Challenges Results and Implications

Thus far, the emphasis in this initiative in educational neuroscience has been primarily focused on identifying, meeting, and overcoming challenges. The main challenge has been to muster evidence and rationale to justify this initiative to funding agencies traditionally supporting educational research (Campbell, 2005). The Canada Foundation for Innovation, the British Columbia Knowledge Development Fund, and Simon Fraser University have collectively funded the development of my lab, and the...

References

Bechara, A. (2004) The Role of Emotion in Decision-Making Evidence from neurological patients with orbitofrontal damage, Brain and Cognition, 55, pp. 30-40. Beedie, C. J., Terry, P. C. & Lane, A. M. (2005) Distinctions between Emotion and Mood, Cognition and Emotion, 19 6, 847-878. Braeutigm, S., Bailey, A. J. & Swithenby, S. J. (2001) Task-Dependent Early Latency (30-60 ms) Visual Processing of Human Faces and Other Objects, Cognitive Neuroscience and Psychology, 12 7, pp. 1531-1536....

The Birth of a Field

The roots of the Southwest Center for Mind Brain and Education originated in a series of conversations in the mid 1990s at Harvard University during a period President Bush proclaimed as the Decade of the Brain (Bush, 1990). The conversations began as an exploration of the intersections and boundaries between Mind, Brain, and Behavior (MBB). By the end of the 1990s, researchers at the Harvard Graduate School of Education saw the opportunity and potential in focusing on one specific behavior...

Some Objections

To designate 'mindbrains' as the proper objects of educational neuroscience, then, is to emphasize that mind and brain are predominantly one thing, not two. For those who would doubt such a claim, I proffer the following points. First, in many jurisdictions, the absence of brain activity constitutes a legal definition of death. Second, it is clear, especially from electroencephalograph (EEG) studies, the bioelectromagnetic field generated by human brains clearly indicates subjectively...

Our Bodies Our Minds Our Cultures Our Selves

Traditional Western views of the mind and body, such as that of Descartes, divorced high-level, rational thought from what were thought of as the basal, emotional, instinctual processes of the body (Damasio, 2005 1994 ). By contrast, recent work in affective and social neuroscience has revealed a new view of the mind. Far from divorcing emotions from thinking, this research collectively suggests that emotions, such as anger, fear, happiness and sadness, are cognitive and physiological processes...

Why are Cohort Studies Important

Human cohort studies based on the concept of 'brain-science and education' will likely have three major sets of implications. 1. Human cohort studies based on brain science are expected to produce scientific evidence that will contribute to policy-making, especially on education and related issues that pose serious problems for modern human society. For example, we might uncover implications for policy on childcare, school education, or aging. 2. We will be able to assess the potential effects...

How Might Cognitive Neuroscience Inform Education

According to one perspective, the ideal connection between education and cognitive neuroscience would be as follows cognitive neuroscientists would conduct experiments and then educators would directly apply the results of this research in their teaching there would be a seamless flow from the laboratory to the classroom. Indeed, there are frequently calls for such direct links and the enterprise of Mind, Brain, and Education is considered by some to have failed if such links cannot be...

Examples of Cohort Studies Based on Brain Science

'A longitudinal study of twins in infancy and childhood (Tokyo Twin Cohort Project ToTCoP)' directed by Professor Juko Ando, Faculty of Letters, Keio University (Ando et al., 2006 Ando & Ozaki, 2009 Ando et al., 2009). Human behavioral and psychological development is affected by environmental and genetic factors. The 'twin method' can reveal the relative contribution and interaction of each factor. This study constructs a population-based twin registry in the Tokyo metropolitan area. Over...

Models Broad Frameworks for the Epigenetic System in Context

The problem-focused methodological pluralism that we have sketched for MBE sets certain directions for building explanations and theoretical models. With multiple methods and diverse kinds of results, the need for broadly integrative theoretical frameworks increases. Likewise, the needs to communicate to wide audiences and to affect practice entail the articulation, however provisional, of big-picture accounts of how the field hangs together. Specifically, MBE needs theoretical models that span...

Notes on Contributors

Daniel Ansari is an Associate Professor of Developmental Psychology and the Canada Research Chair in Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience at the University ofWestern Ontario. His primary interest is in the neurocognitive trajectories underlying the development of typical and atypical numerical and mathematical skills. He uses both behavioural and brain imaging methods to better understand how children develop numerical skills and what neuronal mechanisms underlie the development of mathematical...

The Somatic Appraisal Model of Affect

Based primarily on the work of Damasio (2003), Ledoux (1996), and others (e.g. Dalgleish, 2004 Davidson, 1999 Davidson et al., 2000 Forgas, 1999 Gray, 1991 Izard, interaction with environment good bad interaction with environment good bad Figure 1 Somatic appraisal model of affect 1984 Panksepp, 1994), along with elements of appraisal theory (Beedie, Terry & Lane, 2005 Kagan, 1984 Lazarus, 1999 Sabini & Silver, 2005 Scherer, 2000), I propose the Somatic Appraisal Model of Affect as a new...

Anthony E Kelly

Why is there a current interest in cognitive neuroscience findings In spite of the pessimism of Bruer (1997) and the more recent caveats of Varma, McCandliss, and Schwartz (2008), andWillingham (2008), the past decade has seen an upsurge in studies focusing on the brain-basis for learning (see OECD, 2007 for a comprehensive review of brain-related research in education).The following factors appear to be contributing to this interest A desire to scientifically debunk popular 'brain-based'...

Defining Educational Neuroscience

In defining educational neuroscience, I do not presume to be putting forth anything more than an evolving working definition pertaining first and foremost to the approach I have been taking to some of the work I have engaged upon (e.g. Campbell, 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006a,b 2007 2010). My working definition attempts to go beyond thinking of educational neuroscience in a more narrow but quite legitimate sense, as an applied cognitive neuroscience. However, educational neuroscience can certainly...