Thoracic contusion may be caused by a collision on the back with another athlete, as in football; a blow from sports equipment, as in hockey or lacrosse; or a hard fall on the back. Bruising, swelling, pain, and tenderness may appear at the injured site.
Contusions are trauma to the subcutaneous tissue. The muscles are well vascularized, and blood flow in the tissue is likely to be high at a moment in sport when injury occurs. Blood seeps out from torn blood vessels and flows into the skin and subcutaneous tissues, forming ecchymoses. Capillaries are damaged by the physical force of impact, which result in blood seepage into the surrounding tissue.
Although most contusion injuries are minor, serious injuries such as fractures or internal bleeding may also be present.
Medical attention is needed immediately after the accident to rule out or confirm (and treat) severe injuries. Dry needling acupuncture is the most effective modality in alleviating the pain of this injury, both minor and severe. Two to three fine needles per square centimeter should be applied to the injured area every other day.
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This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.