Swimmer's shoulder is an overuse injury consisting of inflammation in the supraspinatus or biceps tendon, or both, and is usually caused by multidirectional glenohumeral instability or impingement of the tendons between the head of the humerus and the acromion process of the scapula. Local inflammation, swelling, ischemia caused by repetitive microtrauma, and tearing can alter the biome-chanics of the shoulder joint. Clinical examination may reveal that the shoulder has a restricted pattern of movements in abduction and in external and internal rotation. Continuing practice while these symptoms are present causes significant alteration of the normal mechanics of the scapulae, neck, and trunk, resulting in secondary impingement and bursitis.45
Dry needling acupuncture is very effective in both preventing and treating swimmer's shoulder. Regular weekly de-stressing treatment can reduce overuse stress and restore normal physiology of soft tissue, thus preventing muscle inflammation and fatigue. Once shoulder pain appears, the athlete should receive two treatment sessions per week, including both local and systemic treatment.
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This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.