Eat Healthier Ebook

How to use superfoods as medicine

How to use Superfoods for medicine is a program that was created by Alina Islam, Oren Gutman and Mo Hasan. The three are professionals in the field of nutrition and hence you can be sure something good will come from their efforts. How to use superfoods as medicine is a guide book that is focused at teaching you an alternative approach to experiencing better health and wellness. The eBook provides the users with insight into some of the most powerful, scientifically proven and potent superfoods that are responsible for generating better health results. In this book, there are methods of preparing shaving creams, facial cleansers, face masks, deodorant and antibiotic ointment among many other remedies. There are several advantages or benefits of using this program. This program doesn't target a thin section of people in the society. If you want to resolve all your health conditions using all-natural remedies, then this product is for you. The main program is available in PDF formats. What this means is that upon purchase, you are going to be given an exclusive opportunity of downloading the eBook with all the information, ingredients, remedies and the recipes to make those specific natural remedies.

How to use superfoods as medicine Summary


4.6 stars out of 11 votes

Contents: Ebook
Author: Alina Islam

My How to use superfoods as medicine Review

Highly Recommended

Recently several visitors of websites have asked me about this ebook, which is being promoted quite widely across the Internet. So I bought a copy myself to figure out what all the publicity was about.

All the modules inside this e-book are very detailed and explanatory, there is nothing as comprehensive as this guide.

Download Now

Nutrient Density of Meat and Meat Products

The nutrient density of meat is high. Muscle foods have high levels of essential nutrients per unit of weight and per amount of calories provided. Meat and meat products (muscle foods) provide significant amounts of essential nutrients at levels concentrations higher than those of most other foods relative

Increasing demand for freshcut produce

Consumer demand for healthy foods such as fresh produce, combined with their desire to minimize food preparation time, has resulted in a segment of the food processing industry that barely existed 20 years ago - the fresh-cut produce industry. These products are trimmed, peeled, cut up and packaged to provide convenience and freshness for consumers. Chemical dips, modified atmosphere packaging and high-pressure processing have been used to extend shelf-life. However, research has shown, that without proper controls, the potential exists for pathogens to survive and, in some cases, to grow. Thus, much research is being conducted to find washing or other processes to reduce or inactivate pathogens while retaining a fresh product. As noted in an earlier section, the produce industry has focused on the implementation of 'good agricultural practices' and the development of commodity-specific guidance to minimize the

Implications and recommendations

Therefore, a more promising but difficult approach to terminating the current rise in overweight and obesity may involve multi-sector cooperation of government, academia and industry - to design comprehensive overweight prevention programs (Koplan et al., 2004 Anon., 2006). These programs need to collaborate in several ways including educating healthy eating approaches for parents and children producing healthy foods and beverages developing an evidence-based approach to dietary guidance and policy formulation. A public health approach that has a singular focus on sugars and sugars-sweetened beverages is unlikely to provide a solution (Dietz, 2006).

Communication Dynamics

You know when you get married and vow to be together in sickness and in health Well, we got the sickness part We survived a difficult time. Diabetes will always be our sickness, but it hasn't been all bad. We eat healthier now, exercise more, and chose to adopt two beautiful baby girls to avoid pregnancy. We are blessed.

Guidelines for boosting calories

Parents need to change their perceptions of what constitutes healthy food when they are struggling to feed a child on chemotherapy. Many parents have ingrained habits of low-fat cooking and food preparation. These habits must be replaced with habits of constantly finding ways to add calories to their childs food

Viconclusions And Future Perspectives

Rosemary extracts and their polyphenolic components may have an application in the food industry that exceeds that of traditional flavoring and stabilizing agents. Their potential impact on human health is now a challenging concept for the development of natural, healthy foods. Although spices have been used in cooking and flavoring for centuries, they have not been consumed in the higher quantities used in the experimental studies summarized here. Therefore, before any health claims can be made, it is necessary to carry out safety and efficacy trials and to determine the active dose. Efficacy, safety, and regulatory issues are linked to composition of the complex plant

Other Policy Considerations

The imposition of taxes on certain foods or beverages, particularly high-calorie food items or those with low nutrient density, has been discussed with regard to the obesity epidemic. Several states including Arkansas, Tennessee, Virginia, and Washington, currently impose excise taxes on soft drinks. Although the tax rates have been found to be too small to affect sales, in certain jurisdictions the revenues generated are substantial but generally have not been used to fund obesity prevention activities (Jacobson and Brownell, 2000). It is not known whether imposing a sales tax on designated foods such as soft drinks would have a significant effect on beverage sales (Jacobson and Brownell, 2000). Moreover, there is the difficulty of determining which foods would be taxable for example, how to define soft drink and snack foods (Jacobson and Brownell, 2000). Taxation and pricing strategies have been found to contribute to tobacco prevention and control efforts (Levy et al., 2004)....

Household Food Consumption Data

In the past decade or so, there has been considerable interest in dietary diversity as an indicator of household consumption. (The dietary diversity score is also used to assess intake of individuals. The principle is the same, but the respondent is asked to list all foods or food groups consumed by the individual.) This method provides qualitative information on all foods or food groups, including meals and snacks, that were consumed over a given period of time (often 1, 3, or 7 days) by all members of the household. Each food or food group is assigned a value based on its nutrient density, bioavailability, and typical portion size. Portion size is included because although some foods (e.g., nuts) may have high nutrient density, they are typically consumed in small quantities. Points are then summed and the adequacy of dietary diversity is assessed based on this score. Reasonable correlations have been found between dietary diversity, household socioeconomic status, and household...

Afterschool Programs And Schools As Community Centers

Organized after-school programs, both public and private, are daily opportunities for engaging many children and youth in physical activity and promoting healthy food choices. In addition to serving students shortly after the school day is over, school facilities can also offer similar services during other nonschool hours to the wider community.

Socioeconomic Differences in Food Consumption

The socio-economic status of a household can affect the members' diet in a number of ways. In general, those with higher incomes tend to spend a smaller proportion of that income purchasing food, although they may spend a larger absolute amount than those with lower incomes. Second, the kinds of foods that wealthier people buy will be different in quality (less contamination and better processed or packaged) and in nutrient density (e.g., see Table 4). Wealthier people are generally 'less efficient' Socio-economic status not only affects how much money people have to spend on food but also increasingly affects their social and physical environment, which has implications for food. In many countries, geographical socio-economic polarization means that poorer people tend to live in low-quality housing, with limited domestic equipment, in residential areas with few, if any, shopping facilities and insufficient public transportation. Food shops selling a wider range of better quality...

Acculturation and the Hispanic Diet

Just as Hispanics have altered American cuisine, American culture has also altered the diet of Hispanic Americans. As with many other immigrant groups in the United States, the lifestyle of Hispanic Americans is undergoing a transition away from one based on the traditional values and customs of their ancestry, as they begin to adopt the values and behaviors of their adopted country. With regard to health behaviors, this process of acculturation is typically characterized by a more sedentary lifestyle and a change in dietary patterns. The effects of acculturation on the Hispanic diet are illustrated in national dietary survey data that show that Hispanic Americans who continue to use Spanish as a primary language eat somewhat more healthful diets than those who use English as a primary language. These healthier eating behaviors include lower consumption of fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol. Additional analysis of these survey data reveals that these dietary differences do not appear...

Marney A White and Loren M Gianini

When I went away to college, the bingeing got worse. I was on the college meal plan, and they had a full range of healthy foods available, but they also had the soft-serve ice cream at every meal, and an entire table full of cookies right there as you were exiting the cafeteria. So of course I usually grabbed one (or more ) on the way out. The thing about college food was that I felt so deprived. The cafeteria was only open for a few hours around each meal time, which never seemed to match up with my schedule. So I never made it there in time for breakfast (they stopped serving at 10am), and by lunchtime I was really hungry. They had this policy where you couldn't take food to go - technically you weren't supposed to leave with food at all - and since I knew that I would not be able to get food again until the cafeteria reopened for dinner, I would sort of store up and eat more than I really wanted. I was afraid of going hungry later. By the time I finished college, I was probably 20...

Ectomorph training and nutrition strategies

People with ectomorph tendencies quickly discover that they can get away with eating certain foods without ill effects on body composition, so they often do exactly that - eat anything and everything. However, this is not a wise practice because even an ectomorph should be concerned with nutrient density and not just calories. Nutrition is not just for cosmetic improvements it's about your health. Never use a muscle-building program as an excuse to pig out on junk food, even if you find you can get away with it. Ectomorphs must think about the nutritional value of everything they eat and about the effect of food on their health.

Requirements and Recommendations

A 2002 report of the American Heart Association suggests the restriction of sugar consumption. This report recognizes that there are no beneficial effects of increased sugar consumption. On the contrary, some studies suggest that it may have adverse health effects. In order to enhance the nutrient density and reduce the energy density of the diet, increased consumption of high-sugar foods should be avoided.

The Registered Dietitian RD

The RD is helpful in FM because many people's quality of life will improve through dietary change. The RD can help people learn not only what foods to avoid or minimize but how to introduce new foods into the diet and how to really enjoy those new foods. In FM, obesity is often a problem, especially due to the sporadic nature of FM flare cycles and the resulting disruption of an exercise routine. The RD can individualize an eating plan based on each patient's food preferences. In general, they discourage diets and emphasize healthier eating for the long run. They also try to strip away moral value from food by discouraging naming certain foods good or bad. Instead, they focus on which foods to eat often and which foods to enjoy less frequently or in smaller amounts. Another role of the RD is to help people with concurrent celiac disease since gluten and its related products are so prevalent in the food supply. Lactose intolerance is a bit easier to negotiate, but an RD will have tips...

The risk factors paradigm

Importantly, when planning preventive activities, is to understand that each risk factor has its own causes. In fact, there is a complex chain of events enabling many entry points for intervention (WHO, 2009). In the proximity, there are more direct causes of the diseases. Factors located further in the back, act through intermediary mechanisms, to produce these proximal factors. Causally most distal factors have their background in social conditions and are hardly recognisable. However, if modified, these background causes are likely to have amplifying effects, by influencing multiple proximal effects (WHO, 2009). Keeping this in mind can help health workers and policy makers to realise that besides individually oriented preventive measures, population-based strategies are of the greatest importance if they want to reduce health risks in a community (American Cancer Society, 2002 WHO, 2009). That means that an individual choice, regarding health-related behaviors, occurs within a...

Dietary Recommendations for Fibromyalgia Patients

Our bodies adapt to exposures. If a person eats sugar on a daily basis, they will find themselves craving sugar on subsequent days. Artificial sweeteners are actually much sweeter than sugar and make the body crave sweetness even more than sugar. This increases cravings, which in turn hampers weight loss. By removing all artificial sweeteners from the diet and by limiting your intake of sugar (especially high-fructose corn syrup), you can actually increase your body's ability to taste sweetness in healthy foods, like vegetables and fruit. Watch out for gum, breath mints, and medications which all can be hidden sources of artificial sweeteners. You can find safe versions of these at your local health food store, but still be careful to read labels as not all items at the health food store are safe.

Practical Aspects of Meeting the Nutrient Needs of Infants

The introduction of complementary foods, especially solids and eventually finger foods, is important for infants to develop normal oral and motor skills related to eating and to attain adequate intakes of nutrients that may be low in breast milk (e.g., protein or iron). In a report by the March of Dimes, three common inappropriate complementary feeding practices were delineated (i) introducing foods too early or too late, (ii) introducing foods of low nutrient density, and (iii) feeding contaminated foods. It is noted in the report that early introduction of foods may reduce the intake of breast milk due to limited gastric capacity of very young infants or precipitate an allergic reaction in infants with a family history of food allergy or atopy. By delaying introduction of foods beyond 6 months, there is increasing risk of deficiencies of nutrients known to be relatively low in breast milk and yet essential to support rapid growth of infants, such as iron and zinc. The choice of...

Oral Motor Considerations

Management strategies for daily mealtime feeding include positioning, modification of the sensory properties of the food, oral motor facilitation techniques, and equipment adaptations. For individuals with increased energy needs, the nutrient density of their meals may need to be maximized. Table 6 lists

Nutrient Regulation of Motility and Transit

These observations have been supported by findings that meals of a high nutrient density are more slowly emptied from the stomach and pass along the small intestine at a reduced rate. Evidence exists for a regulatory mechanism situated within the mucosa of the terminal ileum capable of sensing nutrient presence such as lipid and providing feedback restraint on moti-lity patterns in the stomach, duodenum, and jejunum to slow the passage of meals in proportion to their nutrient density. This mechanism has been called the 'ileal brake' and, taken with the hormonal control of gastric emptying, explains the almost complete absorption of meals of the highest nutrient density.

Helping women stay healthy

Cuckold Sissy Husband

Eating well means eating enough food and eating a variety of healthy foods . Talk to women about the food they eat. The earlier women start eating healthier foods, the better chance they have to stay healthy, to have normal births, and to have healthy babies Even if a woman knows the best foods for health, she may not eat them . Many families cannot afford to buy enough food or a wide variety of foods . Other women simply may not like the taste of some foods. To help a woman eat better, suggest healthy foods that she can and will choose to eat. Along with eating healthy foods, women should drink plenty of clean water and other fluids every day. Fruit juices, coconut water, animal milks, and many herbal teas are all healthy fluids to drink

The startling reason why you Should cheat on your diet once or twice a week

No vitamin pill can make up for a diet that's too high in fat, salt, sugar, and too low in fruits, vegetables, and other healthy food. But even people who eat a healthy diet can run short on some nutrients. So it's smart to take a multivitamin and mineral supplement as an insurance policy.

Eat nonfat or low fat 1 dairy products in moderation if you tolerate them well

Provided that you choose reduced fat or non-fat sources, dairy products are healthy foods and should be included as a part of a normal, balanced baseline diet. Dairy products are a good source of quality protein, Calcium and vitamin D. These days, you can find low fat and non-fat versions of just about anything, including cheese, milk, cottage cheese, cream cheese, sour cream, mayonnaise and yogurt.

Preventing Eating Disorders

Since the creation of the Student Bodies program, five iterations have been developed and evaluated with female college students (Celio et al., 2000 Taylor et al., 2006 Winzelberg et al., 2000, 1998 Zabinski, Pung, et al., 2001). Each new version of the program has been revised to incorporate research findings and feedback from participants. Overall, participants completing Student Bodies reported significant improvements in weight and shape concerns and healthier eating attitudes and behaviors. Recently, Low and colleagues (Low et al., 2006) evaluated the importance of discussion group in the Student Bodies intervention. In this study, participants were randomly assigned to one of four conditions (a) clinically moderated discussion group (b) unmoderated discussion group (c) no discussion group and (d) WL group. Low et al. (2006) found that participants using the Student Bodies program without a moderator fared best and had significantly lower eating and body image concerns at...

Why Diet Plays an Important Role

We need vitamins and minerals in our diet. Vitamins help regulate our metabolism. A diet high in fiber and fruits and vegetables will help to reverse gum problems naturally. Most important, we need the fats and proteins that provide the energy that helps build the cells of our body. To reverse gum disease naturally, we must alter our diet and discipline ourselves to maintain healthier eating patterns. Please see a nutritionist to get counseling for a diet that is programmed for you specifically.

The Need for Nutrients

The poor nutritional quality of many purchased foods is another factor. Depleted soils and lengthy storage, as well as toxicity from pesticides, antibiotics, additives, and so on can make an apparently healthy food of little value. Tests have shown that, for example, most people do not obtain adequate zinc, folic acid or the essential fatty acids in their diet, and health (physical and mental) suffers - the weakest link of the interacting bodily systems inevitably gives way.

Impact of technologies that reduce competitive microflora

An example of a new food preservation technology that presents a potential concern is the use of vacuum packaging and modified atmosphere packaging of foods to extend shelf-life. This would seem to be a very useful technology for packaging fresh fish, which is highly perishable. Greater shelf-life could increase consumption of what has become recognized as a very healthy food. However, a natural concern would be to question whether this technology would create conditions that would allow neurotoxin to be produced by non-proteolytic C. botulinum sooner than in fish stored in non-oxygen-reduced environments. In one study, not only was neurotoxin produced faster in modified atmospheres, it was produced before the fish was considered spoiled (Post et al., 1985). Therefore, a technology that provides a longer shelf-life for this very perishable food may suppress the natural warning system for consumers by suppressing the growth of the natural spoilage microorganisms.

Extractive from the leaves of Morus alba ELM

To prepare the ELM solution, the leaves are extracted with 50 ethanol, and ethanol is removed with a rotary evaporator. ELM used in this study is kindly provided by Toyotama Healthy Food Co., Ltd. (Tokyo, Japan). The original extract solution contains 0.24 DNJ. A small amount of several types of DNJ derivative is measured using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). It has been clarified that this extraction is not associated with toxicity or hematologic, blood biochemical, or pathologic abnormalities in rats (Miyazawa et al, 2003).

Eat fruit in moderation but focus more on natural fibrous and starchy carbohydrates

Fructose is the other naturally occurring simple sugar. Some experts argue that because fructose (fruit sugar) is healthier than sucrose (white sugar), large amounts of fruit should be eaten on a fat burning diet. Although fruit is definitely a healthy food, loaded with antioxidants, vitamins, phytochemicals and fiber, eating a large percentage of Contrary to what some bodybuilding gurus suggest, fruit is not fattening. Fruit is a healthy food. However, if you're a competitive bodybuilder or fitness competitor or if your body fat is already normal and you want to get even leaner, you'll probably get better fat loss results by temporarily substituting the fructose (simple carbohydrate) for less dense green vegetables (fibrous carbohydrate) and more protein.

Processed and refined carbohydrates are calorie dense but nutrient sparse They are empty calories

Despite the repeated emphasis in this program on the importance of calories, you shouldn't be concerned only with the number of calories you eat each day, you should also be concerned with the quality and nutritional value of those calories. Your goal is to get the most nutritional value out of every calorie. This is known as nutrient density.

How to make good choices in restaurants

Of course, you can indulge occasionally, but there's no excuse these days for completely blowing your diet just because you're eating out. Nowadays almost all restaurants are accommodating healthy eaters. Even fast food restaurants now have salad bars, low calorie dressings, grilled sandwiches, sugar free frozen yogurt, and bagels. Use the following Do's & Don'ts to help you eat healthier when dining out.

The power of focus

What can I do today that will help me get closer to my weight loss goal What can I eat right now at this meal that will help me lose body fat How great am I going to feel after I finish my workout today My metabolism is getting faster every day. I am getting leaner every day. I like the way I look. I am 100 responsible for my results. Whatever it takes, I'll do it. I like eating healthy foods. I love working out.

Older Children

At the other end of the eating problem spectrum are those children who seem to eat constantly, snack too much, or hoard food. These habits may develop as the result of stress, anxiety, or poor impulse control and can lead to overeating and weight gain. parents should consult with a pediatrician about what is a normal, healthy weight for the child and offer healthy food in normal portions.

By consumers

Generally, European consumers seem to know current dietary recommendations rather well. However, the reasons for healthy eating may vary for different people. Healthy food can be chosen for many reasons such as to prevent chronic diseases, to improve general well-being, or for ideological or moral reasons. Preventing disease or getting help for a particular health problem are the most frequently cited reasons for healthy eating.100-102 The potential benefits of healthy eating only affect behaviour if a person feels it is relevant for him- herself, is motivated and has sufficient knowledge to change his her behaviour.103 If the person is motivated, e.g. has a need to pay attention to their blood pressure, then the information

Food Choice

D ieting seems to be largely about choosing what to eat. We believe that we determine which foods are the tastiest, most nutritional, filling, best for the environment, and cheapest. It is a complicated task, and yet there is still more to it. The categories change frequently, over years and sometimes days. If salmonella is discovered on spinach in one restaurant that receives its produce from a large corporation, then it is possible that any of the other ones might have it too. This causes spinach sales to drop, a short-lasting phobia of green leafy vegetables may develop, and what was yesterday a healthy lunch choice is now a host to a potentially deadly bacterium. Also, there are discrepancies within the qualifying categories for foods. What some claim to be a healthy food, others suggest never to eat, like fish, which has healthy fat but can have high levels of mercury. However, from the inconsistency and chaos that is our understanding of food, concrete feelings and ideas about...


Numerous government websites also provide information on obesity, eating disorders, and nutrition. Federally funded web-based programs that promote interactive experiences for users may be some of the most helpful and safe tools available online. These sites provide education on healthy eating and exercise by outlining specific instructions that one can follow, as well as weight-management and self-monitoring systems where members can follow strict regimens to attain the optimal body weight (Fontaine and Allison 2002). For example, the Shape Up America program, founded by U.S. Surgeon General C. Everett Koop is an important online tool in the national battle against obesity. This federally funded program is a result of collaboration between numerous health experts all focused on promoting healthy eating and physical exercise and making Americans realize that preventing obesity should be a public health priority (Fontaine and Allison 2002). The findings from Shape Up America show the...

Into The Fire

EATING MORE ANIMAL FOODS is one way of boosting the caloric and nutrient density of the diet, a shift that appears to have been critical in the evolution of the human lineage. But might our ancient forebears have improved dietary quality another way Richard Wrangham of Harvard University and his colleagues recently examined the importance of cooking in human evolution. They showed that cooking not only makes plant foods softer and easier to chew, it substantially increases their available energy content, particularly for starchy tubers such as potatoes and manioc. In their raw form, starches are not readily broken down by the enzymes in the human body. When heated, however, these complex carbohydrates become more digestible, thereby yielding more calories.

Do Not Fear

Other individuals may need to detoxify with colon irrigation and liver cleansing. A majority of the time, media-promoted healthy foods including yogurt, peanuts, bananas, soy, and whole wheat bread precipitate a constant reaction and body signals of pain. Typically what you crave is often the item that creates body symptoms and food sensitivity reactions.

Dietary Guidelines

The few studies on dietary supplementation among elderly people suggest that, as for younger adults, those elderly who need supplements do not use them, whereas the elderly consuming a diet with a high nutrient density use supplements. Food supplements include specially formulated preparations containing vitamins, minerals, and protein or a combination of these and other ingredients. Unnecessary use of supplements should be discouraged because consumption of megadose levels (amounts exceeding 10 times the recommended daily allowance) of various nutrients may cause adverse health effects. However, there are situations in which supplements have a role to play. For example, vitamin D would be indicated for the housebound elderly, and vitamin B12, folate, potassium, or other nutrients may be a necessary supplement in disease conditions or when certain drugs are used that influence nutrient absorption, utilization, or excretion. In addition, suitable supplementation provides a means for...


Schools around the world are making changes in their lunch programs and vending machines in the hope of promoting healthier eating habits among their student body. While this movement within schools is quite recent, there has been speculation for years that healthy diet leads to better performance in school. A study of the diet and health of schoolchildren in South Carolina over fifty years ago showed those with better diets to be superior in health, in posture, and in scholastic progress (Everitt 1952). While posture is no longer a main concern in the twenty-first century, health and scholastic progress certainly are. An analogous approach to reform the eating habits of children was undertaken by Arthur Agatson, the creator of the South Beach Diet, a version of the low-carbohydrate diet, in 2004. Using the Osceola County (Florida) school district as his laboratory, he created HOPS (Healthier Options for Public School Children). Working on the assumption that a change in diet would...

Parent advice

Take good care of yourself by eating well. We are all under tremendous stress and need good nutrition. I gave my daughter healthy foods and glasses of juiced fresh fruits and vegetables while I was living on lattes (a coffee drink). I now have breast cancer and wish that I had eaten well during my daughter's treatment.

Added Sugars

Added sugars are defined as sugars and syrups that are added to foods during processing or preparation. Major sources of added sugars include soft drinks, cakes, cookies, pies, fruitades, fruit punch, dairy desserts, and candy (USDA HHS, 2000). Specifically, added sugars include white sugar, brown sugar, raw sugar, corn syrup, corn-syrup solids, high-fructose corn syrup, malt syrup, maple syrup, pancake syrup, fructose sweetener, anhydrous dextrose, and crystal dextrose. Since added sugars provide only energy when eaten alone and lower nutrient density when added to foods, it is suggested that added sugars in the diet should not exceed 25 percent of total energy intake. Usual intakes above this level place an individual at potential risk of not meeting micronutrient requirements. Nutrient data on added sugars has only recently become available in the U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA) Pyramid Servings Database, which includes data on added sugars for over 7,000 foods. Appendix...

Childhood Obesity

The National Institutes of Health have declared childhood obesity an epidemic in the United States. As with adults, the primary causes of children's obesity are too many calories and not enough exercise. Healthier meals and frequent physical activity are the proper method of prevention. Larry WiHiams Corbis. Reproduced by permission. The National Institutes of Health have declared childhood obesity an epidemic in the United States. As with adults, the primary causes of children's obesity are too many calories and not enough exercise. Healthier meals and frequent physical activity are the proper method of prevention. Larry WiHiams Corbis. Reproduced by permission.