Most Effective Erectile Dysfunction Treatment

Legendary Potency Forbidden Secrets Of Most Potent Men In History

Over 20% of Western men in their 20's are suffering from erectile dysfunction. This problem increases by 10% every decade. Erectile dysfunction is becoming more prevalent and has ruined a lot of relationships. When you keep quiet about this problem, it gets worse. Unfortunately, most pills in the market today that claim to cure erectile dysfunction do not work as advertised. Some may even worsen your problem. This is why it is recommended that you use natural methods without side effects when you want to treat erectile dysfunction. One such natural treatments of erectile dysfunction is a secret discovered by Scott Greene -a researcher and a men's health author. His secret is based on foods previously eaten by Roman Gladiators but banned for over 1600 years by more than 3 religion. In his eBook, you will learn of virility foods you can use to boost your testosterone level and completely get rid of erectile dysfunction from your body system. Read more...

Legendary Potency Forbidden Secrets Of Most Potent Men In History Summary


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Legendary Potency - Forbidden Secrets Of Most Potent Men In History

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All of the information that the author discovered has been compiled into a downloadable ebook so that purchasers of Legendary Potency Forbidden Secrets Of can begin putting the methods it teaches to use as soon as possible.

As a whole, this book contains everything you need to know about this subject. I would recommend it as a guide for beginners as well as experts and everyone in between.

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Adjusting to Changes in Sexual Function in MS

Normal sexual function changes throughout one's lifetime, but having multiple sclerosis (MS) can profoundly affect an individual's sexual experience in a variety of ways. The most frequently reported change in men is diminished capacity to obtain or maintain an erection (impotence), while the most frequent change reported by women is partial or total loss of libido (sexual desire). Certain MS medications can also interfere with sexual functioning. For example, certain antidepressants can cause this difficulty.

SEXuAl Response Cycle

Two pioneering researchers, William Masters and Virginia Johnson, identified four stages of sexual response. These stages excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution are known as the human sexual response cycle. Two basic processes occur during sexual response vasocongestion and myotonia. Vasocongestion refers to the concentration of blood in the blood vessels and in the tissues of the genitals and breasts. In men, vasocongestion occurs when arterial blood flow to the penis increases and venous outflow decreases. Erection is a result of increased blood flow to the spongy tissue (corpora cavernosa) of the penis, causing these tissues to expand. In women, this inflow of blood causes the clitoris to enlarge, the labia to swell, and the vagina to lubricate. Myotonia, or neuromuscular tension, refers to the increase of energy in nerves and muscles. During sexual activity, myotonia takes place throughout the body, affecting both involuntary and skeletal muscles. plateau phase of the sexual...

Coping With Msrelated Changes In Sexual Response

Coping with Altered Genital Sensations To enhance sexual response, increase stimulation to other responsive areas such as Coping with Erectile Problems A number of oral medications are available to treat erectile dysfunction. The FDA has approved several medicines called phos-phodiesterase-type-5 (PDE-5) inhibitors. PDE-5 inhibitors work by blocking a chemical in the erectile tissues that causes erections to become flaccid. These medicines include sildenafil (Viagra ), vardenafil (Levitra ), and tadalafil (Cialis ). To date, only sildenafil has been completed in clinical trials with men who have MS, although the other medicines are highly similar and can be prescribed for persons with MS. These medicines do not improve libido, but are helpful in maintaining erections when they occur. They are typically taken an hour before anticipated sexual activity. The effects of vardenafil and tadalafil are reported to last somewhat longer than sildenafil, although they have not been directly...

How does MS affect sexual function

Patients and physicians in the past rarely discussed sexual function and performance despite its central role in life. This was especially true when illness other than heart disease was at issue. Sexual relationships are a major bond between married couples, and the new frankness about these issues promises to benefit particularly MS patients greatly. There are a number of pertinent issues in this regard, many of which are equally important to healthy persons. The most common sexual problem affecting both men and women in good health is the lack of libido (sexual interest or sexual drive). Psychologic stress arising from interpersonal relationships and work is probably the most common single cause for this it is obviously much more of an issue in young adults affected by a major health problem. The resultant uncertainties that naturally arise in these situations contribute to this greatly. The actual diagnosis of illness may induce acute stress, which can precipitate sexual difficulty...

Does Viagra help with impotence in MS

The physical problem of erectile dysfunction is now openly discussed and is recognized commonly in otherwise healthy men. This change in the public attitude has helped men with MS accept this aspect of sexual function when it occurs and embrace the use of one of the approved drugs for erectile dysfunction. Viagra, Levitra, and Cialis appear to be at least as useful in men with MS as they are in otherwise normal men. Some studies have suggested that these drugs may also Orgasm be helpful in women having difficulty achieving an

Benefit 7 Combats Erectile Dysfunction

A recent study of over 31,000 men between the ages of fifty-three and ninety showed that exercise delayed the onset of erectile dysfunction with age and improved sexual performance in those who already suffered from this problem. This research project, conducted by the Harvard School of Public Health, found that an average of one-third of test subjects reported problems getting and keeping an erection. Most of the men studied said that they had few problems before age fifty, but 26 percent had difficulty between ages fifty and fifty-nine 40 percent between ages sixty and sixty-nine and 61 percent over age seventy. Men who watched more than twenty hours of television per week, consumed too much alcohol, smoked, were overweight, had diabetes, had a previous stroke, or took antidepres-sants or beta-blockers had the most problems with ED. One of the most interesting conclusions of this study was the connection between overall cardiovascular health and the ability to sustain an erection....

Cant get an erection

Few men bring up this issue with their doctors, and few doctors ask about it. This doesn't mean it's unimportant. The ability to achieve and maintain an erection is frustrating, embarrassing, and distressing to you and your partner. Achieving and maintaining an erection results from the successful interplay of several different physical and psychological processes. One or more of these may be impaired in PD. Thus, anxiety and or depression may result in a loss of a desire to have or think about sex. The desire to have sex or think about sex is called libido. A loss of libido results in impotence. Most men with PD, however, retain their desire for sex, and this coupled with impotence, heightens frustration, results in abstinence, and deepens social isolation. PD usually begins at age 60, a time when many men experience impotence related to vascular disease, diabetes, an enlarged prostrate, or depression. Thus, impotence should not automatically be attributed to PD. Diabetes, an...

Ginseng Panax Species

Ginseng is thought of by many as a virtual panacea. Asian ginseng (Panax ginseng) has been used for centuries as a general tonic, stimulant, and stress reliever. In Chinese medicine, American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) has been used, but is thought to possess less stimulant activity. Siberian ginseng (Eleutherococcus senticosus) has also gained recent popularity but belongs to a different plant species, which is often the caue of confusion. Most studies to date concentrate on the use of Panax ginseng. The mechanism of action for ginseng is unknown but thought to revolve around the concentration of ginsenosides that are thought to be responsible for a number of its pharmacological properities, including stimulation of the central nervous system, stimulation of the immune system, anxiolytic effects, antioxidant effects, and vasodilatory effects (81). Additionally, ginseng may accelerate hepatic lipo-genesis and increase glycogen storage (82). Numerous studies of varying quality have...

Immunomodulatory Antitumor Activities of Ginseng Polysaccharide

It has long been reported that ginseng strengthens the resistance of an organism to harmful physical, chemical, and biological stresses. This capability is related to its regulation of the immune system, which plays an important role in the protective mechanism of the body. Recently, an acidic polysaccharide named ginsan has been isolated from white ginseng, peeled dried ginseng, and identified as an ideal nontoxic antineoplastic immunostim-ulator. It acts by activating multiple effector arms of the immune system and killer cells (Thyl + , AsGM1 +, CD8+) (68). Ginsan has been found to generate LAK cells from both NK and T cells by endogenously producing multiple cytokines, contributing to its effectiveness in the immunoprevention and immunotherapy of cancer (17). More recently, red ginseng acidic polysac-charide (RGAP) has also been isolated from Korean red ginseng. Having different chemical molar composition from ginsan, it is reported to have immunomodulatory antitumor activity....

Structural Property Of Ginseng

Ginsenosides, known as saponins, are the major components of ginseng (Fig. 1). Ginsenosides have a steroidal skeleton with a modified side chain at C-20 (7,8). They differ from one another by the type of sugar moieties, their number, and their site of attachment. Among the saponins, the genuine sapogenins 20(S)-protopanaxa-diol and -triol have been identified as 20(S) 12p-hydroxyl-and 20(S) 6a, 12p-dihydroxy-dammarenediol-II, respectively (9). Some partly deglycosylated saponins such as ginsenoside Rh1, Rh2, and Rg3 are obtained from red ginseng as artifacts produced during steaming. Stepwise deglycosylated compounds such as compound K and 20(S)-protopanaxadiol can be generated through metabolic transformation by human intestinal bacteria. Ginsenoside Rg1 is converted into 20(S)-protopanaxatriol via ginsenoside Rh1. The binding of the sugar has been shown to influence biological activity. Rh1 and Rh2 are structurally similar, but have different activity. Ginsenoside Rh2 has been shown...

Ginseng Korean

Historical note Gin refers to man and seng to essence in Chinese, whereas Panax is derived from the Greek word pan (all) and akos (cure), referring to its use as a cure-all. Ginseng is a perennial herb native to Korea and China and has been used as a herbal remedy in eastern Asia for thousands of years. It is considered to be the most potent Qi or energy tonic in TCM. Modern indications include low vitality, poor immunity, cancer, cardiovascular disease and enhancement of physical performance and sexual function. However, a recent systematic review of RCT found that the efficacy of ginseng root extract could not be established beyond doubt for any of these indications (Coon & Ernst 2002).

Erectile Dysfunction

Korean red ginseng has been shown to alleviate erectile dysfunction and improve the ability to achieve and maintain erections even in patients with severe erectile dysfunction (Price & Gazewood 2003). Ginsenosides can facilitate penile erection by directly inducing the vasodilatation and relaxation of the penile corpus cavernosum. Moreover, the effects of ginseng on the corpus cavernosum appear to be mediated by the release and or modification of release of NO from endothelial cells and perivascular nerves (Murphy & Lee 2002). In men with type 2 diabetes, oxidative stress has been suggested as a contributing factor to erectile dysfunction and animal studies suggest that ginseng can preserve 'potency' via its antioxidant effect (Ryu et al 2005). In a double-blind crossover study, 900 mg Korean red ginseng was found to significantly improve the Mean International Index of Erectile Function scores compared with placebo. Significant subjective improvements in penetration and...

Ginseng Siberian

Historical note Siberian ginseng has been used for over 2000 years, according to Chinese medical records, where it is referred to as Ci Wu Jia. It was used to prevent colds and flu and to increase vitality and energy. In modern times, it has been used by Russian cosmonauts for improving alertness and energy, and to aid in adaptation to the stresses of life in space. It has also been used as an ergogenic aid by Soviet athletes before international competitions and was used after the Chernobyl accident to counteract the effects of radiation.


Ginseng has interacted beneficially with chemotherapy drugs both in vitro and in animals. For example, selected ginseng triterpenoids at 25 to 100 pM reversed multidrug resistance to daunomycin and vinblastine in mouse leukemia cells in vitro.135 Oral administration of a crude extract of ginseng (at 500 mg kg) increased the cytotoxicity of mitomycin in mice with transplanted Ehrlich ascites cancer cells and increased survival time of the mice as compared to those receiving only mitomycin. In-vitro experiments also In rats with transplanted liver cancer cells, a combination of mitomycin and a crude ginseng extract (given orally at 200 to 500 mg kg) produced a greater antitumor effect than mitomycin alone.137'138 The equivalent human dose is about 3.2 to 8.1 grams per day.


In men, zinc deficiency may lead to impaired testosterone synthesis, resulting in hypogonadism and impotency. One placebo-controlled study has investigated whether oral zinc supplementation improves erectile dysfunction. The study involved 20 uraemic haemodialysis patients and showed that 6 months treatment with oral zinc acetate (25 mg elemental zinc) taken twice daily 1-2 hours before meals resulted in greater libido, improved potency and more frequent intercourse compared to placebo (Mahajan et al 1982). Active treatment also resulted in significant increases in plasma zinc, serum testosterone, and sperm count and decreases in serum levels of

Frequency Of Autonomic Dysfunction In Parkinsons Disease

Although the focus of routine follow-up visits between PD patients and neurologists is typically on motor symptoms of the disease, autonomic problems are frequently present and can be identified if patients are specifically asked. In one study of 48 men with PD, 89 had at least one autonomic symptom compared with 43 of elderly control subjects (2). Autonomic symptoms seen in these men with PD included erectile dysfunction (60 ), urinary urgency (46 ), constipation (44 ), dysphagia (23 ), and orthostatism (22 ), and each of these symptoms was more common in PD patients than controls. Siddiqui et al. (3) performed a comprehensive symptom survey of autonomic symptoms in 44 patients with PD, comparing the frequency and severity of these symptoms with 24 aged-matched controls. Using a five point scale to rate symptom severity, the authors tabulated the severity of symptoms in each of five areas GI, urinary, sexual dysfunction, cardiovascular, and thermoregulatory. They found that PD...

Treatment sideeffects and their psychological impact

Men confronted with this treatment decision often need to take into consideration a range of factors, including the potential physical side effects of treatments and their psychological, social and emotional consequences. For example, patients being treated with radical therapies can experience severe side-effects, such as urinary incontinence (UI) and erectile dysfunction (ED), as a result of treatment. UI symptoms can persist years after treatment 8 and this can have an impact on all aspects of an individual's functioning. Men with UI often avoid social situations due to the risk of their incontinence becoming apparent to other people. They can feel embarrassed by their inability to self-control their bodily functions and by the lack of empathy from other people within social situations 9 . Relatively little research has been conducted to examine the relationship between ED and psychological morbidity among men with prostate cancer. Nevertheless, ED has been reported to have a...

Medical And Nonmedical Uses

AASs are prescribed by physicians to treat a variety of medical conditions (Bagatell & Bremner, 1996). The most accepted use is for treating boys and men unable to produce normal levels of their own testosterone, a condition known as testosterone deficiency or hypogonadism. AASs are also used to treat a rare skin condition called hereditary angioedema, certain forms of anemia (deficiency of red blood cells), advanced breast cancer, and endometriosis (a painful condition in females in which tissue usually found only in the uterus develops in other body parts). AASs are also combined with female hormones to treat distressing symptoms that can accompany menopause. Experimentally, AASs have been used to treat a condition in which bone loss occurs (osteoporosis), to treat impotency and low sexual desire, and as a male birth control pill. In addition, AASs have been used in the treatment of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) to stimulate appetite, weight gain, strength, and...

Ginkgo Ginkgo Bloba

Ginkgo biloba is the top-selling herb in the United States. It has been used for a variety of medical conditions including asthma, deafness, and male impotence (68). It is predominantly used currently for the treatment of dementia, memory impairment, symptomatic peripheral vascular disease, and tinnitus. It is thought to have a number of biological effects including increasing blood flow, inhibiting platelet-activating factor, altering neuronal metabolism, and working as an antioxidant (69).

Myroslava Romach Karen Parker

APHRODISIAC An aphrodisiac is a substance that can be administered topically, internally, by injection, or by inhalation to stimulate sexual arousal or to enhance sexual performance. The term is based on Aphrodite, the ancient Greek goddess of love and beauty, and it came into the English language during the early 1800s. Although no solid scientific evidence exists for any substances that have selective effect on sexual function, many foods and food combinations have a long-standing reputation as aphrodisiacs such as oysters, caviar, champagne, and truffles (a subterranean fungus uprooted by pigs in the oak forests of France). A prescription drug yohimbine, derived from the African yohimbe tree seems to help cure some men of impotence. The data suggest that it may work as a placebo (psychologically), but urologists prescribe it nonetheless in the hope that the patient can avoid more invasive treatments. The treatment takes three to six months before there is an effect, and the natural...

The importance of the early diagnosis of the prostate cancer

The considerations about the early detection of the PCa is necessary, due to, there is considerable variation in the likely side effects and risks of long-term consequences such as urinary incontinence (UI) and erectile dysfunction (ED) in patients with PCa. With the early diagnosis there is an expectation of curing cancer, minimizing the risk of UI and ED and increasing the quality of life of the patient 38-41 . Penile erection is the consequence of a complex neurovascular process in which nerves, en-dothelium of sinusoids and blood vessels, and smooth muscle cells are involved. Several central nervous and peripheral transmitters and transmitter systems participate in the process and the nitric oxide (NO) is the main mediator of penile erection. It is produced by a group of enzymes called nitric oxide synthase (NOS) which utilizes the amino acid L-argi-nine and molecular oxygen as substrates to produce NO and L-citrulline. The endothelial NOS is constitutively expressed within the...

Lack of Scientific Evidence for Clinical Efficacy and Safety

Except for the handful of phytomedicines known in the West, the risk-benefit profile of many herbal therapies is not known. Randomized control trials are the gold standard for clinical efficacy and they have been performed only for a handful of commonly used drugs such as gingko, St. John's wort, ginseng, echinacea, saw palmetto, and kava (10). Little is known about the vast majority of the huge body of herbal extracts and formulae registered in the Chinese pharmacopoeia. The importance of well-organized, long-term clinical trials cannot be better illustrated than in the recent issue of hormone replacement therapy and its risks and benefits. Despite the long duration of clinical use of hormone replacement in postmenopausal women, it is only in recent years that certain significant risks have been well recognized and better understood.

German Model For Regulation Use And Scientific Evaluation Of Herbal Products

Quality according to pharmaceutical standards for traditional herbal medicines. This includes statutory declarations for herbal ingredients dosage form and intended use. On the other hand, questions of safety and effectiveness were relegated to monographs published by Commission E. However, all herbal products that came into the market after 1978 had to be evaluated according to procedures for new drug approvals. Proof of quality by the manufacturer was always required, but bibliographic evidence of safety and effectiveness was acceptable for herbal drugs. By the end of 1995, 360 herbs had been evaluated by Commission E (44). Approved herbs totaling 191 include the popular herbs like gingko, St. John's wort, ginseng, soy lecithin, kava-kava, saw palmetto, echinecea, black cohosh root, primrose, and wormwood. These approved herbs have nonprescription drug status but are available only from licensed pharmacists.

Influence Of Medical Conditions On Sexuality

Infarction have on sexual activity Erectile dysfunction Erectile dysfunction What are the two main causes of erectile dysfunction in diabetics What is the primary treatment for erectile dysfunction in diabetics What effect does spinal cord dysfunction have on sexual functioning in men What effect does pregnancy have on sexual functioning Decreased fertility Erectile dysfunction Orgasmic dysfunction Reduced testosterone levels Retrograde ejaculation into the bladder

Adhesion Proteins And Cancer Cell Migration

A number of natural compounds inhibit cancer cell migration. Many of these also inhibit immune cell migration, since the mechanisms that govern both can be similar. However, at least some natural compounds, such as PSK, appear to inhibit cancer cell migration preferentially. Ginseng may do the same. The reason some natural compounds inhibit cancer cell migration but not that of immune cells is probably because cancer cells rely on such abnormal signals for activity that their activity is more easily inhibited.

Historical Cultivation And Usage

Garcinia kola seed plays a very important role in African ethno-medicine. The seed is employed as a general tonic, and is believed to cure impotence. Traditionally, the seeds are used in the treatment of inflammatory disorders and liver disease. Extracts of the seeds led to remarkable improvement of liver function in patients with chronic hepatitis and cholangitis after treatment for 14 days at a Nigerian herbal home (Iwu, 1982). Other medicinal uses include as a purgative, an antiparasitic, an antimicrobial, and an antiviral. The seeds are used in the treatment of bronchitis and throat infections, and to prevent and relieve colic, cure head or chest colds, and relieve coughs (Figure 26.2). Constituents include xanthones and benzophenones. The antimicrobial properties of this plant are attributed to the benzophenone flavanones, while the hepatoprotective properties have been linked to the biflavonoid constituents of the plant. Specifically, a de-fatted fraction of an alcoholic extract...

NewCROP Guide to Medicinal and Aromatic Plants

This Web site for the Center for New Crops and Plant Products at Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana, is associated with the New Crop Diversification project and the Jefferson Institute. The center's mission is to identify new natural sources of industrial or medically useful compounds and to identify novel compounds from plants. Research projects on the cultivation of aromatic and American medicinal plants, such as mint, ginseng, goldenseal, cohosh, and echinacea are also currently underway. Resources such as CropINDEX, CropSEARCH, CropMAP, and CropREFERENCE provide access to a wide range of information and documents on various crop plants, including some economically important herb crops. Many of the documents are available as online full text.

Longterm Effects Of Cancer Diagnosis And Treatment On Survivors Family Members

The literature on the effect of cancer diagnosis and treatment on family members is sparse.74 Of studies in this area, most have focused on the impact of cancer soon after diagnosis, during recurrence, or at the terminal phase of the disease.75-77 One study shows that partners of men with prostate cancer, generally from small convenience samples, report more distress than their sick partners, but also believe that their partners are more distressed. The only reviewed study of long-term prostate cancer survivors found that couples' health-related QOL was associated with marital satisfaction.61 Distress was inversely related to levels of family support. The men's focus of concern, on their sexual functioning (i.e., impotence), was not shared to an equal degree by their non-sick partners.78,79 The most relevant study included

United Plant Savers UpS

The explosive growth of the international herbal market is creating such a demand for herbal plant material that some medicinal plants are now in short supply due to overharvesting in the wild. United Plant Savers (UpS) is a grassroots nonprofit organization group based in East Barre, Vermont, whose mission is to promote the conservation of North American native medicinal plants. It also maintains its own sanctuary for research and cultivation on 400 acres in southeast Ohio. According to UpS, twenty Native American herbs, such as black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa) and American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius), are at risk, that is, are approaching endangered species status, while another nineteen are on a to watch list.

Directions For Future Research

What little research that has been done has focused on the time of the initiation of treatment, at the time of recurrence, or during the terminal phase of the disease.77 All three of the cancer sites reviewed can impact partners of a survivor, but at present there are very few studies on how couples overcome this challenge. In our review, several studies found major changes in sexual functioning even after 5 years after diagnosis. Only few have looked at interventions that can help the couples to deal with this experience.92-94 Men and women treated for Hodgkin's disease as well as younger women treated for breast cancer may have to cope with infertility. More research should be focused on the impact of cancer survivorship on family members. Interventions for family members who are at higher risk for getting cancer should be a priority as well as interventions to improve family resilience for persons at higher risk for poorer outcomes such as families in which...

Reproduction And Pregnancy

Impotence, atrophy of the testes, infertility, and decreased libido are not uncommon complaints in male alcoholics. These observations are thought to be secondary to the direct effects of alcohol on testicular tissue, to an alcohol-associated decrease in sperm motility, and to an alcohol-related decrease in Vitamin A and zinc. Both Vitamin A and zinc are important in maintaining testicular tissue growth. In young females, alcohol abuse is associated with amenorrhea and anovulation in chronic users, with early menopause. There is evidence that vaginal blood flow decreases as the alcohol serum level increases.

Reasons for testosterone measurement in prostate cancer

But testosterone measurements are not important only for urologists, who, apart from main reason - decisions related to prostate cancer management, use it for example also for aging male symptomatology and evaluation of patients with erectile dysfunction. Also other medical specialties, like endocrinology, pediatrics, gynecology or oncology use testosterone measurements for their conditions, like diagnosing and monitoring hyper- or hypo- andro-genic disorders in women, like polycystic ovary syndrome, alopecia, acne, hirsutism or hy-poactive sexual desire disorder androgen secreting neoplasms congenital syndromes with ambiguous genitalia Pediatrics and endocrinology were in the past probably most frequent users of testosterone assays, but nowadays most laboratories receive most testosterone requests from urologists.

The Brain And Spinal Cord And Ms

Sexual response is controlled by emotional responses in concert with the central nervous system the brain, and the spinal cord. The brain is involved in many aspects of sexual functioning, including sexual desire, the perception of sexual stimuli and pleasure, movement, sensation, cognition, and attention. Throughout the sexual response cycle, sexual messages are communicated between the brain, spinal cord, and the genitals. Because MS can cause lesions along myelinated pathways, it is not surprising that changes in sexual function are reported so frequently by people with MS.

The Comorbidity Of Anxiety And Depression On The Auricle

The area representing the external genitals seems out of place, but could be associated with difficulties in sexual functioning accompanying mood disorders. In my opinion, however, this area is not only sensitized by the reduction of sexual desire but also by symptoms such as frustration, irritability and increased appetite which develop, for example, in the nicotine withdrawal syndrome after abrupt cessation of cigarette smoking.

Cardiovascular Effects

According to in vitro and animal studies ginseng may benefit the cardiovascular system 'through diverse mechanisms, including antioxidant, modifying vasomotor > 2007 Elsevier Australia Antihypertensive Red ginseng has been used as an antihypertensive agent in Korea, but its clinical effect is unclear despite several in vivo and in vitro experimental studies. Recent preliminary data suggests that the antihypertensive effects may be partly attributed to an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory effect demonstrated by P. ginseng extract in vitro (Persson et al 2006). These effects were additive to the traditional ACE inhibitor enalapril. A study of isolated muscle preparations of animal heart and aorta with an alcohol-based extract of ginseng suggest that the hypotensive effect of ginseng is associated with a direct inhibition of myocardial contractility due to a reduction of calcium ion influx into cardiac cells, as well as the inhibition of catecholamine-induced contractility...

Steroid Receptor Activity

Ginseng has been shown to increase the mounting behaviour of male rats and increase sperm counts in rabbit testes. The effect is not by a direct sex-hormone-like function, but probably via a gonadotropin-like action. Ginsenoside Rb1 has been shown to increase LH secretion by acting directly on the anterior pituitary gland in male rats (Tsai et al 2003). Ginsenoside Rh1 failed to activate the glucocorticoid and androgen receptors, but did demonstrate an interaction with oestrogen receptors in vitro. The effect was much weaker than 17-beta-oestradiol. Ginseng is therefore considered to contain phyto-oestrogens (Lee et al 2003). However, there are conflicting reports about oestrogen binding activity which may in part be explained by the presence or absence of zearalenone, an oestrogenic mycotoxin contaminant (Gray eta I 2004).

Cardiovascular Disease

Although there are reports of ginseng causing hypertension, red ginseng is actually used as an antihypertensive agent in Korea. Acute administration of an aqueous preparation of Korean ginseng (100 mg kg body weight) to 12 healthy, non-smoking male volunteers resulted in an increase in NO levels and a concomitant reduction in mean blood pressure and heart rate (Han et al 2005). Ginseng is often used in practice as an adjuvant to both conventional and CAM treatments. An open clinical study of 44 hypertensive patients found red ginseng, 1.5 g three times daily (4.5 g day), to be useful as an adjuvant to antihypertensive medication (Han et al 1995). A combination of red ginseng and digoxin was found to be more beneficial than either drug alone in an open study of advanced congestive heart failure. There were no adverse reactions (Ding et al 1995). A combination of ginseng and ginkgo extracts has been found to improve circulation and lower blood pressure in a controlled single-dose study...

Immunomodula Tion

Ginseng has been shown to significantly enhance NK function in healthy subjects and those suffering from chronic fatigue syndrome or AIDS (P < 0.01) (See et al 1997). Ginseng polysaccharide injection has been shown, in a randomised study, to improve immunity in 130 patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma and to reduce adverse reactions to radiotherapy compared with controls (Xie et al 2001). Red ginseng powder has been shown to restore immunity after chemotherapy and reduce the recurrence of stage III gastric cancer. The 5-year disease-free survival and overall survival rates were significantly higher in patients taking the red ginseng powder during postoperative chemotherapy versus control (68.2 vs 33.3 , 76.4 vs 38.5 , respectively, P < 0.05). Despite the limitation of a small number of patients (n 42), these findings suggest that red ginseng powder may help to improve postoperative survival in these patients. Additionally, red ginseng powder may have some immunomodulatory...

Adaptogenic And Tonic Effects

A randomised double-blind study involving 232 subjects between the ages of 25 and 60 years found that extract equivalent to about 400 mg ginseng root for 4 weeks significantly improved fatigue. Side-effects were uncommon, with only two subjects withdrawing from the study (Le Gal & Cathebras 1996). A randomised double-blind study of 83 subjects found that extract equivalent to 1 g ginseng root for 4 months decreased the risk of contracting a common cold or bronchitis, improved appetite, sleep, wellbeing and physical performance (Gianoli & Riebenfeld 1984). Ginseng is used by many athletes to improve stamina and to facilitate rapid recovery from injuries. To examine the effects of ginseng supplements on hormonal status following acute resistance exercise, eight male college students were randomly given water (control group) or 20 g ginseng root extract treatment immediately after a standardised training exercise. Human growth hormone, testosterone, Cortisol, and insulin-like...

Glycaemic Control And Insulinsensitising Effect

Animal studies have indicated a potential for hypoglycaemic effects when used intravenously. Eleutherens A-G exert marked hypoglycaemic effects in normal and alloxan-induced hyperglycaemic mice (Hikino et al 1986) and eleutherosides show an insulin-like action in diabetic rats (Dardymov et al 1978). However, these effects have not been borne out in human studies (Farnsworth et al 1985) and may not relate to oral dosages of Siberian ginseng. A small, double-blind, randomised, multiple-crossover study using 12 healthy participants actually showed an increase in postprandial plasma glucose at 90 and 120 minutes when 3 g Siberian ginseng was given orally 40 minutes before a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (Sievenpiper et al 2004). More recently, oral administration of an aqueous extract of Siberian ginseng was shown to improve insulin sensitivity and delay the development of insulin resistance in rats (Liu et al 2005). As a result further trials in people with impaired glucose tolerance...

Adverse Reactions

Clinical trials of 6 months' duration have shown no side-effects from treatment (Bohn et al 1987). High doses may cause slight drowsiness, irritability, anxiety, mastalgia, palpitations or tachycardia although these side effects may be more relevant to Panax ginseng. Clinical note Case reports of Siberian ginseng need careful consideration Some adverse reactions attributed to Siberian ginseng have subsequently been found to be due to poor product quality, herbal substitution and or interference with test results. For example, initial reports linking maternal ginseng use to neonatal androgenisation are now suspected to be due to substitution with another herb, Periploca sepium (silk vine), as American herb companies importing Siberian ginseng from China have been known to be supplied with two or three species of Periploca (Awang 1991). Additionally, rat studies have failed to detect significant androgenic action (Awang 1991, Waller et al 1992) for Siberian ginseng. Another example is...

Significant Interactions

As controlled studies are not available, interactions are currently speculative and based on evidence of pharmacological activity and case reports. Studies have reported that normal doses of Siberian ginseng are unlikely to affect drugs metabolised by CYP2D6 or CYP3A4 (Donovan et al 2003). ANTICOAGULANTS An in vivo study demonstrated that an isolated constituent in Siberian ginseng has anticoagulant activity (Yun-Choi et al 1987) and a clinical trial found a reduction in blood coagulation induced by intensive training in athletes (Azizov 1997). Whether these effects also occur in non-athletes is unknown. Observe.

Contraindications And Precautions

Some authors suggest that high-dose Siberian ginseng should be avoided by those with cardiovascular disease or hypertension (BP > 80 90 mmHg) (Mahady et al 2000). Others merely suggest a caution, as reports are largely unsubstantiated (Holford & 2007 Elsevier Australia Siberian ginseng appears to alter the levels of different neurotransmitters and hormones involved in the stress response, chiefly at the HPA axis. Siberian ginseng may increase resistance to infection and has been shown to reduce frequency of genital herpes outbreaks with long-term use. Siberian ginseng affects many chemicals involved in switching on and off the body's stress responses. As such, it is used to improve wellbeing during times of chronic stress however, scientific research has yet to fully investigate its use in this regard. It may also boost immune function and reduce the frequency of genital herpes outbreaks. Evidence for improved performance in athletes in unconvincing. When will it start to work

General Information

Eleutherococcus senticosus is a shrubby member of the ginseng family. Like Astragalus, it is a common Chinese herb and is mentioned in the Shen Nong Ben Cao Jing. A complex taxonomic controversy exists regarding similarities between the Eleutherococcus and Acanthopanax species, however, and it is not certain that the Shen Nong Ben Cao Jing was actually referring to Eleutherococcus senticosus. Some scholars have combined Eleutherococcus and Acanthopanax into the same (Eleutherococcus) genus, while others have recognized Eleutherococcus as a distinct genus. Today, most of the world's scientists refer to the plant as Eleutherococcus senticosus, while Chinese scientists refer to it as Acan-thopanax senticosus. Not until the 1970s, when the plant was imported into the United States as an herbal adaptogen, was it given the common name Siberian ginseng.3 Extensive clinical research on the plant has been conducted in Russia since the 1950s.56

History of Food Folklore

The Doctrine of Signatures, based on the notion that 'like cures like', was also popular in the nineteenth century. Therapies were chosen on the basis of similarities of color, aroma, shape, and other characteristics. For example, beet juice, which is deep red, was thought to be an effective cure for blood diseases, while yellow plants were believed to alleviate jaundice and other liver ailments. The pungent odours of onions and garlic were thought to ward off disease, stimulate strength and bravery, arouse libido, and banish evil spirits. Walnuts resemble the brain and so were eaten to improve intellect. The ginseng root, with its resemblance to the human torso, was used by the Chinese as a panacea (Figure 1). The common names of many foods reflect folklore about their curative properties, as shown in Table 1. For example, the word ginseng is derived from the root words gin, meaning man, and sing, meaning essence. Figure 1 The universal healing properties of ginseng were attributed...

Using Combinations Of Polysaccharides

Shi Quan Da Bu Tang contains twelve common Chinese herbs, including Astragalus and ginseng. The for Bu Zhong Yi Qi Tang contains eight common Chinese herbs, including Astragalus and ginseng. Administration of this formula stimulated the immune system and suppressed the growth of cancer in mice.152,153

Other Antidepressants

Venlafaxine (Effexor, Effexor XR) is a serotonin and noradrenergic reuptake inhibitor with a better side effect profile than TCAs or MAOIs. A May 2002 meta-analysis of prior antidepressant trials suggested that venlafaxine and TCAs may have a greater remission rate than SSRIs. Further study is needed including more head-to-head comparison trials. Nefazodone (Serzone) and trazodone (Desyrel) are serotonin-modulating antidepressants. Trazodone is prescribed rarely as a sole antidepressant but is often prescribed as an adjunct to an SSRI for sleep because it has strong sedative properties (at higher doses it serves as an antidepressant). In addition to sedation, trazodone can on rare occasions induce priapism (prolonged, painful penile erection) that can cause permanent damage. Patients must be instructed to seek emergency treatment should such an erection occur. Nefazodone is similar to trazodone but is less sedating at therapeutic doses. It appears to have a low rate of sexual...

Illness Related Variables

More invasive surgery (mastectomy versus lumpectomy) has been linked to poorer marital adjustment in breast cancer patients and their husbands61 and more relationship problems between breast cancer patients and their children.50 Results of a meta-analysis that examined the impact of breast conserving surgery versus mastectomy on marital and sexual functioning suggest that mastectomy may be associated with worse functioning, however the effect size was small.78 Higher levels of marital dissatisfaction have also been observed in the spousal caregivers of patients who underwent more intensive HSCT regimens (allogeneic versus autologous transplants).40

And Improvement Of Diabetes Treatment

Diabetes, affecting almost 3 of the world's population, is one of the major global health problems. In particular, there is a high incidence among the elderly population. It has been shown that the root of P. ginseng and other ginseng species has antihyperglycemic activity in vitro (23,24) and in vivo (2528). More than 90 of patients with diabetes have type 2 diabetes, which is related to aging and diet. Although type 2 diabetes is more common and has serious complications, even reducing life expectancy by 8-10 years (29), most in vivo animal studies using ginseng have been conducted using type 1 rather than type 2 diabetes models. In this study, we focus on the effects of ginseng on type 2 diabetes. The root of P. ginseng has been used to improve glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity (30) and clinically to treat type 2 diabetes (2,31). It has been observed that blood glucose level falls significantly in genetically obese diabetic mice after treatment with a single 90 mg kg...

Modulation of Digestion and Absorption of Carbohydrates

An inhibition of neuronal discharge frequency from the gastric compartment of the brain stem in rats has been observed (35), and inhibition of gastric secretion by Asian ginseng has also been observed in rats (36). The antidiabetic effect of ginseng root has also been shown to block intestinal glucose absorption and inhibit hepatic glucose-6-phosphatase activity (33). These results suggest that ginseng triggers digestion of food and decreases the rate of carbohydrate absorption into the portal hepatic circulation.

Control of Blood Glucose Level

Two recent epidemiological cohort studies found that a reduction in dietary glycemic index (GI, an indicator of carbohydrate's ability to raise blood glucose level) between the highest and lowest quintiles decreases the risk of developing diabetes (37,38). The difference in GI between these quintiles for nondiabetic subjects and for subjects with type 2 diabetes has been observed after oral administration of ginseng before oral glucose administration (32). It has been suggested that ginseng is useful for healthy people to prevent diabetes, and for type 2 diabetes patients to improve glycemic control (39). More studies are required to confirm that ginseng administration decreases the GI. If this is the case, ginseng may be useful in the conventional treatment of diabetes. Before ginseng's therapeutic benefit in these areas is claimed, studies of the efficacy of long-term administration using hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) as a surrogate end-point marker and dose response are required.

Effect on Glucose Transport

P. ginseng has been shown to increase both glucose transporter-2 protein in the liver of normal and hyperglycemic mice (40) and glucose uptake into sheep erythrocytes in a dose-dependent manner (41). Recently, it has been shown that insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in rat skeletal muscles and adipose tissue is NO-dependent (42). Evidence suggests that ginseng can increase NO. Increased NO synthesis by ginseng in the endothelium of the lungs, heart, and kidney and in the corpus cavernosum has been detected (3).

Anticarcinogenic Activities and Synergistic Effects in Combination with Chemical Therapeutic Agents

Several investigations were carried out to evaluate the inhibitory or preventive effects of ginseng on carcinogenesis induced by various chemical carcinogens. The prolonged administration of Korean red ginseng extract inhibited the incidence and the proliferation of tumors induced by 7,12-dimethylbenz (a) anthracene (DMBA), urethane, and aflatoxin B1 (57). The chemopreventive potential of ginseng was evaluated using DMBA-induced skin tumorigenesis (papillomagenesis) in male Swiss albino mice. There was a marked reduction not only in tumor incidence but also in cumulative tumor frequency at the initiation phase of tumorigenesis, with a small reduction at the promotional stage, suggesting the anticarcinogenic activities of ginseng (58). Ginsenosides Rg3 and Rg5 were found to show statistically significant reduction of lung tumor incidence in a newly established 9-week, medium-term anticarcinoge-nicity test model of lung tumors in mice, and ginsenoside Rh2 showed a tendency to decrease...

Induction of Apoptosis by Ginsenosides

Apoptosis is responsible for a pathological mechanism related to human diseases such as cancer, autoimmune disease, viral infection, and neurode-generative disorder (71). Ginsenoside Rh2 has been shown to arrest cell cycle at the G1 phase and to prolong the S phase (72,73). It was reported that ginsenoside Rh2 induced apoptosis through protein kinase C in human neu-roblastoma SK-N-BE (2) and rat glioma C6Bu-1 cells (17). In addition, ginsenoside Rh2 has been shown to induce apoptosis independently of Bcl-2, Bcl-XL, or Bax in C6Bu-1 cells (74). In a parallel study, it was found that ginsenoside Rh2-induced cell death was mediated by the generated reactive oxygen species and activation of the caspase pathway in a Bcl-xL-independent manner (75). These reports demonstrate that the induction of apoptosis by ginseng may be one of its anticarcinogenic mechanisms. As described above, the protective influence of ginseng against cancer has been shown by extensive preclinical and epidemiological...

Summary And Future Work

For centuries, ginseng has been a highly valued herb in the East. Recently, many clinical trials using ginseng have been undertaken in Western countries as well as in East Asia. In this chapter, we have summarized the diverse pharmacological and physiological effects of ginseng on various diseases such as diabetes, cancer, and cardiovascular diseases. However, although there is a wealth of evidence suggesting that ginseng can be useful for the treatment of various diseases, a great deal of vital research remains to be solved. First, numerous experiments reported have been performed in animal models instead of humans. Therefore, a large-scale, controlled clinical study is needed to validate these results in terms of their applicability to humans. Second, there is still little evidence on ginseng's effectiveness at molecular levels. Understanding of molecular regulation of ginseng is necessary to apply it clinically, and also to discover new therapeutic effects. Third, the...

Antioxidant Potential Of Sms Determined In Vitro

SMS, a famous Chinese medicinal formula that has been used for more than 800 years in China, is comprised of three herbal components, Panax ginseng, Shisandra chinensis, and Ophiopogon japonicus (9). Traditionally, SMS is used for the treatment of excess loss of essence qi and body fluid that threatens heart failure. It can restore blood volume and prevent myocardial infarction. SMS is also prescribed for patients with coronary heart disease and various cardiovascular disorders.

National Toxicology Program NTP

National Toxicology Program was established in 1978 by the Secretary of Health and Human Services to coordinate toxicology research and testing activities within the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS). The NTP represents such agencies as the Food and Drug Administration, the National Institutes of Health, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. NTP is currently conducting studies to identify and characterize possible adverse health effects that may be associated with prolonged use or higher doses of some of the most popular medicinal herbs, including Ginkgo biloba, Echinacea angustifolia, and Panax quinquefolius (American ginseng). The U.S. National Cancer Institute (NCI) has also recommended that the program examine the safety of aloe vera, ginseng, kava, and milk thistle to determine whether these herbs contain carcinogenic compounds.

Other Phytochemicals of Interest

Phytochemicals found in ginkgo (G. biloba) leaves, including ginkgolic acid, hydroginkgolic acid, gink-gol, bilobol, ginon, ginkgotoxin, ginkgolides (A-C), and a number of flavonoids common to other plants, such as kaempferol, quercetin, and rutin, are currently attracting attention for their possible effects on circulation, particularly cerebral circulation, and this may improve brain function and cognition. Indeed, ginkgo, ginseng, and a combination of the two extracts have been found to improve different aspects of cognition in healthy young volunteers. A number of studies have reported that extracts of ginkgo leaves enhanced brain circulation, increased the tolerance of the brain to hypoxia, and improved cerebral hemodynamics. It has been suggested that these effects are mediated via calcium ion flux over

Can my diabetes affect my sex life If so how and what can I do about it

Diabetes can have a profound effect upon a person's sexual drive, functioning, and satisfaction. This is especially apparent in men, although there is some evidence that some women with diabetes can also experience adverse effects on their sexual responses. The reason for the significant effects on male sexual function arises from the complexity of the penile erection mechanism. This requires satisfactory nerve, blood vessel, and hormone function to be achieved and sustained. Diabetic nerve damage (see Question 32) can be of two main types. One form is damage to the system that serves conscious movement and sensation and the other is damage to the system that serves unconscious or automatic responses, such as bowel contraction and the heart beat. The erectile mechanism is served by the latter, while the sensation of pleasure in sexual performance is served by the former. Since the nerves to the genital area are relatively lengthy, they are prone to the damage described in Question 32....

Adverse Effects And Reactions Allergies And Toxicity

Semen ziziphi spinosae is reported to have very low toxicity when taken orally. In laboratory animals (mice and rats), a huge single dose of 50 g kg body weight produced no toxic symptoms, and a daily dose of 20 g kg for 30 days did not produce toxic reactions. Side effects have not been reported. Modern pharmacology evaluation of Semen ziziphi spinosae oil and Semen ziziphi spinosae extract suggests that with prolonged feeding they can reduce serum triglycerides and cholesterol (mainly LDL), and reduce fatty degeneration of the liver. These properties have also been attributed to the triterpenes of ginseng and ganoderma. Despite its strong medicinal effects, this mild-natured herb is relatively safe to use long term, and for children. Reported adverse effects from inappropriate use include fever with aversion to cold, cold sweats, and joint pain. Western herbalists are also considering the Semen ziziphi spinosae as an alternative to kava kava and valerian, due to the latter two...

Classic Action And Uses

In ancient pharmacopoeia, the herb is used to tonify the liver and kidney, to strengthen bones and tendons, and to prevent miscarriage (1,2). Decoctions of eucommia bark have been used for, among other things, the relief of back pain, to increase strength, to make bones and muscles strong, to increase recovery from fatigue, to increase ability to remember, and to induce an antiaging effect. It is prepared as Du-Zhong tincture (5 or 100 ), 1-5 mL taken orally thrice daily. It is frequently formulated with ginseng, Cordyceps, angelica root, and many other herbs (3). Ingestion of EU bark and leaves and their extracts has not been reported to induce any known side effects.

Chemical Name Papaverine papavereen

Description Papaverine belongs to a group of medicines called vasodilators, which cause blood vessels to expand, thereby increasing blood flow. Papaverine is used in MS to treat erectile dysfunction. When papaverine is injected into the penis, it produces an erection by increasing blood flow to the penis.

Therapeutic And Loael Dose Estimates For Natural Compounds

19) CAPE, arctigenin, flaxseed, resveratrol, emodin, and hypericin (from Chapter 20) monoterpenes, Centella, boswellic acid, horse chestnut, butcher's broom, ginseng, and parthenolide (from Chapter 21) and vitamin A and melatonin (from Chapter 22). Dose estimates for compounds not discussed in this appendix appear in Part III.

Problem 2 The Product Is Not What It Is Supposed To Be

States, analysis of commercial ginseng preparations showed that 25 contained no ginseng at all (22). In fact, authentication of the starting plant material is a key problem. Detailed reference standards (e.g., herbarium-authenticated specimens, descriptive illustrated monographs) are not available for the majority of plants used in TCM. DNA fingerprinting of plant material may make some contribution, but once powders and extracts have been generated it becomes difficult. NMR-, HPLC-, and LC-MS-based analysis of chemical composition is a valuable tool, as illustrated by its use in the digitalis poisoning cases (18), examination of the authenticity of Ginkgo and ginseng preparations (21,22), identification of toxic components of grass carp bile (16), and investigation of JBH-induced hepatotoxicity (14). However, in the frequent absence of official standards and given the natural variation in chemical composition of even the same plant at different times (Table 1), the use of analytical...

Viproblem 5 The Products May Produce Harm By Interacting With Each Other Or With Pharmaceuticals Taken Concurrently

Products and to recommend that ingestion of such products as ginseng, kava, St. John's wort, and valerian should stop several days before surgery (37). It is well known that grapefruit juice contains agents that inhibit intestinal cytochrome P450 (CYP3A4) and result in higher blood levels of certain drugs (e.g., amiodarone, cyclosporin, benzodiazepines, nifedipine, lovastatin, saquinavir), possibly to a toxic level (38). It seems likely that many similar phenomena involving ingredients in TCM remain to be discovered.

Adulteration With Western Drugs

Data from Taiwan have highlighted the widespread use of adulterants in TCM preparations. Examination of 2,609 products found 23.7 were adulterated and of these 52.8 contained two or more adulterants (55). Of the adulterants 34.5 contained caffeine, 27.0 paracetamol, 24.6 indo-methacin, 20.6 hydrochlorothiazide, and 14.8 prednisolone (55). TCM hospitals had the lowest rates of adulteration (9.0 ) with herbalists providing the least authentic preparations, with 34.6 containing adulterants (55). Ginseng preparations in the United States were found to be adulterated with a number of different components including Mandragora officinarum (scopolamine), Rauwolfia serpentia (reserpine), and Cola species.

Terebinth pistacia terebinthus l anacardiaceae

Gardens Pistacia Vera California

Adenopathy (f JLH) Albuminuria (f BIB HOC) Amenorrhea (f BIB) Arthrosis (f JLH) Ascites (f DAW) Bite (f HJP) Bleeding (f DEP) Callus (f JLH) Cancer (f DEP HJP) Cancer, brain (f JLH) Cancer, breast (f HJP) Cancer, diaphragm (f HJP) Cancer, face (f HJP) Cancer, lip (f HJP) Cancer, liver (f HJP) Cancer, medullary (f HJP) Cancer, pylorus (f HJP) Cancer, rectum (f HJP) Cancer, spleen (f HJP) Cancer, stomach (f JLH) Cancer, testicle (f HJP) Cancer, tongue (f HJP) Cancer, uterus (f HJP) Cancer, vagina (f HJP) Carcinoma (f JLH) Caries (f EFS) Cheilosis (f JLH) Colic (f DEP) Corn (f JLH) Cough (f HJP) Cyst (f JLH) Dermatosis (f HOC JLH) Diarrhea (f BIB) Diaphragmo-sis (f HJP) Dyspepsia (f DEP HJP) Encephalosis (f JLH) Epithelioma (f JLH) Excrescences (f JLH) Fever (f HJP) Fungus (f X126288418) Gastrosis (f JLH) Glossosis (f JLH) Gout (f HOC) Halitosis (f HJP) Hepatosis (f JLH) Impotence (f HJP) Induration (f JLH) Infection (1 X126288418) Inflammation (f1 HJP X11988853) Mastosis (f JLH)...

Agarwood aquilaria malaccensis lam thymelaeaceae

Aquilaria Malaccensis

Allergy (1 X9324002) Anaphylaxis (1 X9324002) Anuria (f HH2) Asthma (f1 BIB WO2 X9324002) Bleeding (f DEP) Bronchosis (f BIB NAD) Cancer (f BIB) Cancer, colon (f BIB) Cancer, liver (f BIB) Cancer, lung (f BIB) Cancer, stomach (f BIB) Cancer, thyroid (f BIB) Cardiopathy (f IHB) Childbirth (f BIB IHB) Cholera (f HH2) Colic (f BIB DEP) Congestion (f BIB) Cough (f HH2) Dermatosis (f BIB) Diarrhea (f BIB) Dropsy (f BIB) Dysgeusia (f KAB) Enteralgia (f BIB) Enterosis (f BIB) Fever (f1 BIB DEP X8441779) Gastrosis (f BIB) Gout (f BIB DEP) Headache (f NAD) Hepatosis (f KAB) Hiccup (f BIB) Impotence (f KAB) Induration (f BIB) Leukoderma (f BIB KAB) Malaria (f BIB HH2) Nausea (f BIB DEP) Nephrosis (f BIB) Ophthalmia (f BIB) Otosis (f BIB) Pain (f BIB) Palpitation (f IHB) Palsy (f BIB DEP) Paralysis (f BIB) Pulmonosis (f BIB) Rheumatism (f BIB DEP) Smallpox (f IHB) Thirst (f KAB) Tumor (f JLH) Vertigo (f BIB DEP) Wound (f BIB).

Stone pine pinus pinea l abietaceae

Arteriosclerosis (f1 HOC) Arthrosis (f JLH) Bleeding (f HJP) Burn (f HJP) Callus (f JLH) Cancer (f JLH) Cancer, breast (f JLH) Cancer, bladder (f JLH) Cancer, kidney (f JLH) Cancer, liver (f JLH) Cancer, throat (f JLH) Cancer, uterus (f JLH) Condyloma (f JLH) Constipation (f HJP) Cystosis (f JLH) Fungus (f HJP) Hepatosis (f JLH) Impotence (f CJE) Induration (f JLH) Infection (f HJP) Mastosis (f JLH) Mycosis (f HJP) Nephrosis (f JLH) Phymata (f JLH) Ringworm (f HJP) Tumor (f JLH) Uterosis (f JLH) Worm (f HJP).

Hormones Used in Dieting

HGH is not available over the counter, but many companies offer supplements that supposedly increase the secretion of hGH. One in particular, GH+Releaser, claims to increase hGH levels by 402 percent and strengthen the immune system, reduce wrinkles, heighten sexual potency, enhance energy, improve sleep, sharpen the memory, reduce fat, increase lean body mass, and promote healing (GH+Releaser 2003). hGH has been proven to be effective in promoting weight loss and increases in muscle mass, but the long-term effects of hGH have yet to be discovered. Supplements claiming to increase hGH release have not been proven effective and may hold little or no benefit and also may be dangerous.

Indications Coriander

DEP PHR PH2) Headache (f1 PH2 X15612768) Gas (f1 APA BGB DEP EGG) Gastrosis (f1 BGB HHB BIB DEP EGG PHR PH2) Hemorrhoid (f APA DEP PH2) Hernia (f BIB) Hiccup (f KAB) Hysteria (f BIB BOU JFM) Impotence (f BIB BOU) Induration (f JLH) Infection (f1 HH2 PH2) Inflammation (f KAB) Intoxication (f BIB DEP) Jaundice (f KAB) Kernel (f JLH) Leprosy (f PHR PH2) Listeria (1 X11929164) Measles (f APA HAD PH2) Mycosis (f1 DEP HH2 X15612768) Nausea (f BIB GHA IHB) Nervousness (f BIB) Neuralgia (f APA BIB EGG NAD) Neurosis (f BOU) Obesity (1 X15462185) Ophthalmia (f BOU DEP GHA) Orchosis (f BOU) Otosis (f BOU) Pain (f KAB PH2) Parasite (f BOU) Pharyngosis (f PHR PH2) Ptomaine (f BIB) Puerperium (f PHR) Rash (f PHR PH2) Rheumatism (f BOU HHB NAD) Salmonella (1 HH2 X15161192) Scabies (f KAB) Sclerosis (f BIB) Scrofula (f PH2) Smallpox (f DEP) Snakebite (f BIB) Sore (f DEP) Soroche (f EGG) Splenosis (f BIB) Stomachache (f BIB EGG EB49 406) Stomatosis (f KAB PHR PH2) Swelling (f DEP GHA) Syphilis (f BIB...

Clinical phase III studies of IAS

Trial participants also compared QoL measures across the two study arms during the first 15 months following patient randomization, including measures of sexual function (impotence and libido), physical and emotional function, and energy level. They found improved sexual function in men who received IAS as compared to those on continuous therapy. Early results from the study by Calais da Silva et al. showed no clinically meaningful differences between groups in virtually all QoL parameters and no evidence that IAS carries a significantly higher risk of death 13 . Mottet et al. also reported no significant difference in QoL outcomes in patients receiving either IAS or CAS 38 . However, updated results from a larger cohort of the Calais da Silva study (maximum follow-up of 7 years median 2 years) suggest a better tolerability profile for IAS versus CAS, with up to three times as many patients in the CAS arm reporting side effects compared with IAS patients (hot flushes 23 vs. 7...

Endothelium Dependent Vasorelaxation of Ginsenosides

Endothelium plays an important role in regulating vascular tone by releasing several vasoactive autacoids, including prostacyclin, endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF), and endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF) (79). EDRF has been identified as NO, which is produced from L-arginine by NOS (80). NO relaxes blood vessels mostly by stimulating soluble guanylyl cyclase, which leads to an increased production of cGMP in vascular smooth muscle (81). Ginsenosides have been found to lower blood pressure in a dose-dependent manner in rats at doses of 10-100 mg kg. This effect is mediated by release of endothelium-derived NO, enhancing the accumulation of cGMP (82). Recently, it has also been reported that ginseng can improve vascular endothelial dysfunction in patients with hypertension, possibly by increasing synthesis of NO. Protopanaxatriol and its purified ginsenosides Rg1 and Re caused endothelium-dependent relaxation, which is associated with the formation of cGMP. In...

Indications Caper Bush

Adenopathy (f BIB JLH) Aging (f BIB) Allergy (1 X15799005) Amenorrhea (f DEP) Arteriosclerosis (f BIB BOU) Arthrosis (f BIB) Bleeding (f BOW) Cancer (f1 BIB) Cancer, abdomen (f1 FNF JLH) Cancer, bladder (f1 FNF JLH) Cancer, colon (f1 FNF JLH) Cancer, groin (f1 FNF JLH) Cancer, head (f1 FNF JLH) Cancer, kidney (f1 FNF JLH) Cancer, liver (f1 FNF JLH) Cancer, neck (f1 FNF JLH) Cancer, spleen (f1 FNF JLH) Cancer, uterus (f1 FNF JLH) Cataract (f BIB) Chill (f BIB BOU) Cirrhosis (f WO2) Cold (f BIB) Conjunctivosis (f BOW) Cough (f BOW GHA) Cramp (1 HOS) Cystosis (f JLH) Dengue (f BIB HJP) Diabetes (f GHA) Diarrhea (f BOW BOU) Dropsy (f BIB BOU DEP) Dysentery (f BIB) Dysmenorrhea (f BIB) Earache (f BI2 GHA) Enterosis (f BOW) Erythema (1 X15799005) Fever (f BOU) Fracture (f BIB) Ganglion (f BOU) Gastrosis (f BOW GHA) Gout (f DEP SKJ WO2) Headache (f BIB) Hepatosis (f1 JLH HOS WO2) Hyperacidity (f MKK) Impotence (f BOU) Induration (f JLH) Infection (f BOW BOU) Infertility (f BIB BOU)...

Indications Desert Date

(f BOU KAB) Bronchosis (f UPW) Bubo (f HDN) Burn (f NAD WO2) Carbuncle (f UPW) Caries (f UPW) Catarrh (f HDN) Childbirth (f WO2) Circumcision fi (BOU) Cold (f DEP HDN) Colic (f BIB KAB NAD UPW) Conjunctivosis (f HDN) Cough (f BIB DEP KAB NAD) Cramp (f HDN) Dermatosis (f KAB) Diabetes (1 WO3) Diarrhea (f HDN) Dysentery (f KAB UPW) Edema (1 X15763372) Fasciolaris (1 X10904170) Fever (f BOU HDN) Freckle (f NAD WO2) Fungus (1 HDN) Gingivosis (f UPW) Guinea Worm (1 WO3) Hemorrhoid (f UPW) Hepatosis (f1 HDN UPW PR15 598) Herpes (1 BIB HDN) High Blood Pressure (1 HDN) Impotence (f UPW) Infection (f BIB) Infection (1 HDN) Infertility (f HDN) Inflammation (f1 HDN X15763372) Insanity (f HDN UPW) Jaundice (f1 UPW PR13 439 X10441790) Leprosy (f UPW) Leukoderma (f BOU KAB) Malaria (f1 BIB BI2 BOU) Mycosis (1 HDN) Pain (f1 BOU HDN X15763372) Paralysis (f UPW) Pertussis (f WO2) Pneumonia (f WO2) Pulmonosis (f WO2) Rheumatism (f BIB UPW) Schistosomiasis (1 HDN 15664459) Shingle (1 HDN) Sleeping...

Thuja Occidentalis And Rosacea Aggravations

238-39, 254-55, 280 Arisaema triphyllum (Arum triph.) 126, 280 Arnica montana (Arnica) 37, 280 animal bites 272 bleeding 270 bruising 273 burns 270 cramps 230-31 dizziness 266-67 erectile dysfunction 264-65 fractures 271 hydrocele 264-65 minor burns & scalds 273 minor cuts & grazes 272 minor eye & ear injuries 274 nosebleeds 274 sprains & strains 273 stings 272

Indications Camelthorn

Abscess (f BIB KAB) Adenopathy (f JLH UPW) Anorexia (f BIB SAY) Arthrosis (f GHA) Asthma (f BIB) Atherosclerosis (1 WO3) Bacteria (1 WO2) Biliousness (f DEP) Bleeding (f BIB) Bronchosis (f BIB) Cancer (f JLH) Cancer, abdomen (f JLH) Cancer, gland (f JLH) Cardiopathy (1 X1305866) Cataract (f GHA PAY) Catarrh (f PAY) Cerebrosis (f BIB) Constipation (f PAY) Corneosis (f BIB) Cough (f DEP PAY) Dermatosis (f BIB) Diarrhea (f1 SAY X15138016) Enterosis (f UPW) Epistaxis (f BIB) Fever (f PAY) Gastrosis (f PAY) Gingivosis (f PAY) Halitosis (f PAY) Headache (f BIB WO3) Hematachezia (f PAY) Hemicrania (f BIB KAB) Hemorrhoid (f BIB KAB) High Blood Pressure (1 WO3) High Cholesterol (1 WO3) High Triglycerides (1 WO3) Impotence (f PAY) Infection (f1 PAY WO2) Jaundice (f GHA) Leprosy (f BIB KAB) Migraine (f BIB) Nephrosis (f PAY) Obesity (f1 BIB KAB WO3) Odontosis (f PAY) Opacity (f BIB) Ophthalmia (f KAB) Pain (f1 GHA WO3 X15507342) Polyp (f JLH) Pulmonosis (f JLH PAY WO3) Rheumatism (f PAY WO2)...

Are there treatments for loss of genital sensation

A loss of sensation in the genital area can pose problems for both men and women with MS. Fortunately, such a loss of sensation in most patients is usually temporary. In men, the use of Viagra and the other drugs in this group can, in part, overcome erectile dysfunction related to decreased sensation in some cases. Temporary or not, for many women, the use of vibrators can overcome the inability to achieve orgasm. Eros is a specially designed commercially available device to enhance clitoral engorgement and provide stimulation for women who require it. It is important that women consult physicians who are knowledgeable in this area. Generally, gynecologists and sex therapists are better informed than most physicians.

Traditional Chinese Tibetan And Ayurvedic Medicine

China and the Indian subcontinent have developed what are probably the two most widely known systems of traditional health care traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and Ayurvedic medicine. TCM refers to an ancient healing system that is thought to predate current Western medicine by over 2,000 years.4 It encompasses a range of seemingly disparate techniques and materials, including widely popular areas such as acupuncture, massage, and herbal preparations, as well as the more esoteric areas of moxibustion and qi gong. Ginseng (Panax ginseng) is probably the most famous medicinal herb used in traditional Chinese medicine, and the one best know to Westerners. Many other herbs, such as ma huang and gingko biloba, have been used in Chinese medicine for over 3,000 years but are only now enjoying great popularity in Western industrialized countries.

Indications Fenugreek

Enteralgia (f APA CRC) Edema (f BOW) Enterosis (f BGB BOU PH2 WOI) Exhaustion (f MAD) Fever (f1 APA BOU CRC PH2 X15374601) Fistula (f CRC) Fracture (f HJP) Furunculosis (f BGB HHB PHR VAD), Gas (f1 APA) Gastrosis (f APA BGB BOU CAN GMH) Gonorrhea (f UPW) Gout (f BGB CAN CRC GMH) Hay Fever (f PED) Helicobacter (1 X15331344) Hemorrhoid (f MAD NAD) Hepatosis (f CRC JLH KAP) Hernia (f APA BGB CRC PH2) High Blood Pressure (f1 CAN HJP), High Cholesterol (2 APA BRU CAN SKY) High Triglycerides (1 BGB SKY) Hyperlipidemia (1 BGB) Impotence (f APA CRC PH2) Impotence (f DAA) Infection (1 APA WOI X15331344) Inflammation (f12 APA BRU KOM PH2 X15374601) Itch (f BOU) Ischemia (1 X16205934) Kidney stone (1 JEB26 249) Labor (f1 APA) Leprosy (f UPW) Leukorrhea (f KAP) Lymphadenitis (f BGB CAN) Mastosis (f JLH) Muscular Dystrophy (f UPW) Myalgia (f BGB CAN) Nematode (1 PR15 538) Nephrosis (f APA CRC JLH) Neuralgia (f APA CRC) Neurasthenia (f BOW GMH NAD) Ophthalmia (f JLH VAD) Orchosis (f JLH)...

Shi QuanDaBuTang Ten Significant Tonic Decoction

Food-grade herbs have been used in a famous recipe, ''Shi-Quan-Da-Bu-Tang,'' which was formulated in the Chinese Song dynasty in a.d. 1200. It is prepared by extracting a mixture of 10 medical herbs Rehmannia glutinosa (root, steamed) Paeonia lactiflora (root) Ligusticum chuanxiong (rhizome) Angelica sinensis (root) Glycyrrhiza uralensis (rhizome and root, honey-fried) Poria cocos (sclerotium) Atractylodes macrocephala (rhizome) Panax ginseng (root) Astragalus membranaceus (root, honey-fried) Cinnamomum cassia (bark). This potent and popular prescription has traditionally been used against anemia, anorexia, extreme exhaustion, fatigue, kidney and spleen insufficiency, and general weakness, particularly after illness. In animal studies, Shi-Quan-Da-Bu-Tang prevented body weight loss and protected against 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced colon cancer (83), with significant differences in mortality, fatigue, cold temperature endurance, and immune-function-related organ weight change,...

Solanaceae Nightshade family

- Chinese saying, referring to sexual potency of lycium In China it has long been claimed that lycium improves sexual performance, mainly in older men. Research has found that regular doses of the berries can raise testosterone levels when these are deficient. Many older men have this problem, so to this extent lycium may reduce impotence and can be seen as aphrodisiac.

Herbal Immunostimulant Compounds

The (probable) active ingredients of the herbal compounds in Table 12.1 tend to fall into a limited number of chemical families one of these is high-molecular-weight polysaccharides, which are large sugar molecules. Natural compounds containing them include Astragalus, Ganoderma, Eleutherococcus, and PSK. A second family of immunostimulating compounds is the saponins. Natural compounds with these are Eleuthero-coccus and ginseng. It is tempting to speculate that the most effective combinations of herbal immune stimulants will contain compounds from both families, and in fact, most multiherb, immunostimulating formulas used in Chinese herbal medicine do have both. Some herbs themselves also include compounds from both families, as is the case with Eleutherococcus and ginseng.

Acidum Nitricum For Heartburn

See also Acidum salicylicum salivary glands 188 salt see Natrum chloratum salt of tartar see Kalium carbonicum saltpeter see Kalium nitricum Sambucus nigra (Sambucus) 164, 305 san qi ginseng see Panax pseudoginseng Sanguinaria canadensis (Sanguinaria) 164, 305 Sanicula Sanicula water 306 see also individual ailments by name, e.g., erectile dysfunction shade tree see Ailanthus altissima shepherd's purse see Capsella bursa-pastoris shock

Bone Marrow Stimulation During Chemotherapy

Saiko-keishi-to, a spray-dried decoction of Bupleurum, (cinnamon, peony, ginger, licorice, ginseng, pinellia, zizyphus and baical) was administered to 24 people with epilepsy, who had frequent uncontrollable seizures (3-5 seizures per day in the most severe case and 5 seizures per month in the mildest case) of various types, despite treatment with pharmaceutical anticonvulsants. Of them, 6 were well controlled with Saiko-keishi-to whereas 13 experienced improvement and 3 showed no effect. No patients experienced worsening of their condition. Two patients dropped out during treatment (Narita et al 1982).

Homeopathic medicine

Remedies for the specific symptoms of an enlarged prostate include Sabal, if urination is difficult or if there are spasms of the bladder or urethra Baryta carb., when there is a frequent urge to urinate, a slow stream of urine, and impotence Iodum, when there are shrunken testicles, impotence, and the prostate feels hard and Argentum nit., for prostate problems associated with erectile dysfunction. For symptoms of prostatitis, Sabal is given if the prostate is enlarged and the area around the gland feels cold Chimaphila, if prostatic fluid is leaking from the penis and there is urine retention Selenium, when urine dribbles from the penis and there is impotence and Capsicum for burning pains in the prostate.

Types of Self Help for Sexual Dysfunctions

Heiman, LoPiccolo, and LoPiccolo (1976), and Zeiss and Zeiss (1978). Slob and Vink (2002), Hengeveld (1994), and van Lankveld (1993, 2004) have written similar manuals in the Dutch language. Bibliotherapy is often applied within self-help formats with minimal or no therapist contact but has also been applied as an adjuvant to therapist-administered treatments (Gillan, Golombok, & Becker, 1980 Halvorsen & Metz, 1992 McCarthy, 1984, 1989). Although these manuals vary in several respects, all share an emphasis on behavioral strategies that agree with the Masters and Johnson (1970) approach of the couple-based directed practice. When the sexual problems are experienced by men and women who are in a steady relationship, the focus of change is on the couple, with the exception of the directed masturbation practice for anorgasmia. The treatment is learning oriented and stipulates gradual exposure to problematic aspects of sexual functioning. In the more recent manuals, a stronger...

Minerals Metals and Microbial Content

Activity Collor Oranger

Particular attention has been given to the germanium content of Ganoderma spp. Germanium was fifth highest in terms of concentration (489 Ag g) among minerals detected in Ganoderma fruit bodies collected from nature (48). This mineral is also present in the order of parts per billion in many plant-based foods including ginseng, aloes, and garlic (100). Germanium is not an essential element but, at low doses, has been ascribed immuno-potentiating, antitumor, antioxidant, and antimutagenic activities (32,101103). However, although the germanium content of G. lucidum has often been used to promote G. lucidum-based products, there is no firm evidence linking this element with specific health benefits associated with the mushroom.

Drugherb Herb Herb Interactions

Contraceptives (ethinylestradiol desogestrel), loperamide, or selective seroto-nin-reuptake inhibitors (sertaline, paroxetine, nefazodone). Ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba) interactions include bleeding when combined with warfarin, raised blood pressure when combined with a thiazide diuretic, and coma when combined with trazodone. Ginseng (Panax ginseng) lowers blood concentrations of alcohol and warfarin, and induces mania if used concomitantly with phenelzine (37). Garlic (Allium sativum) changes pharmacokinetic variables of paracetamol, decreases blood concentrations of warfarin, and produces hypoglycemia when taken with chlorpropamide. Kava (Piper methysticum) increases ''off'' periods in Parkinson patients taking levodopa and can cause a semicomatose state when given concomitantly with alprazo-lam. No interactions were found for echinacea (Echinacea angustifolia, E. purpurea, E. pallida) and saw palmetto (Serenoa repens). Thus, interactions between herbal medicines and synthetic drugs...

Acute and late adverse events of LDR brachytherapy

Erectile impotence occurs from 20 to 80 after implantation. According to Zelefsky et al 79 , whereas the incidence of impotence at 2 years after implantation was 21 , the rate increased to 42 at 5 years after. Merrick et al. 80 reported that there is a strong correlation between radiation-induced impotence and the dose to the penile bulb and proximal penis. They recommend that with day 0 dosimetric evaluation, the minimum dose delivered to 50 and 25 of the bulb should be maintained below 40 and 60 of prescribed minimum peripheral dose, respectively, whereas the minimum dose delivered to 50 and 25 of the crura should be maintained below 40 and 28 of prescribed minimum peripheral dose, respectively, to maximize posttreatment potency. Several reports suggest that sildenafil citrate have good response to impotence after im-plantation 81, 82 . Potters et al. 83 reported that the addition of neoadjuvant androgen deprivation had a significant impact on the potency preservation rate after...

Erectile and orgasmic dysfunction

Long-standing, untreated hypertension is well known to have a negative impact on sexual function and can lead to complete impotence. Unfortunately, antihypertensive drugs still have a bad reputation with regard to erectile function. Some of the older antihypertensive drugs, such as resurpine and guanethidine, have a well-known negative effect on erectile and orgasmic function. Diuretics, beta-blockers, and antiadrenergic drugs, as well as alpha-blockers, diminish erectile function. Failure to ejaculate, or even retrograde ejaculation into the bladder, may occur with some antiadrenergic drugs. In women, diuretics and certain antiadrenergic drugs may interfere with lubrication. Beta-blockers are known to cause orgasmic dysfunction in women and men alike. BP lowering (by any drug) may by itself, at least initially, have a slight negative impact on erectile function. However, the body fairly rapidly adjusts to the lower BP level and, with modern antihypertensive therapy (calcium...

Prevention Of Damage From Toxins

Ginseng extract has been shown to be beneficial in the prevention and treatment of testicular damage induced by environmental pollutants. Dioxin is one of the most potent toxic environmental pollutants. Exposure to dioxin either in adulthood or during late fetal and early postnatal development causes a variety of adverse effects on the male reproductive system. The chemical decreases spermatogenesis and the ability to conceive and carry a pregnancy to full term. Pretreatment with 100 or 200 mg kg ginseng aqueous extract intraperitoneally for 28 days prevented toxic effects of dioxin in guinea pigs. There was no loss in body weight, testicular weight or damage to spermatogenesis (Kim et al 1999). In guinea pigs P. ginseng also improves the survival and quality of sperm exposed dioxin (Hwang et al 2004).

Gender Differences In The Consequences Of Substance Abuse

Women's reproductive function increases alcohol- and drug-related health risks to themselves and to their unborn children. Alcohol and drug abuse are associated with numerous disorders of the female reproductive system, including breast cancer, amenorrhea, failure to ovulate, atrophy of the ovaries, miscarriage, and early menopause. Men also experience reproductive and sexual difficulties as a result of alcohol and drug abuse, including impotence, low testosterone levels, testicular atrophy, breast enlargement, and diminished sexual interest.

Effects on the Reproductive System

Epimedium has been reported to have proreproductive effects in the popular press. Teeguarden (52) anecdotally reported that E. sagittatum seemed to stimulate the sensory nerves throughout the body, particularly in the genital region. The effect of Epimedium herb on the testes, prostate gland, and leva-tor ani muscle (which supports the body in thrusting movements) was reported to enhance male sexual function indirectly (53). E. sagittatum appeared to have a sexual potentiation effect and to improve the quality of life in the patients of chronic renal failure with regular hemodialysis (39). Icariin from Epimedium could inhibit contraction of arterial smooth muscle rings that restrict blood flow in the body, via a Ca2 + channel-blocking mechanism, further enhancing vasodilation (48). On the other hand, the chief ingredient of Epimedium herb, icariin, can promote the development of epididymes and seminal vesicle of mouse. In vitro animal studies suggest that icariin may enhance the...

Enhanced Cognitive Function And Alertness

Another double-blind, placebo controlled study investigated the effects of a single dose of guarana (75 mg) on cognition, in combination with and in comparison to ginseng (Panax ginseng 200 mg) in 28 healthy volunteers (Kennedy et al 2004). Guarana was shown to produce comparable effects to ginseng in improved task performance with all three treatments better than placebo. However, guarana was superior to ginseng in improving the speed of performed tasks. Once again, given the low caffeine content (9 mg) of the guarana extract used in that study, the effects are unlikely to be attributable to its caffeine content alone, particularly as the dose was shown to be as effective as a 16-fold dose of pure caffeine.

Anticarcinogenic Activity

The main weapons in the war against cancer have been early detection and surgical removal, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and attempts to develop gene therapy. However, the result have been less than ideal, and the dominant strategy is now changing from therapeutic approaches to prevention of cancer by identifying effective natural products as chemopreventive agents. One promising candidate with cancer-preventive effects is ginseng. Its usefulness as an anticarcinogen has been shown by extensive preclinical and epidemio-logical studies. The following details anticarcinogenic effects of ginseng based on its diverse mechanisms.

Antiatherosclerosis and Antiplatelet Effects of Ginsenosides

Endothelial cell damage is considered to be the initial step in the genesis of thrombosis and arteriosclerosis, the common precursors of cardiovascular disoders. Platelet hyperfunction, such as enhanced platelet aggregation associated with overproduction of thromboxane A2 (TXA2), a potent platelet aggregative and vasoconstrictive substance, has been frequently encountered in patients with cardiovascular thrombotic diseases. Prostaglandin I2 (PGI2), a potent antiplatelet aggregative and vasodilatatory substance produced in vascular walls, is also reported to synthesize less in patients with atherosclerotic changes than in normal subjects. Panaxynol was found to markedly inhibit the aggregation of platelets induced by collagen, arachidonic acid, and platelet-activating factor (PAF), while ginsenosides had no significant effect on the aggregation. It was suggested that panaxynol is the most potent antiplatelet agent in ginseng and its mechanism of action is chiefly due to the inhibition...

Effects on Tumor Cell Cytotoxicity and Differentiation

Saponin and nonsaponin compounds have been reported to show cytotoxic activities against various kinds of cancer cell lines in culture. The major active components are ginsenoside Rh2, a peculiar component of red ginseng, and also polyacetylenes, panaxydol, panaxynol, and panaxytriol. In addition, ace-tylpanaxydol and panaxydolchlorohydrin, showing cytotoxicity against lymph-oid leukemia L1210, have been isolated from Korean ginseng root (45). The critical early even in the cytotoxicity of panaxytriol was identified as ATP depletion resulting from a direct inhibition of mitochondrial respiration (46). Further experimental evidence suggested that polyacetylenes inhibited the synthesis of macromolecules such as DNA, RNA, and protein in L1210 cells, resulting in cytotoxicity (17). Ginseng was found to have the ability to induce the transformation of neoplastic cells into normal cells. Ginsenoside Rh2 inhibited the growth and colony-forming ability of Morris hepatoma cells in soft agar...

Indications Vine of Sodom

Anorexia (f UPW) Backache (f ZUL) Bacteria (1 X9644084) Boil (f UPW ZUL) Cancer (f1 JLH X3621146) Cancer, skin (f1 JLH X3621146) Cataract (f UPW) Constipation (f ZUL) Cough (f HOC) Cystosis (f HOC ZUL) Dermatosis (f1 BIB ZUL X3621146) Dropsy (f ZUL) Edema (f HOC) Enterosis (f ZUL) Fever (f UPW) Fungus (f BIB) Gas (f ZUL) Impotence (f BIB HOC ZUL) Infection (f1 BIB X9644084) Infertility (f BIB HOC ZUL) Itch (f ZUL) Keratoacanthoma (1 X3621146) Keratosis (1 X3621146) Leprosy (f UPW) Mycobacteria (1 X9644084) Mycosis (f BIB) Ophthalmia (f UPW) Otosis (f UPW) Pain (f ZUL) Proctosis (f BIB) Ringworm (f BIB UPW) Sore (f UPW) Swelling (f HOC) Toothache (f BIB ZUL) Tumor (f JLH) Wound (f BIB ZUL).

Precipitating Factors

It also should be noted that alcohol and other drugs have a pharmacological effect on sexual arousal and sexual behavior. Among men, alcohol can cause secondary impotence and heroin use can delay ejaculation. There also is evidence to support the notion that cocaine use can increase sexual interest for men and women, and marijuana use has become associated with uninhibited sexual activity. Some women find that heroin use by their partner prolongs intercourse, and once heroin is used as an adjunct to sexual activity, couples are prone to relapse to drug use (Lex, 1990).

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