel Liberzon1 Samir Khan2 and Elizabeth A Young3

The most extensively characterized neuroendocrine change associated with PTSD involves abnormalities in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. A wide variety of psychological and physiological stressors are known to produce acute activation of this axis (Herman and Cullinan, 1997) and termination of HPA activation is accomplished through a negative feedback system involving stimulation of glucocortiocoid receptors by Cortisol at the level of the hippocampus, hypothalamus, and or pituitary. PTSD patients are shown to have lower 24-h circulating levels of Cortisol in some studies (Mason et al., 1986 Yehuda et al., 1995b) although others have found no sustained baseline differences (Mason et al., 2002). Their HPA axis is also characterized by an enhanced negative feedback system. A number of studies have demonstrated increased suppression of plasma Cortisol in PTSD patients following administration of low doses of the glucocorticoid agonist dexamethasone (Yehuda et al., 1993...

Delia M Vzquez1 and Seymour Levine2

There is an important caveat in making the assumption that the reduced level of CORT following stress indicates a reduction in biological activity. CORT exists in the circulation in two forms, bound and unbound. The large majority of CORT in the adult is bound to cortisol-binding protein (CBG) and other plasma binding proteins. Only a small fraction exists in the free form, which is considered to be the biologically active form. Following stress, CBG is somewhat decreased, making more of the circulating CORT available as free CORT (Fleshner et al., 1995 Tannenbaum et al., 1997). Another aspect of the SHRP in rodents is the relative absence of CBG during the SHRP (Henning, 1978). Thus, although the absolute values of CORT, which normally include both bound and unbound hormone, are very low in the absence of CBG the actual fraction of CORT that is available in the free form for binding to corticosteroid receptors may actually be higher than is observed in the adult. There are few data...

Drugs For Dyskinesia Sarizotan

64 dyskinetic PD subjects, sarizotan, at doses ranging from 2 mg BID to 10 mg BID, prolonged the amount of on time without dyskinesia (55). PD symptoms were not worsened, as assessed by amount of off time or UPDRS scores, although some patients did report worsening of parkinsonism as an adverse event. Additional adverse events reported included sedation and nausea. Higher doses have been associated with suppression of the cortisol response to ACTH challenge, but this was not seen in PD. A large multicenter Phase III trial did not demonstrate a difference between sarizotan and placebo and consequently the development of this compound for PD has been abandoned (56).

Your Hairs Are Counted

Hair tissue analysis reveals much about your current body health. Toxins and minerals are more concentrated in the hair. I see patterns and ratios that help me determine potential body dysfunction. High copper levels are often seen with low zinc. This pattern is common in females with high estrogen and men with prostate enlargement. Evaluating hair can assist in altering lifestyle patterns.

Mineral Tissue Analysis

I commonly see a deficiency of zinc in individuals who have low energy. Zinc is needed to make insulin, a factor needed for carbohydrate metabolism. Copper is often elevated in individuals with a low zinc level. When copper is elevated in females, I also see high estrogen levels with associated symptoms of PMS heavy menstrual flow and tender breast tissue.

Detoxified for Health

There are many thoughts and hypothesis by Western medical thinkers as to the cause of breast lesions. Studying natural therapeutics for over 30 years, I must tell you from my experience that the three leading causes of unchecked elevated estrogen levels arise from 1) synthetic HRT (sourced from horse urine), 2) congested livers not capable of clearing estrogen, and 3) obesity. Eating high-fiber food and whole food B vitamins are absolutely necessary to combat high estrogen levels. An optimally functioning thyroid is needed to have proper bowel movements. Flax oil, rich in Omega 3 fat, promotes overall optimal hormonal function. A congested liver from consuming too much caffeine from coffee, tea, and chocolate can also lead to breast cysts.

Mineralocorticoid Effect

The GA constituent in licorice (and its metabolite 3-monoglucuronyl-glycyrrhetinic acid) inhibits the enzyme 11 HSD (Kato et al 1995), which catalyses the conversion of Cortisol into its inactive metabolite, cortisone. This results in delayed excretion and prolonged activity of Cortisol. Additionally, GL and GA bind to mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid receptors and may displace Cortisol from its carrier molecule, transcortin (Nissen 2003). Pseudohyperaldosteronism As Cortisol levels rise, they stimulate mineralocorticoid receptors in the distal renal tubule (Walker et al 1992). This creates pseudohyperaldosteronism, which has the same clinical features as primary aldosteronism, including sodium retention, fluid retention and oedema, hypertension, hypokalemia and metabolic alkalosis (Armanini et al 1996, Heldal & Midtvedt 2002, Kato et al 1995, vanUum et al 1998, Walker & Edwards 1994). A case report suggests that the symptoms occur despite low plasma levels of aldosterone...

Adaptogenic And Tonic Effects

Ginseng is used by many athletes to improve stamina and to facilitate rapid recovery from injuries. To examine the effects of ginseng supplements on hormonal status following acute resistance exercise, eight male college students were randomly given water (control group) or 20 g ginseng root extract treatment immediately after a standardised training exercise. Human growth hormone, testosterone, Cortisol, and insulin-like growth factor 1 levels were determined by radioimmunoassay. The responses of plasma hormones following ginseng consumption were not significant between the control and the ginseng groups during the 2-hour recovery period (YouI et al 2002).

Toward a Mechanism of Stressor Induced Alterations in Microflora

It is tempting to speculate on the mechanisms through which the intestinal microflora could have been altered by stressful pregnancy conditions. For example, it is known that cortisol can affect many aspects of infant development, and many of the effects of prenatal stress on the immune system can be mimicked by administration of ACTH or the synthetic glucocorticoid, dexamethasone (Coe et al. 1996). And, others have found that giving corticosterone to pregnant rats significantly reduced the concentrations of total and Gram-negative aerobes and facultative anaerobes (Schiffrin et al. 1993). The mechanisms through which glucocorticoids might affect the microflora are not known, but fetal development of the gi tract is thought to be influenced by glucocorticoids. For example, maturation of the intestines occurs concomitantly with the prepartum surge in cortisol in pre-cocial species, such as pigs, sheep, and humans (Trahair and Sangild 1997). Moreover, very high levels of glucocorticoids...

Prenatal Stressor Induced Alterations to Microflora Development

To determine the impact of a prenatal stressor on microflora development, an acoustical startle stressor (i.e., 3 random 110 dB beeps over a 10 min period occurring 5 days per week) was used to evoke a stress response from pregnant rhesus monkeys either early (days 50-92) or late (days 105-147) in the 169 day gesta-tional period. These periods represent crucial time periods in nervous system and GI system development, thus making it likely that disruption of physiological homeostasis at these time points affects fetal development. This stressor resulted in a significant increase in cortisol in the pregnant mothers, but did not appear to significantly affect the number of miscarriages, gestational length, or birth weight (Bailey et al. 2004b). The stressor did, however, significantly affect the development of the intestinal microflora.

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