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The Emergency Food Assistance Program is the largest of the commodity food donation programs. TEFAP was designed to reduce the level of government-held surplus commodities by distributing them to low-income households to supplement the recipients' purchased food. Local agencies may also use the commodities to prepare and serve meals in congregate settings, such as soup kitchens.
Ornella Corazza analyses dualist models of mind and body, discussing the main features of NDEs as reported by many people who have experienced them. She studies the use of ketamine to reveal how central characteristics of NDEs can be chemically induced without being close to death. This evidence challenges the conventional 'survivalist hypothesis', according to which the near-death experience is a proof of the existence of an afterlife.
The starvation response developed largely from exposure to adverse environmental conditions like droughts, natural disasters and food shortages. Furthermore, there were no supermarkets ten thousand years ago - if people wanted to eat, they had to either grow their food or kill it. It's likely that at times, ancient man didn't know when the next meal was coming and may have only eaten once or twice a week. The starvation response evolved in humans to ensure the survival of the species.
The Emergency Nutrition Network (ENN) is a network of humanitarian agencies and researchers that supports and facilitates activities that increase the effectiveness of emergency food and nutrition interventions. The planning for the ENN was done in 1995 at a meeting sponsored by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), and the network began operating in November 1996. Humanitarian agencies sometimes provide interventions and food that are not always logistically or culturally appropriate. In addition, many agencies have high staff turnover, inadequate record keeping, and limited resources, all of which can delay access to appropriate information at critical times. The goal of the ENN is to improve the effectiveness of emergency food and nutrition programs by
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) An emotional condition that often occurs after direct or indirect exposure to a terrifying event in which a child witnessed or actually experienced physical harm. Traumatic events that can cause post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) include violent assaults, physical or sexual abuse, shootings, natural disasters, or car accidents. One out of 13 Americans will develop PTSD during their lifetime, which is especially common among girls and women, who are about twice as likely as boys or men to develop PTSD. This may be due to the fact that girls and women tend to experience domestic violence, rape, or abuse more often.
This piquant passage is from Anil's Ghost by Michael Ondaatje. The story is set in war-ravaged Sri Lanka, a near armageddon of ethnic cleansing, brutal subjugation, and political intrigue. The passage conveys two basic beliefs about parenting. First, there is something elemental about parental caregiving, with near universal agreement as to its significance in children's lives. Second, the context in which parenting occurs shapes both its goals and its tactics. As a result, what children experience as part of their home life is enormously varied despite the fact that all children share many common needs for parental care. From time immemorial, promoting the physical well-being of children has been considered the sine qua non of parental responsibility. Those acts and conditions designed to promote biological integrity we have organized under the joint class, sustenance safety. Parents must provide adequate nutrients, shelter, and health care to ensure both survival and the level of...
According to the United States Census Bureau, 5 million adults and 2.7 million children lived in hungry households in 1999. To combat hunger and the undernutrition problem, the United States government funds and administers several food programs, including the Food Stamp Program the National School Lunch Program the School Breakfast Program the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children the Child and Adult Care Food Program the Emergency Food Assistance Program and the Community Food and Nutrition Program. Through the Emergency Food Assistance Program (TEFAP), food is distributed through emergency food shelters. The food is provided through
This approach, also known as the 'survivalist hypothesis', strongly supports the view that a detachable soul leaves the body at the moment of the near-death experience and that this provides evidence of our survival after the death of the body (see, for, instance, Badham and Badham 1982 Rogo, 1982 Sabom 1982). This approach is mainly based on the experience as it appears to those who have had an NDE. As Paul Badham put it Implicit in the survivalist hypothesis is a dichotomic way of thinking according to which soul and matter are two separate and incompatible entities. Before we move on with our discussion, it is relevant to observe how the term 'soul', or anima, has intentionally been avoided in contemporary debates and replaced by 'consciousness' or 'mind'. I find it rather a Although, for Badham, the soul is clearly difficult to define, he also encourages a rational explanation of it, which he thinks possible (ibid. 220). Although I fully support this view, I would like to suggest...
Brothers and sisters are shaken to the very core by leukemia in the family. Their parents, the leaders of the family clan, sometimes have no time, and little energy, to focus on the siblings. During this major crisis, they sometimes feel they have no one to turn to for help. If you recognize these strong, ever-changing emotions of siblings as normal, not pathological, you will be better able to help your child talk about and cope with his strong feelings.
Natural disasters, as well as some human-caused disasters, lead to human suffering and create needs that the victims cannot alleviate without assistance. Examples of disasters include hurricanes, tornadoes, floods, earthquakes, drought, blizzards, famine, war, fire, volcanic eruption, a building collapse, or a transportation wreck. When any such disaster strikes, a variety of international organizations offer relief to the affected country. Each organization has different objectives, expertise, and resources to offer, and several hundred may become involved in a single major disaster. International disaster relief on such a large scale must be properly coordinated to avoid further chaos and confusion both during and after the disaster.
Usually, the prescription for your life-lenses is established in your childhood. People don't come into the world seeing themselves as inadequate, undeserving, entitled, or perfectionis-tic. Rather, they learn these patterns through repeated experiences. Life-lenses emerge from abuse, abandonment, betrayal, criticism, natural disasters, loss, rejection, and other emotionally powerful events.
Natural disasters do not usually result in infectious disease outbreaks. However, certain circumstances can increase the chance for disease transmission. Immediately after a disaster, most increases in disease incidence are caused Disaster Preparedness and Emergency Response Association (DERA) Assists international communities in disaster preparedness, response, and recovery serves as a professional association linking disaster relief personnel Pan American Health Organization. Natural Disasters Protecting the Public's Health. Available from
In developing countries, the root causes of food insecurity include poverty, war and civil conflict, corruption, national policies that do not promote equal access to food for all, environmental degradation, barriers to trade, insufficient agricultural development, population growth, low levels of education, social and gender inequality, poor health status, cultural in-sensitivity, and natural disasters. In the United States, the primary cause of food insecurity is poverty. Low levels of education, poor health status, and certain disabilities also increase the risk of food insecurity for individuals and households in the United States.
One of the most common problems facing a practising hydrologist or hydraulic engineer is the estimation of the hydrograph of the rise and fall of a river at any given point on the river during the course of a flood event. The problem is solved by the technique of flood routing, which is the process of following the behaviour of a flood water upstream or downstream along the river and over the flood plain. There are two primary uses of flood routing models. The first is to provide maps of areas at risk of inundation for design events with a chosen probability of exceedance. In the UK, as required under Section 105 of the Water Resources Act, 1995 and by the EU Floods Directive (see Chapter 16), there are national maps of the area at risk of inundation. It is possible to examine such maps on the web site of the Environment Agency for any postcode in England and Wales.1 The Scottish Environmental Protection Agency (SEPA) has a similar site for flood risk areas in Scotland2 and, in the...
The escalation in crises and numbers affected since the early 1990s has had a dramatic impact on the nutrition and health of refugees. The number of people affected by natural disasters increased from 50 million in 1980 to 250 million in 2000. Similarly, approximately 30 million people were affected by conflict each year during the 1990s in more than 60 countries. The number of refugees has steadily increased from approximately 5 million in 1980 to a peak of more than 20 million in 1994, with a slow decline by 2003 to approximately 10.4 million. This is primarily due to the fact that more refugees are repatriating than are being forced to leave their countries, and new refugee flows have declined. The large numbers of repatriated refugees from Afghanistan, Angola, and Sierra Leone have contributed to the reduction in the number of refugees. In addition to the large numbers of refugees, in 2003 UNHCR assisted approximately 5.8 million of the estimated 20-25 million IDPs worldwide.
A second major class of famine comprises those precipitated or triggered by declared war or armed insurgency, leading to a siege or food blockade by a foreign power (e.g., Allied blockade of Germany in 1915-18 Nazi blockade of Holland precipitating the Dutch Winter Famine of 1944-45, and the Nazi siege of Lenningrad in 1942-44) or, as occurring more in recent years, severe civil war that disrupts normal markets as well as emergency food delivery systems (e.g., the Somalian civil war and famine of 1991-92). Armed conflict can incapacitate or destroy a country's ability to govern, develop, produce and feed itself domestically or through food aid, as scores of people become displaced, destitute, starve and die from severe malnutrition and epidemic illness. The
A way to get at the root of the problem is to understand the causes of homelessness. Worldwide, homelessness is caused by a breakdown in traditional family support systems, continued urbanization, the effects of structural adjustment programs, civil wars, and natural disasters. A shortage in affordable rental housing and an increase in poverty are thought to be two major factors contributing to the rise of homelessness in the United States. Other potential causes are the lack of affordable health care, domestic violence, mental illness, and addiction disorders. Often, individuals will have several risk factors causing them to choose between food, shelter, and other
Resiliency is the result of a complex interaction between risk factors and protective factors. A closer look at the risk factors reveals three main categories. One category includes life events that tend to trigger disorders such events include catastrophes, natural disasters, and other traumatic circumstances. Another category is chronic adversity in the home or neighborhood, which predisposes the child to vulnerability included in this category are poverty, violence, substance abuse, poor prenatal care, and parental psychopathology. Third, the absence of protective factors is itself a risk factor. There is an interactive effect among the risk factors that tend to escalate their impact. Single stress factors do not have a critical impact but combinations do, and additional difficulties compound the impact of all existing risk factors.
Have begun to affect Asians in a new and different way. Further, as weather patterns change over time and natural disasters occur, Asia, a largely agricultural society, is not always guaranteed a good crop. Asian food and nutrition is deeply rooted in the availability of food in each country. International organizations such as the United Nations Food and Agricultural Organization and Oxfam International continue to work on programs that ensure that continents like Asia will not suffer food shortages in the future. see also Asian Americans, Diets of Dietary Trends, International.
This is a collection of 3 guides all about survival. Within this collection you find the following titles: Outdoor Survival Skills, Survival Basics and The Wilderness Survival Guide.