Wrist and forearm fracture may occur when an outstretched hand is used to break a fall. Such accidents happen in running, cycling, inline skating, skateboarding, and other sports.
The wrist complex includes the radiocarpal joint and intercarpal articulations. Most wrist movement occurs at the radiocarpal joint. Eight carpal bones are arranged in two rows: proximal and distal. The distal surface of the radius and the articular disc articulate with the proximal row of carpal bones: the scaphoid, lunate, and triquetrum. The intercar-pal joints are a series of plane joints that have articulations between the two carpal rows (midcarpal joints), in addition to reticulations between each bone of the proximal carpal and distal carpal row. As a whole, the carpal bones form a convex dorsal arch. The arch is enclosed by a transverse ligament, the flexor retinaculum, to become a carpal tunnel.
The distal radioulnar joint is immediately adjacent to the radiocarpal joint. A cartilaginous disc separates the distal ulna and radius from the lunate and triquetral bones. Wrist fractures are breaks in one or more of these bones. Two common fractures are fracture of the end of the radius and scaphoid fracture, which involves the scaphoid or navicular bone, a small bone that joins the radius and is located on the thumb side of the wrist.
Dry needling acupuncture is very helpful in reducing pain and swelling and should be used immediately after the injury, regardless of whether surgery is needed. When surgery is necessary, dry needling acupuncture can be used immediately afterwards to accelerate healing during rehabilitation. Needles are applied to the tender tissues and the swollen issue at a density of about two to three per square centimeter. Two dry needling acupuncture sessions per week should be offered.
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This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.