Endurance Training Programs
Common pelvic apophyseal injuries occurring during adolescence are listed in Table 2. These injuries are unique to growing adolescents because the growth plate is weaker than the surrounding muscle tendon unit making it more prone to injury. Acute apophyseal avulsion injuries commonly occur during sprinting, hurdling, or jumping after a sudden forceful muscular contraction. Radiographs (AP pelvis) reveal an apophyseal avulsion (Fig. 12). Pain at the apophysis occurs with activity and at rest with restricted range of motion and muscle weakness. Chronic apophyseal injuries can occur with running, skating, soccer, or other endurance sports yet radiographs do not always reveal abnormalities. Chronic traction apophy-seal injuries may present with tenderness at the apophysis along with some limitation of motion or weakness. Most apophyseal injuries heal with conservative treatment although large displaced avulsion fragments, especially of the ischial tuberosity, may require surgical...
Carbohydrate requirements can vary greatly from person to person. Endurance athletes may do best with as many as 60 -65 of their calories from carbohydrates, while competitive bodybuilders in a pre-contest mode might temporarily reduce their carbohydrates to half of that or less.
Also keep in mind that these recommendations are for fat loss, not weight maintenance, weight gain or athletic performance. It's a well known fact that endurance athletes require upwards of 500-600 grams of carbohydrate per day to sustain optimal performance. However, these athletes are burning enormous amounts of calories and they almost never have a body fat problem.
Recognizing relationships among blood lipids, diet, and physical activity, the American Heart Association (AHA) issued in 1972 the first of its handbooks and statements on the use of endurance exercise training and exercise testing for the diagnosis and prevention of heart disease (AHA, 1972). In 1978, the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) issued its position statement on cardio-respiratory fitness and body composition titled The Recommended Quantity and Quality of Exercise for Developing and Maintaining Fitness in Healthy Adults (ACSM, 1978). Subsequently, ACSM issued a series of guidelines for exercise testing and prescription (ACSM, 1980). In 1979, agencies of the federal government became involved when the United States Department of Heath, Education, and Welfare (DHEW) issued Healthy People The Surgeon General's Report on Health Promotion and Disease Prevention, which recommended endurance exercise training (DHEW, 1979). In 1988, the U.S. Department of Heath and Human...
Regular endurance exercise can result in a significant increment in the Vo2max of boys and girls (Brown et al., 1972 Mahon and Vaccaro, 1989, 1994 Vaccaro and Clarke, 1978) as well as in adults (Gallo et al., 1989 Maciel et al., 1985 Tabata et al., 1996).
Traditionally, the types of activities recommended for cardiovascular fitness are those of a prolonged endurance nature, such as bicycling, hiking, jogging, and swimming. Sometimes the word aerobic is used as an alternative to describe such activities because integrated functions of lungs, heart, cardiovascular system, and associated muscles are involved. Because of the energy demands associated with aerobic activity, such activities have the potential to impact body fat mass (FM) (Grund et al., 2001). By decreasing FM and preserving fat free mass (FFM), prolonged mild to moderate intensity endurance exercise can change body composition.
The idea that protein requirements are increased by physical activity is intuitively attractive, and highprotein diets are a common feature of the diets of sportsmen and women. The available evidence shows an increased rate of oxidation of the carbon skeletons of amino acids during exercise, especially when carbohydrate availability is low. Protein contributes only about 5 of total energy demand in endurance exercise, but the absolute rate of protein breakdown is higher than at rest (where protein contributes about the same fraction as the protein content of the diet, i.e., typically about 12-16 ) because of the higher energy turnover. It is often recommended that athletes engaged in endurance activities on a daily basis should aim to achieve a protein
Failure to maintain hydration status has serious consequences for the active individual. A body water deficit of as little as 1-2 of total body mass can result in a significant reduction in exercise capacity. Endurance exercise is affected to a greater extent than high-intensity exercise, and muscle strength is not adversely affected until water losses reach 5 or more of body mass. Hypohydration greatly increases the risk of heat illness, and also abolishes the protection conferred by prior heat acclimation.
Hypothalamic 5-HT receptor function is down-regulated in endurance-trained athletes (Jakeman et al. 1994). The 5-HT hypothesis has been studied directly in healthy volunteers by examining the effect of ingestion of BCAA on the fatigue scores during exercise. The perceived exertion and mental fatigue scores were reduced by ingestion of BCAA in subjects exercising on a bicycle ergometer at 70 of their VO2 max (maximum volume of oxygen consumption) for 60 min (Blomstrand et al. 1997). However, there was no significant effect in subjects exercising maximally, an observation which may be consistent with evidence showing that consumption of BCAA increased performance in slower but not faster marathon runners (Newsholme and Blomstrand 1995). These results suggest that a study of the effects of BCAA may be warranted in patients with cancer-related fatigue once further evidence supporting an involvement is forthcoming (see below). 5-HT has also been the focus of attention in patients with CFS,...
Muscular fitness can be subdivided into strength and endurance components. Muscular strength is the ability of a specific muscle (or group of muscles) to generate force (also referred to as maximum voluntary contraction or MVC), while muscular endurance is the ability of the muscle to complete a repeated number of contractions over time.18 Recent evidence suggests that muscular fitness, independent of aerobic exercise, is associated with mortality.23 Resistance training is the primary mode of improving both muscular strength and endurance. Benefits of resistance training HRR heart rate reserve VO2max maximal oxygen consumption HRmax maximum heart rate RPE rating of perceived exertion MS muscular strength ME Muscular endurance 1 RM one-repetition maximum ROM range of motion.
Some endurance athletes perform best on very high carbohydrate intakes of 6070 of their total calories. Carbohydrate sensitive people sometimes have no choice but lower carbohydrate intake to 30 or less of their total calories. These cases are the exceptions rather than the rule, however. Moderate to high complex carbohydrate, with moderate protein and low fat is generally the best approach. Modifications can then be made to this baseline as your needs require.
One common exercise myth is that doing too much aerobic exercise, or doing it too hard makes you lose muscle. While it's certainly possible this could happen, only extreme amounts of high impact, high intensity cardio would cause large muscle losses to occur. For example, endurance training and bodybuilding don't go well together. The muscle loss issue is usually highly exaggerated. If you're in doubt, don't guess Carefully track your lean body mass with skinfold testing and adjust your cardio and nutrition accordingly.
Adaptations to Submaximal Endurance Exercise Training Finally, an increase in total plasma volume and an increase in the total amount of hemoglobin have been observed in response to submaximal endurance training. As a result of endurance training, there is an increase in blood supply to the working muscle. This is achieved by an increased capillarization in trained muscles, greater vasodilation in existing muscle capillaries, and a more effective redistribution of cardiac output to the working muscle.
Parents of preteen girls are often concerned about exercise's impact on the menstrual cycle. Endurance sports such as running and swimming promote lean body mass, yet a certain amount of body fat is necessary for proper menstrual function. Late onset of menstruation or the cessation of menstruation can be caused by extreme lean body composition. This does not, however, appear to lead to long-term reproductive health problems.
The idea that protein requirements are increased by physical activity is intuitively attractive, and highprotein diets are a common feature of the diets of sportsmen and women. The available evidence does show an increased rate of oxidation of the carbon skeletons of amino acids during exercise, especially when carbohydrate availability is low. Protein contributes only about 5 of total energy demand in endurance exercise, but the absolute rate of protein breakdown is higher than at rest (where protein contributes about the same fraction as the protein content of the diet, i.e., typically about 12-16 ) because of the higher energy turnover. Most recommendations suggest that individuals engaged in endurance activities on a daily basis should aim to achieve a protein intake of about 30 of energy). However, where energy intake is either very high or very low, it may be inappropriate to express the carbohydrate requirement as a fraction of energy intake. With low total energy intakes, the...
Although there have been few studies of the requirement for protein by individuals undertaking high levels of physical exercise, it is commonly believed by athletes that a higher than normal protein intake is required to maintain optimum physical performance (Lemon, 1996). Whether or not this is true has significance not only for athletes, but also for those with muscle wasting who wish to preserve muscle mass by training, such as elderly or immobile adults, or those suffering from muscle-wasting diseases. The available literature includes studies of both resistance (bodybuilding) and endurance training. Endurance Training. Endurance training does not result in muscle building, which would increase muscle protein deposition, but it is well recognized that endurance exercise is accompanied by an increase in the oxidation of branched chain amino acids (Lemon et al., 1982, 1985 Rennie et al., 1981 Wagenmakers, 1998 White and Brooks, 1981), which has been suggested to imply an increased...
Determine the relative sensations of thirst and satiety, and influence the degree of diuresis. Input from the higher centers of the brain, however, can override the basic biological need for water to some extent and cause inappropriate drinking responses. Cases of water intoxication (hyponatremia) during endurance sports events lasting more than about 6-8 h have been reported in which the major cause of the illness is due to overhydration as a result of overdrinking.
Muscular Endurance The ability of a muscle or group of muscles to perform repetitive contractions over a period of time. Endurance is a key for everyday life activities and operates with muscular endurance to help maintain good posture and prevent back and leg pain. In addition, endurance can en
Occasional use may also be circumstantial or utilitarian, if employed to achieve some specific short-term benefit under special circumstances. The use of AMPHETAMINES to increase endurance and postpone fatigue by students studying for examinations, truck drivers on long hauls, athletes competing in endurance events, or military personnel on long missions, are all instances of such utilitarian use. Most observers also consider the first three of these to be abuse or misuse, but many would not regard the fourth example as abuse because it is or was prescribed by military authorities under unusual circumstances, for necessary combat goals. Nevertheless, in all four instances the same drug effect is sought for the same purpose (i.e., to increase endurance). This illustrates the complexities and ambiguities of definitions in the field of drug use.
Interval training can include fast walking, sprinting, bicycling, working on the cross-trainer, and so on, as long as you vary your intensity levels according to the plan. Interval training gives you the best of both worlds since it strengthens your body both anaerobically and aerobically. Like resistance exercise, it is anaerobic and will elevate your metabolism and enhance the thermic effect of food digestion for up to 48 hours. A recent study published at MuscleMedia.com reported that interval training caused greater fat loss than endurance training. The study group that exercised over time using short bursts of high-intensity interval training lost nine times as much fat as the study group that performed 45 minutes of high-intensity training. Levels of HGH, testosterone, and estrogen were also significantly higher after bouts of interval training as opposed to endurance training. Interval training is a type of exercise where less effort short bursts of intensity will get you much...
We will probably never have conclusive scientific proof of what the optimal protein intake is for gaining muscle and losing fat. That's why I believe the best place to look for answers is not necessarily at the research from the laboratory, but at the athletes in the trenches who have already achieved what you want to achieve. Bodybuilders and fitness models are among the leanest athletes on earth. Probably the only athletes who ever get as lean are those in ultra-endurance sports such as marathons and triathalons. The difference is that the bodybuilders reach the same low body fat levels while holding on to their muscle A six-foot male marathoner could be a buck forty soaking wet That's why it makes sense to find out what the bodybuilders are doing and use them as your role models. Before we do this, let's first look at what the research says as a minimum starting point.
May also be reduced with regular exercise through its effects on blood clotting and fibrinolytic mechanisms. Regular endurance exercise may also improve the serum lipid profile (particularly in favor of an enhanced HDL total cholesterol ratio) and have beneficial effects on adipose tissue lipolysis and distribution. Regular exercise may also reduce postprandial lipemia, increase glucose transport into muscle cells, and improve the elasticity of arteries.
Acute administration of caffeine produces a 5-25 increase in the basal metabolic rate. Inactive subjects exhibit a greater increase in resting metabolic rate than do exercise-trained subjects. It is concluded that endurance training seems to result in a reduced thermogenic response to a caffeine challenge. These modifications of energy metabolism were associated with significant increases in serum free fatty acids, glycerol, and lactate concentrations, whereas inconsistent findings were reported for blood glucose levels. Acute administration of caffeine was shown to decrease insulin sensitivity and to impair glucose tolerance, possibly as a result of elevated plasma epinephrine. However, it is not understood why a large and long-term epidemiolo-gical study associated significant lower risks for type 2 diabetes in both men and women with total caffeine intake. The lipolytic effect is generally explained by the inhibition of phosphodiesterase, the release of catecholamine, or adenosine...
Initial efforts by health professionals to reduce FM involved endurance exercise protocols mainly because of the large impact on total energy expenditure and links to coronary heart disease risk amelioration. More recent efforts using resistance exercise training, or combinations of resistance and endurance exercises, have been tried to maintain the interest of participants as well as to positively affect body composition through stimulation of anabolic stimuli (Grund et al., 2001). Practitioners of speed, power, and resistance exercises can change body composition by means of the muscle-building effects of such exertions. Moreover, exercises that strengthen muscles, bones, and joints stimulate muscle and skeletal development in children, as well as assist in balance and locomotion in the elderly, thereby minimizing the incidence of falls and associated complications of trauma and bed rest (Evans, 1999). While resistance training exercises have not yet been shown to have the same...
To be used for energy generation, protein must first be degraded to amino acids before the carbon-hydrogen-oxygen skeleton can be used as an energy source through the pathways of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, while the amino acid nitrogen is transferred and eliminated, primarily in the form of urea. The rate at which amino acids contribute to energy generation is fairly constant and does not increase nearly as much as glucose and fatty acid oxidation during periods of physical exertion. While the rate of oxidation of particular amino acids (e.g., leucine) may rise significantly during exercise, not all amino acids respond in the same way, and amino acids diminish in relative importance as fuels when power output rises during exercise (Brooks et al., 2000), providing only a small percentage of the energy used during physical activity (Brooks, 1987). Indeed, using amino acids as a major energy source would be wasteful, since protein is the most limited energy yielding nutrient....
The correct meal ratios can vary greatly depending on your goals and on the type of training you're doing. Nutrition is a highly individualized issue and the same diet will not work for everyone. Bodybuilders, for example, need a higher ratio of protein than people who are sedentary. A marathon runner would never consume the same ratio of proteins, carbohydrates and fats as a bodybuilder or fitness competitor getting ready for a contest. An endurance athlete might do well consuming up to 60 of his or her calories from complex carbohydrates to maintain glycogen stores for training. The pre-contest bodybuilder would probably be better off with as little as 25 -40 of his or her calories from carbohydrates with a higher ratio of protein to help stimulate thermogenesis, mobilize more body fat and reduce water retention.
As you become dehydrated, your body's core temperature increases. This adversely affects your cardiovascular function and reduces your capacity for physical work. Even a small decrease in your body's hydration level can decrease your performance. Studies have shown that even mild dehydration of 3 of body weight can decrease contractile strength by 10 . When 4 - 5 or more of total weight is lost in water, muscular and aerobic endurance can decrease by 20 to 30 . If more than 1012 of the body's weight as water is lost, you could die.
These numbers are only averages, of course. Actual calorie expenditures can vary widely and are much higher for athletes or extremely active people. Some triathletes and ultra-endurance athletes may require as many as 5000-6000 calories per day or more just to maintain their weight Endurance cyclists often slog down energy bars and high calorie carbohydrate drinks on the saddle, just to keep from losing weight by the hour Calorie requirements can also vary among people with the same activity levels because of differences in inherited metabolic rates.
Competitive bodybuilders and endurance athletes such as marathon runners have been known to reach body fat levels as low as 2-4 in men and 8-10 in women. With today's obsession for leanness, the safety of dropping to very low body fat levels has often been questioned. Being extremely lean is undoubtedly healthier than being overfat. However, trying to maintain extremely low body fat levels for too long a period of time might not be realistic or healthy.
Although methionine is the only sulfur-containing essential amino acid, it has not been considered as part of supplementation regimes. Since cysteine easily oxidizes to cystine, which has a poor solubility, it is generally supplemented in the form of n-acetylcysteine (NAC). Both directly and indirectly, as a precursor for glutathione, NAC has attracted attention as a potentially protective agent against oxidative injury in numerous conditions including endurance exercise, ischemia reperfusion injury, adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and cystic fibrosis. In addition, NAC has mucolytic properties in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients by reducing disulfide bonds of polymers in mucus, blocking their reactivity. Currently, only robust evidence exists for the usefulness of NAC supplementation in the protection against nephropathy, induced by administration of iodine-containing contrast agents for radiological imaging in patients with chronic renal failure, in...
Type I fibers are very efficient at producing ade-nosine triphosphate (ATP) from the oxidation of carbohydrate and fat. As long as oxidation occurs, type I fibers continue producing ATP, which allows the fibers to remain active. Thus the ability to maintain muscular activity for a prolonged period (muscular endurance) depends on type I fibers, which have high aerobic endurance. They are recruited most often during low-intensity events, such as marathon running, and during daily activities, such as walking, for which the muscle-force requirements are low.
Type II muscle fibers have relatively poor aerobic endurance in comparison with type I fibers. In type II fibers, ATP is formed through anaerobic, not oxidative, pathways when oxygen supply is insufficient. Type IIa motor units generate considerably more force than do type I motor units, but they also fatigue more easily. Thus type IIa fibers appear to be the primary fiber type used during shorter, high-intensity endurance events, such as the mile run or the 400-m swim. The composition of a person's muscle fibers appears to be determined early in life, possibly within the first few years. Genes determine which a-motor neurons innervate individual muscle fibers. After innervation is established, the signals from a-motor neurons determine the differentiation of muscle types. Physical environment also affects the differentiation. There is some evidence that endurance training and strength training, as well as muscular inactivity, may cause a shift in the myosin isoforms. Training may...
The female athlete triad is a common nutritional disorder among female athletes caused by the drive of girls and women to be unrealistically thin in an attempt to improve performance. The disorder is most common in sports judged by build (e.g., gymnastics, diving, figure skating), sports with a weight classification (e.g., light-weight crew), and endurance sports (e.g., distance running). It is characterized by three interrelated conditions (1) disordered
In addition to providing a muscular endurance and strength conditioning workout, rowing is also a superb aerobic workout and an excellent fat-burner. Because it involves the entire body, rowing burns more calories than almost any other type of aerobic exercise, making it an extremely effective fat burning and weight loss exercise if it's maintained for a long enough duration.
Prevention of post-endurance exercise infections Athletes often use vitamin C supplements to prevent infections, as strenuous training and physiological stress appears to increase the body's need for vitamin C to a level above the usual RDI (Schwenk & Costley 2002). Additionally, the risk of infection after an intense aerobic training session or competition (such as a marathon) is increased (Jeurissen et al 2003).
Caffeine is a stimulant that in certain athletes may increase free fatty-acid availability to delay fatigue, improve reaction time, and reduce the perceived effort of exertion. It tends to be most effective in caffeine-naive, trained endurance athletes with a dose of 200 to 300 milligrams one hour prior to a sporting event. The legal limit of caffeine is 800 milligrams, but this level can cause nervousness, anxiety, irritability, headaches, increased urination, and diarrhea. In addition to products such as Vivarin, No-Doz, and Excedrin, caffeine can be found in herbal form in guarana, mat , and kola nut. Caffeine also augments the stimulatory effects of ephedra.
Oral stanazolol (12 mg per day for 27 weeks) was administered to malnourished subjects with COPD the findings of this study demonstrated an increase in lean body mass with no significant changes in endurance exercise capacity (Ferreira et al. 1998). There are few data to support its use in a cancer population. In a randomized, prospective trial of patients with lung cancer receiving chemotherapy with or without nandrolone 200mg day intramuscularly weekly for 1 month, no significant difference was seen between groups with respect to weight loss (Langer et al. 2001).
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