A common shoulder injury is impingement, in which the subacromial space narrows as the upper extremity is actively elevated overhead. Both the biceps tendon and the rotator cuff tendons lying in this space can be impinged. Causes of impingement include poor flexibility, muscle imbalance, decreased scapular stability, and poor stroke mechanics.54 Researchers have demonstrated that anatomic adaptation occurs in the racket shoulder of the tennis player. This adaptation includes loss of active and passive range of motion in internal rotation and even a total loss of shoulder rotation, which results in overuse shoulder injuries.58
Dry needling acupuncture therapy is very effective in reducing overuse stress and treating inflamed tissues of shoulder injuries. The tender spots in the shoulder area should be precisely located and treated, and trigger points in the related muscles should be identified and needled. As with wrist injuries, relief of pain in shoulder injuries can be achieved in a few treatments, but this is only a part of the healing; complete functional recovery requires more time. De-stressing treatment should be provided once a week before symptoms appear, and symptoms should be treated twice a week.
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This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.