The posterior tibialis muscle is the deepest muscle of the posterior compartment and has both medial and lateral origins. The medial origin is on the posterior surface of the interosseous membrane and the lateral area of the posterior surface of the tibia. The lateral origin is on the upper two thirds of the posterior fibular surface, deep transverse fascia, and intermuscular septa. The muscle's insertion tendon runs from the calf muscle behind the medial mal-leolus to the navicular bone in the arch of the foot. This tendon supports the arch and assists inversion of the foot. If the navicular bone is misaligned, it causes stress on this tendon and results in tendinitis. The condition can be caused by improper running, ill-fitting footwear, or previous injury to the ankle.
The symptoms of this injury include pain and tenderness over the medial side of the tibia, ankle, and foot and swelling over the tendon.
Dry needling acupuncture is very effective for treating this injury. Needles can be applied directly into the inflamed, tender, swelling, and painful tendon and into the origin and belly of the muscle. In addition, the treatment is used to balance the entire musculoskeletal system. Two treatment sessions per week should be provided.
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This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.