The Hip Adductor Muscles

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These adductor muscles swing the leg medially. All these muscles originate mainly from the pubis and are inserted into the posterior surface of the femur via the roughened ridge that extends along

Rectus femoris, tendon-

Iliofemoral I" Descending part ligament\ Transverse part

Pubofemoral ligament

Greater trochanter

Greater trochanter

Pubofemoral ligament

Rectus femoris, tendon-

Iliofemoral I" Descending part ligament\ Transverse part

Obturator canal

Obturator membrane

Lesser trochanter

Obturator canal

Obturator membrane

Lesser trochanter

Sacrospinous_

ligament v jiBur I

Sacrotuberous ligament

Reflected Head Rectus Femoris

Reflected head! Rectus i- femoris, Straight head J tendon

Iliofemoral ligament

Neak of femur Greater trochanter

Lesser trochanter

Gluteal tuberosity

Figure 12-2 The ligaments of the hip joint.

Reflected head! Rectus i- femoris, Straight head J tendon

Iliofemoral ligament

Neak of femur Greater trochanter

Lesser trochanter

Gluteal tuberosity

Figure 12-2 The ligaments of the hip joint.

the length of its shaft, the linea aspera. These muscles work powerfully when, in running, the foot leaves the ground and begins to swing forward. During the forward swing, the leg rotates laterally in relation to the hip. This can be accomplished because the adductor muscles are inserted into the posterior surface of the femur. Overexertion that occurs in forceful movements such as wide sideways kicking in soccer, bringing the free leg forward in skating, or tough sprint training leads to groin injuries, causing discomfort in the muscle's area of origin.

TABLE 12-1 The Main Muscles Producing Hip Movement

Function

Muscles

Proximal Attachment

Distal Attachment

Innervation

Action

Flexors Iliopsoas

Psoas major

Iliacus

Abductors Gluteus medius

Gluteus minimus

Adductors

Gluteus maximus

Pectineus Adductor longus

Adductor brevis

Adductor magnus

Extensors Gluteus maximus

Transverse processes, bodies and intervertebral discs of T12 and L1-L5 vertebrae Iliac crest, iliac fossa, ala of sacrum, anterior sacroiliac ligaments External surface of ilium between anterior and posterior gluteal lines External surface of ilium between anterior and inferior gluteal lines See extensors

Pectineal line of pubis Body of pubis, inferior to pubic crest Body and inferior ramus of pubis

Inferior ramus of pubis, ramus of ischium (adductor part) and ischial tuberosity

External surface of ala of ilium, iliac crest, dorsal surface of sacrum and coccyx, sacrotuberous ligament

Lesser trochanter of femur

Inferior to lesser trochanter of femur

Lateral surface of greater trochanter of femur

Anterior surface of greater trochanter of femur

See extensors

Ventral rami of lumbar nerves (L1-L3)

Femoral nerve (L2-L3)

Superior gluteal nerve (L5 and S1)

Superior gluteal nerve (L5 and S1)

See extensors

Pectineal line of femur Middle third of linea aspera of femur Pectineal line and proximal part of linea aspera of femur Gluteal tuberosity, linea aspera medial, supracondylar line (adductor part), and adductor tubercle of femur (hamstring part) Upper fibers end in iliotibial tract inserting into lateral condyle of tibia; lower fibers insert on gluteal tuberosity of femur

Femoral nerve (L2 and L3) Obturator nerve (L2-L4)

Acts jointly in flexing thigh at hip joint; stabilizes hip joint Acts jointly in flexing thigh at hip joint; stabilizes hip joint Abducts and medially rotates thigh; stabilizes pelvis Abducts and medially rotates thigh; stabilizes pelvis

Abducts and adducts hip depending on which muscle fibers are activated Adducts and flexes thigh Adducts thigh

Obturator nerve (L2-L4) Adducts thigh

Hamstring part: tibial portion of sciatic nerve (L4)

Inferior gluteal nerve (L5, S1, and S2)

Adducts thigh; adductor part flexes thigh; hamstring part extends thigh

Extends thigh and helps lateral rotation; stabilizes thigh and helps extension of trunk

Iliacus

Sartorius Tensor fasciae latae Gluteus medius —

Iliopsoas

Quadriceps femoris*

Rectus femoris

Vastus lateralis .Vastus medialis

Fascia lata Rectus femoris, tendon

Patellar ligament

Iliacus

Rectus femoris

Vastus lateralis .Vastus medialis

Fascia lata Rectus femoris, tendon

Patellar ligament

Dry Needling Sartorius And Gracilis

Femur, medial condyle

Figure 12-3 Muscles of the thigh, anterior view.

Psoas major Promontory

Piriformis

Sacrospinous ligament Pecten pubis

Superior pubic ligament Pectineus Adductor longus Gracilis

Adductor canal; femoral artery; vein

Anteromedial intermuscular septum

Sartorius

Femur, medial condyle

Figure 12-3 Muscles of the thigh, anterior view.

Lateral rotation is accomplished by a number of small muscles that originate from the inner parts of the pelvis. They pass behind the femur and are inserted into its outer surface at the greater trochanter. They are used a great deal in activities such as ice-skating.

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